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THE 


KITAB-I-YAMINI. 


»*••'.#  ..  • 


Perque  Asise  populos,  fatis  urgentibus  actus, 
Humana  cum  strage  ruit,  gladiumque  per  omnes 
Exegit  gentes,  ignotos  miscuit  amnes, 
Persarum  Euphratem,  Indorum  sanguine  Q-angem. 

LiroAJr,  Phaesalia,  L.  x.  30. 


:*'•»  •  ;.  #■•  ■••#!#  # 


THE 


KITAB-I-YAMINI, 


HISTORICAL    MRMOIRS 


THE  AMIR  SABAKTAGIN,  AND  THE  SULTAN 
MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA, 

EARLY  OONQUEBOBS  OF  HINBTTSTAIT,  AND  POtTMDEES  0!  THE  GHAZNATIDE 

DTNASTT. 


TRANSLATED   FROM   THE    PERSIAN   VERSION    OF   THE    CONTEMFORAIiY 
ARABIC   CHRONICLE  OF 

AL    UTBI, 

BY  THE 

Rev.  JAMES  REYNOLDS,  B.A., 

OF   ST.  CATHAETNE'S  HALL,    CAMBBIDGE,   INCUMBENT   OP   ST    MAE,Y'S   HOSPITAL,  ILFOKD, 
ESSEX,   SECBETAtlT  TO  THE  COMMITTEE  OF  THE  OKIENTAL  TRANSLATION  FUND,    <fec 


LONDON : 

PRINTED  FOR  THE  ORIENTAL  TRANSLATION  FUND 
OF  GREAT  BRITAIN  AND  IRELAND  : 

SOLD  BY 

W.   H.   ALLEN  AND  CO.,  LEADENHALL  STREET  J 

AND 

B.   DUPRAT,  PARIS. 


MDCCC.LVIII. 


(y—f-x. 


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LOSDON : 

PRINTED  BY   HAHBISON   AND  SONS, 

ST.  martin's  lane,  W.C. 

6Km 

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CONTENTS. 


PAQE 
TkANSI/A-TOB's  iNTEODrCTION  . .  ...  . .  . .     xiii 

Persian  Translator's  Preface  . .         . .  . .  . .       1 

Chaptee  I. 

Annals  of  tbe  Life  of  the  Amir  Nasir-ad-din  Sabaktagin, 

and  its  events    . .  . .  . .  . .  . .  . .     21 

Chaptee  II. 
Account  of  the  Capture  of  the  Province  of  Best  . .         . .     26 

Chaptee  III. 
Account  of  the  Decease  of  Mansur-'bn-Nuh         . .         . .     43 

Chaptee  IV. 
History  of  Khalaf-'bn- Ahmad,  King  of  Sistan      . .         . .     51 

Chaptee  V. 

History  of  Hisam-Addoulat-Tash,  the  Chamberlain,  and 

the  transference  of  the  Government  . .         . .         . .     60 

Chaptee  VI. 

Account  of  the  Departure  of  Tash  from  Jurjan  to  Buk- 
hara       ..         ..  .. 84 


11  CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Chaptee  VII. 

Account  of  the  Arrival  of  Tash  at  Jurj^n,  and  the  ap- 
pointment of  Abul-Hasan-Simjur  to  be  General  over 
the  Army  of  Khurasan  . .         . .  . .  . .     95 

Chaptee  VIII. 

History  of  the  Conduct  of  Abul-Hasan-Simjur,  as  General 
of  the  Army  of  Khurasfei,  uato  the  end  of  his  Life, 
and  the  Transference  of  tjiat  office  unto  his  Son      . .   110 

Chaptee  IX. 

Account  of  Faik  and  his  History,  after  the  Events  which 

have  been  recorded       . .  . .  . .  . .  . .   119 

Chaptee  X. 

Account  of  the  Arrival  of  Baghrakhan  at  Bukhara,  and 
the  Might  of  Eidha  from  that  place,  and  his  return  a 
second  time  to  Bukhara  after  his  Eemoval,  and  the 
Migration  of  Bagrakhan,  . .  . .  .  .  . .   123 

Chaptee  XI. 

Account  of  the  Eeturn  of  the  Prince  Eidha  to  Bukhara, 

after  the  Departure  of  Baghrakhdn  from  thence       . .  128 

Chaptee  XII. 

Account  of  Abfil-Kasim-Simjur,  Brother  of  Abu-Alf^  and 
his  Circumstances,  after  his  secession  from  his 
Brother 189 

Chaptee  XIII. 

Account  of  that  which  passed  between  the  Amir  Saif- 
Addoulat  and  his  Brother,  IsmaSl,  after  the  Death  of 
their  Pather  .  .  .  .  .  .  . .  . .   207 


COiNTBlNTS.  ijli 


PAGE 

Chaptie  XIV. 


History    of   Abul-Easim-Simjiir,   and  of   what  fell  out 

between  him  and  Begtuzum    . .         . .         . .  . .  218 

Chaptee  XV. 

Account  of  the  Conveyance  of  the  Amir  Ismail  Irom  the 
Citadel  of  Grhazna        . .         . .         , .         . .         . .  234 

Chaptee  XVI. 

Account  of  the  Robe  of  Honoui?  -wihich  the  Commander  of 
the  Faithful,  Al-Kadir-Billah,  sent  to  the  Sultan 
Tamin-Addoulah  . .         . .  243 

Chaptee  XVII. 

Account  of  the  Eeturn  of  Abdul-Malik-Ibn-Nuh  unto 

Bukhard  24.5 

Chaptee  XVIII. 

Account  of  the  Expedition  of  Abu-Ibrahim-IamaU-'bn- 
Nlih,  and  of  the  Transactions  which  took  place  with 
him  and  Ilek-Khdn,  in  Mawaralnahrr,  and  with  the 
General  of  the  Army,  Abul-Muzaffar-Nasr-'bn-Nasir- 
addin-Sabaktagin,  in  Khurasan  . .  . .  .  .   247 

Chaptee  XIX. 

Account  of  the  Family  of  the  Samanides  and  the  Duration 
of  their  Government,  until  the  Kingdom  reverted  to 
the  Sultdn  Yamin-Addoulat 269 

Chaptee  XX. 

Account  of  that  which  happened  between  Nasir-addin- 
Sabaktagln  and  Khalaf- Ahmad,  both  as  regards  their 
differences  and  their  friendships,  up  to  the  time  when 
the  Sultan  Tamin-Addoulat  wrested  the  Kingdom 
from  his  hands,  and  an  account  of  the  warlike  inroads 
upon  India  which  ensued         .  .  .  .  . .  . .   271 


IV  CONTENTS. 

PAGE 
CHArTEE  XXI, 

Account  of  Shams-al-MuaH-Kablis-Iljn-Washaingir  and 
his  return  to  the  Throne,  after  a  long  absence  and 
severe  endurance  . .  . .         . .  . .  •  ■  296 

Cttapteb  XXn. 

Account  of  the  Alliance  of  the  Sultan  with  Ilek-Khan  and 

their  subsequent  estrangement  ..  ..  ..315 

Chaftbb  XXIII. 

Account    of   Ab6-Nasr-'bn-Ahmad-Ibn-Ali-Ibn-Begayeli, 

one  of  the  principal  subjects  of  the  Sultan     . .  . .  318 

Chaptee  XXIV. 

Account  of  Said-Abuzakat-Abfi-Jaafar-'bn-Mousa,  Abul- 
Kasim  -  Hamza  -  'bn  -  Muhammad  -  'bn  -  Ali  -  'bn  -  Al- 
Husain-'bn-Aii-'bn-Abu-Tdlib.  (May  Heaven  be 
satisfied  with  them)      . .  . .         . .  . .  . .   326 

Chaptee  XXV. 
Account  of  the  Conquest  of  Bahatih  . .  . .         . .  322 

Chaptee  XXVI. 
Account  of  the  Capture  of  Multan. .  , .         . .         . .  320 

Chaptee  XXVII. 
Account  of  the  Passage  of  the  Jihun  by  Ilek-Khan         . .  380 

Chaptee  XXVIII. 
Account  of  the  Capture  of  the  Port  of  Bahim,  by  Storm      339 

Chaptee  XXIX. 
Account  of  the  Family  of  Perigun 343 


CONTENTS. 


PAftE 
Chapteb  XXX. 


Account  of  the  Commander  of  the  Paithful,  Al-Kadir- 
Billah,  and  his  Khilafat  after  Tai,  and  his  Inaugu- 
ration, and  the  Transactions  that  occurred  with  him 
and  the  Sultan  Tamin-Addoulah,  and  Bilia-Addoulah  346 

Chapteb  XXXI. 
Account  of  the  Storming  of  Nardin  . .         . .         . .  360 

Chaptee  XXXII. 
History  of  the  Capture  of  Giir       . .  . .         . .  . .  362 

Chaptee  XXXIII. 
Account  of  the  Pamine  at  Nisapur  . .  . .         . .  365 

Chapteb  XXXIV. 

Account  of  the  two  Khans,  after  their  Eetum  from 
Mawarannahr,  and  the  Ambassadors  whom  they  sent 
to  the  Sultan     . .         . .  . .         . .  . .         . .   371 

Chapteb  XXXV. 
Account  of  the  Capture  of  Kasdar. .         ..  ..         ..  375 

Chapteb  XXXVI. 

Account  of  the  Shar  Abu-Nasr-Muhammad-'bn-Asad  and 

his  Son,  the  Shar  Abu-Muhammad 377 

Chapteb  XXXVII. 
Account  of  the  Event  at  Nazin 388 

Chapteb  XXXVni. 
Account  of  the  AiFairs  of  Tanishar 393 


Vl  CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Chaptee  XXXIX. 
Account  of  the  Vizir  Abiil-Abbas-'bn-razl-'bn-Ahmad    . .  396 

Chaptee  XL. 

Account  of  the  Shaikh   Khalil-Abul-Kasim-Ahmad-'bn- 

Husain 402 

Chaptee  XLI. 

Account  of  Shams-Al-Muali-Kabus-'bn-Washamgir  and 
the  remaining  portion  of  his  Affairs,  and  of  the  acces- 
sion to  the  Throne  of  his  Son,  Palk-Al-Muali  . .  407 

Crapteb  XLII. 
Account  of  Dara,  Son  of  Shams-Al-Muali-Kabua  . .   419 

Chaptee  XLIII. 
Account  of  Majduddoulah-Abu-Talib-'bn-Pakraddoulah  . .  422 

Chaptee  XLIV. 

Account    of    Biha-Addoulah-'bn-Azduddoulah    and     his 

Concerns  . .  . .  . .  . .         . .  . .  427 

Chaptee  XLV. 
Account  of  Hek-Khan  and  Conclusion  of  his  Affairs        . .  431 

CBA.PTEE  XL  VI. 
Account  of  the  Amir  Abfi-Ahmad-'bn-Tamin-Addoulah . .   436 

Chaptee  XLVII. 
Account  of  the  Tahirite  Envoy .  .   43g 


CONTENTS.  Vll 

PAGE 
Chaptee  XL VIII. 

Account  of  the  Amir  Abul-Abbas-Mam<ia-Khwarism-8hah 
and  the  Conclusion  of  his  History,  and  how  his 
Kingdom  devolved  upon  his  Son         . .         . .         . ,  444 

Chaptee  XLIX. 
Account  of  the  Conquest  of  Mahrah  and  Kanuj    . .         . .  449 

Chaptee  L. 

Account   of  the   Construction  of  the   Jama   Masjid  of 

Grhazna  . .         . .  . .  . .         . .         . .         . .  462 

Chaptee  LI. 
Account  of  the  Affair  of  the  Afghans         . .         . .         . .  467 

Chaptee  LII. 

Account  of  the  Kadhi  Ablil-Ula-Said-'bn-Muhammad  and 
the  Master  Abti-Bakr-'bn-Muhammad-Mamshad. 
(Heaven  be  merciful  to  him)  . .         . .  . .         . .  471 

Chaptee  LIII. 
Account  of  Nasr-'bn-Ifasir- Addin-Sabaktagln      . .         . .  484 

Persian  Translator's  Peroration      . .         . .         . .         . .  489 


TRANSLATOR'S   INTRODUCTION. 


The  following  Memoirs  are  translated  from 
the  Persian  version  of  the  Arabic  work  composed 
by  Ahlil- Nasr- Muhammad' -hn-  Muhammad  -  Al- 
Jahhar-Al-  Uthi.  He  was  descended  from  the  family 
of  Utba,  which  had  occupied  important  dignities 
and  offices  under  the  Princes  of  the  house  of  Sdmdn 
(Kings  of  Khurasdn,  and  nominally  feudatories  of 
the  Kh^lifs  of  Bagdad).  Of  this  family  two  are 
mentioned  in  the  present  Memoir,  one,  Abill-Hasanr 
Utbi,  was  Grand  Vizier  of  the  Samanide  Amir 
Mansiir-'bn-Niih,  and  the  other,  Abu-Jaafar-al- 
Utbi,  was  the  nobleman  to  whom  the  Chamberlain 
Abiil-Abhds-Tdsh  was  originally  a  slave;  our 
author  himself,  as  he  was  evidently  attached  to 
the  person  of  Sabaktagin  and  his  son,  doubtless 
filled  some  eminent  post  at  Court,  he  possessed, 
therefore,  the  best  facilities  and  opportunities  for 
the  compilation  of  these  historical  Memoirs,  which 


XIV  TRANSLATORS   INTRODUCTION. 

comprise  the  whole  of  the  reign  of  Sabaktagin, 
and  are  carried  on  to  the  14th  year,  at  least*  of 
the  reign  of  the  Sultan  Mahmdd.  It  is  probable, 
therefore,  that  Utbi  did  not  long  survive  the  date 
at  which  his  Memoirs  terminate.  It  is  to  be 
regretted  that  this  history,  being  thus  cotemporary 
and  personal,  does  not  extend  to  the  whole  of  that 
remarkable  reign ;  it,  however,  comprises  that 
portion  of  it  which  was  most  stirring  and  eventful. 
It  must  be  observed,  however,  that  if  the  dates 
given  by  Dow,  in  his  History  of  India,  and  pro- 
bably taken  from  Ferishta,  be  correct,  Utbl  must 
have  survived  to  a  very  late  period  of  Mahmiid's 
reign,  as  some  of  the  transactions  recorded  by  him 
appear  to  coincide  with  those  mentioned  by  the 
above  author.  There  are  difficulties,  however, 
attending  the  hypothesis  of  Dow's  correctness,  and 
possibly  the  authority  of  a  contemporary  writer 
may  be  more  appropriately  preferred,  at  least  by 
his  translator. 

The  translation  of  this  work  into  Persian  was 
undertaken  by  Abiil  Sharaf  of  Jabardicdn,  under 
the  circumstances  which  he  mentions  in  his  preface, 
that  is,  in  order  to  amuse  the  faithful  UMgh- 
Barik,  a  feudatory  prince  of  the  Atdbegs,  and  at 
the  same  time  to  instruct  and  warn  him  by  the 

*  Perhaps  to  the  twentieth  year. 


TRANSLATORS    INTRODUCTION.  XV 

example  of  Sabaktagin  and  Mahmiid,  upon  the 
subject  of  the  advantages  of  righteous  government, 
and  of  the  ruin  inevitably  consequent  upon  oppres- 
sion on  the  one  side  and  disloyalty  on  the  other. 
The  Translator  derived  the  name  JarhaMcdni  from 
his  birth-place,  the  town  of  Jabardican,  between 
Hamadan  and  Isfahan,  in  Persia.  His  work  was 
executed  in  the  year  a.h.  582,  corresponding  with 
A.D.  1186,  the  very  period  when  the  dynasty  of 
Mahmild  Sabaktagin  was  expelled  from  the  throne 
of  Ghazna,  and  succeeded  by  the  family  of  Giir. 
The  Persian  MS-  from  which  the  present  EngUsh 
version  is  rendered  is  a  copy  of  one  deposited  in 
the  Biblioth^que  Imperiale  at  Paris.  It  was  beau- 
tifully, and  the  Translator  is  convinced,  accurately 
taken  by  Monsieur  Kasimirski,  lately  Imperial 
Interpreter  to  the  Persian  Envoy  at  the  Court  of 
the  Emperor  of  the  French. 

It  may  reasonably  be  demanded,  why  the 
Translator  did  not  elect  to  render  this  history 
from  the  Arabic  original  text  rather  than  from 
the  Persian  version?  In  replying  to  this  question, 
the  Translator  will  not  only  allege  the  greater 
difficulty  of  the  Arabic  language  as  the  ground  of 
his  selection ;  for  the  Persian  easy  indefiniteness 
possesses  its  own  occasional  perplexities,  especially 
in  the  finer  turns  and  phrases,  and  he  would  not 

c2 


XVI  TRANSLATORS   INTRODUCTION. 

have  grudged  the  labour  that  would  have  been 
involved  in  translating  from  the  Arabic  M.S., 
since  he  would  have  thereby  augmented  his  ac- 
quaintance with  that  most  interesting  language. 
Arabic  is  the  only  classical  dialect  which  still  sur- 
vives and  is  spoken ;  it  appears  to  have  nearly 
absorbed  and  replaced  all  its  kindred  tongues. 
Hebrew  exists  but  in  the  sacred  volume,  Syriac 
almost  entirely  in  ecclesiastical  documents  alone ; 
but  Arabic  still  exists  in  all  its  fullness,  and  sup- 
plies us  with  an  immense  copia  verborum  whereby 
to  illustrate  and  explain  any  obscurities  that  must 
necessarily  arise  in  languages  of  a  restricted  and 
limited  character.  The  highest  truths  are  pre- 
sented to  us  in  words  which  have  been  chosen  by 
the  sacred  writers  out  of  the  whole  mass  of  secular 
utterances  as  best  adapted  to  represent  the  ideas 
which  they  designed  to  express.  That  mass  or 
body  still  survives  in  the  Arabic,  and  it  is  evi- 
dent that  the  nicer  and  finer  hues,  shades,  and 
synonyms  of  the  sacred  tongues  must  be  mainly 
sought  in  that  mass.  It  is  vain,  also,  to  expect  the 
attainment  of  a  scientific,  satisfactory  and  sound 
acquaintance  with  the  Persian,  Turkish,  or  perhaps 
of  the  Hindustani  languages,  without  some  know- 
ledge of  Arabic.  Yet,  notwithstanding  these 
great  and  obvious  advantages,  the  study  of  Arabic 


TRANSLATORS   INTRODUCTION,  XVU 

generally  tasks  the  patience  of  all  except  sincere 
lovers  of  labour ;  and  the  study  of  some  Arabic 
compositions  would  deter  many  who  are  un- 
willing to  devote  a  large  portion  of  life  and 
exertion  to  that  pursuit.  The  difficulty  of  the 
grammatical  rules,  so  precise  and  numerous,  the 
copiousness  of  the  epithets,  the  minute  shades  of 
sigliification  which  distinguish  different  words, 
the  forms  and  conjugations  of  the  same  word, 
and,  above  all,  the  extensive  degree  in  which 
logical  and  rhetorical  constructions  are  admitted 
into  the  laws  of  syntax,  afford  an  agreeable  exer- 
cise for  ingenuity  and  reflexion  in  tracing  out  these 
intricate  windings,  and  arresting  the  thoughts  of 
any  author,  unless  his  subject  and  his  style  be 
obvious  and  simple.  But  in  translating  from  such 
a  language  into  another  so  dissimilar  as  our  own, 
there  is  some  danger,  with  most,  of  falling  into 
obscurity  and  harshness.  Not  that  the  language 
is  itself  at  all  obscure ;  on  the  contrary,  if  the 
numerous  laws  of  grammar  be  rightly  used,  all  is 
clear ;  the  treasures  are  soon  found  by  those  who 
possess  the  keys  of  the  various  recesses  in  which 
they  are  deposited.  The  opinion  attributed  to 
Bishop  Warburton,  "  that  the  translators  of  the 
Old  Testament  would  not  have  been  able  to  ascer- 
tain a  definite  sense  from  the  Hebrew,  if  they  had 


xviii  teansla.toe's  introduction. 

act  ascertained  it  from  the  Septuagint  version," 
would  not,  at  the  present  time,  be  well  founded ; 
for  the  labours  of  the  last  century  have  now, 
chiefly  by  reason  of  the  Arabic,  rescued-  the 
Hebrew  from  all  cloudiness,  and  perplexity,  and 
placed  the  laws  of  its  construction  upon  as  firm 
and  evident  a  foundation  as  those  of  Greek. 

It  was  not  therefore  only  on  account  of  the 
general  abstruseness  of  the  language,  that  the 
Translator  of  the  present  work,  having  proceeded 
some  distance  on  his  labours,  resolved  to  transfer 
them  to  the  Persian  version.  It  was  because  the 
original  work  of  Utbi  is  designedly  and  unusu- 
ally difficult,  and  would  have  occupied  far  more 
time  than  the  Persian.  It  is  a  misfortune,  that 
several  of  the  most  esteemed  Arabic  authors  have 
sought  fame  and  reputation  in  exaggerating  the 
peculiarities  of  their  language,  and  have  exercised 
their  ingenuity  by  the  employment  of  far-fetched 
terms  and  words  with  uncommon,  involved  me- 
thods of  grammatical  construction,  so  as  to  render 
it  necessary,  even  for  their  own  co-linguists  to  use 
some  research  before  they  could  fuUy  ascertain  the 
due  meaning  of  the  composition.  The  Kitdb-al- 
Yamini-al-Utbi,'*   was   said   to  be   one   of  these 

*  Was  said  to  he,  for  the  Translator  is  now  inclined  to 
believe  that  the  alleged  abstruseness  of  TJtbi  referred  rather  to 


translator's  introduction.  xix 

productions  of  exceptional  difficulty,  and  various 
commentators  have  found  it  adAdsable  to  explain 
it,  in  order  to  facilitate  its  perusal  by  native  stu- 
dents. The  Translator,  therefore,  under  these  cir- 
cumstances, after  some  hesitation  and  with  some 
regret,  unwilling  to  incur  additional  delay,  decided 
to  render  the  whole  work  from  the  Persic  version. 
The  Translator,  moreover,  deemed  it  requisite  to 
abridge  time  and  labour  also  with  respect  to  the 
Arabic  verses  of  various  authors  quoted  and  inter- 
spersed throughout  the  work.*  There  is  here 
another  difficulty  to  contend  with,  the  difficulty 
that  is  of  always  obtaining  a  correct  reading,  on 
account  of  the  paucity  of  MSS.  and  the  im- 
possibility of  collation.  To  those  who  are  aware 
how  long  and  carefully  Arabic  verses  must  be 
examined  and  pondered  before  the  sense  and  scope 
of  the  poet  appears  plainly — can  be  disentangled, 
seized,  and  embodied  in  English  words — this  diffi- 
culty wiU  be  allowed  to  be  formidable.  The 
Persian  Translator  also,  by  no  means  adheres  to 
the  original  in  transferring  the  verses  before  him, 
but  frequently  and  avowedly  substitutes  others  for 

the  poetry  interwoven  throughout  the  work,  than  to  the  prose 
composition.  A  few  years'  additional  study  and  experience 
have  removed  many  difficulties. 

*  Some  of  the  merely  encomiastic  and  rhetorical  prose  is 
also  occasionally  abridged  or  omitted. 


XX  TRANSLATORS   INTRODUCTION. 

those  cited  by  Al-Utbl.  The  Translator  has 
therefore  contented  himself  with  giving  all  the 
Persian  verses,  all  the  short  Arabic  verses,  and  a 
specimen  of  each  of  the  longer  poems.  It  is  im- 
possible to  transpose  Arabic  poetry  perfectly  into 
English,  and  he  imagined  that  the  above  propor- 
tion would  suffice  to  afford  the  Enghsh  reader 
some  idea  of  the  nature  of  these  curious  produc- 
tions. The  Translator  having  rendered  several 
chapters  of  the  work  from  the  Arabic  original  text, 
is  enabled  to  believe  that  the  Persian  version  is 
generally  faithful,  and  occasionally  verbally  so.  It 
appears  to  have  been  collated  with  the  Arabic  by 
the  learned  transcriber,  M.  Kasimirski,  of  Paris, 
for  whose  usefiil  little  notices  in  the  margin,  and 
suggestions  of  emendations  in  the  text,  the  writer 
offers  his  sincere  acknowledgments,* 

A  summary  of  this  historical  memoir  (from  the 
Persian),  by  the  late  eminent  orientalist,  M,  Sil- 
vestre  de  Sacy,  appeared  in  the  4th  Volume  of  the 
"  Notices  et  Extraits,"  published  in  the  year  7  of 
the  Republic. 

It  omitted  a  portion,  as  not  immediately  refer- 
ring to  the  Ghaznevide  history,  and  was  so  much 

*  Acknowledgments  are  also  due  to  Dr.  Aloys  Sprenger, 
late  Government  Professor  at  Delhi,  who  transcribed  the 
Arabic  original. 


TRANSLATORS    INTRODUCTION.  XXI 

abridged,  as  to  afford  but  little  assistance  in  the 
labour  of  translation.  But  from  the  remarks  and 
notes  of  this  illustrious  scholar,  the  Translator 
received  great  benefit,  and  it  is  from  the  latter 
that  he  has  chiefly  borrowed  the  short  geographical 
explanations  which  are  occasionally  subjoined.* 

In  estimating  the  value  of  the  present  contri- 
bution to  Eastern  history,  as  it  must  be  allowed 
that  many  of  the  incidents  herein  comprised  are 
already  to  be  found  in  Ferishta  and  other  authors, 
so  others  appear  to  be  unknown  or  attended  with 
varying  particulars  and  circumstances :  the  per- 
sonal narrative  also  of  a  contemporary  probably 
conveys  a  more  correct  impression  of  events,  even 
because  it  is  somewhat  diffuse,  since  character  and 
motives  are  obtained  from  details.  Dow,  one  of 
the  earliest  English  authors  who  treated  of  the 
history  of  Hindustan,  complains  of  the  dry  bre- 
vity and  conciseness  of  Ferishta ;  Al-Utbi  may 
occasionally  overlay  his  facts  with  too  much  that 
is  extraneous,  but  as  he  more  frequently  prefers  a 
plain  recitaljf   the  Translator    resolved    not    to 

*  De  Sacy  was  confined  to  the  use  of  Dew's  Ferishta,  now 
superseded  by  the  edition  of  General  "Briggs. 

t  Perhaps  Al-TJtbi  gives  the  original  simple  statement, 
which  has  been  subsequently  exaggerated  by  Muhammadan 
writers.  If,  as  is  probable,  one  of  the  victories  recorded  in 
the  history  be  identical  with  that  in  which  the  celebrated 


XXU       TRANSLATORS  INTRODUCTION. 

abridge  any  part  of  the  prose  narrative.  He  is 
supported  in  this  resolution  by  the  high  authority 
of  the  Asiatic  Society  of  Paris,  who  in  their 
Keport  for  1841,  drawn  up  by  M.  Mohl,  remark, 
with  reference  to  the  question  of  curtailments  and 
abridgments  in  oriental  translations,  "  En  y  re- 
fl^chissant  serieusement,  on  se  convaincra  pent 
etre  que  le  systfeme  des  traductions  integrales  offre 
neanmoins  des  inconv^nients  moindres  que  celui 
des  traductions  incompletes.  On  produit  par  cette 
dernifere  methode  un  ouvrage  plus  agreable  k  lire," 
(with  our  present  author  this  would  not  be  the 
case,  the  translation  reads  more  smoothly  if  it 
flow  on  uninterruptedly,)  "  mais  ceux  qui  veulcnt 
fairs  des  recherches  ne  s'en  serviront  jamais  qu'avec 
defiance,  parce  qu'ils  ne  peuvent  pas  savoir  si  le 
traducteur  n'k  pas  omis  les  faits  qui  dans  leurs  re- 
cherches particuliers  leur  importent  le  plus." 

The  value,  then,  of  Al-Utbfs  memoirs  consists 
partly  in  that  character  of  special  authenticity 
which  their  occasional  diffuseness  and  digressions 
tends  rather  to  develope  than  to  impair ;  but  this 
historical  fragment  is    also    very   interesting   in 

temple  and  idol  of  Somnath  were  captured,  Al-Utbi's  may- 
be the  real  statement  of  facts,  although  he  does  not  mention 
the  idol  Somnath,  which,  in  truth,  was  not  an  idol,  but  a  simple 
cylinder  of  stone. — See  Prof.  Wilson,  Asiatic  Researches,  vol. 
xvii.,  p.  194,  quoted  in  Elphinstone's  India,  vol.  i ,  p.,  555. 


TRANSLATORS   INTRODUCTION.  XXlll 

itself;  it  exhibits  the  identity  of  the  Oriental 
mind,  especially  as  developed  in  the  tribes  of 
Affghan  or  Turkoman,  or  Bukharian  blood.  Their 
shrewdness  and  acumen,  the  readiness  with  which 
they  yield  to  impulses,  and  their  unaccountable 
spirit  of  fickleness,  appear  to  have  Remained  un- 
changed during  eight  or  nine  centuries,  so  that 
some  of  the  events  recorded  by  Utbi  find  their 
parallel   in  those  of  the  recent  mutiny  in  India. 

But  this  chronicle  is  also  highly  interesting  as 
an  historical  notice  of  one  of  the  most  remarkable 
empires  ever  founded  on  earth,  and  which,  if  it 
had  been  permanent,  consolidated  and  extended, 
would  have  turned  the  current  of  the  world's  his- 
tory into  a  direction  different  from  that  in  which 
it  has  flowed,  for  this  empire  was  formed  in  Central 
Asia — in  a  land  for  the  most  part  fruitful  and  tem- 
perate, the  native  country  of  the  vine — possibly 
the  cradle  of  the  human  race.  A  right  line  drawn 
from  the  mouths  of  the  Indus,  through  Almora 
to  Tibet,  may  express  the  boundary  of  this  empire 
towards  the  south ;  but  the  territory,  from  this 
limit  towards  the  north  and  north-west,  including 
the  provinces  on  two  sides  of  the  Caspian,  Aff- 
ghanistan,  KJiurasdn,  Bukhdri,  and  the  greater 
part  of  modern  Persia,  &c.,  passed  by  degrees  to 


XXIV  TRANSLATORS    INTRODUCTION. 

Mahmiid's  immediate  and  direct  sovereignty,  and 
his  power  as  Emperor  Suzerain  extended  beyond 
these  boundaries.  He  appears  to  have  included 
amongst  his  vassals  the  princes  of  the  family  of 
Bolah,  or  Boyah,  who,  in  addition  to  various  pro- 
vinces of  Persia,  including  Kirman  on  the  Persian 
Gulph,  and  others  bordering  on  the  Caspian  and 
Oxus,  enjoyed  thS  office  of  hereditary  Vizir  of  the 
Khalifs  of  Bagdad,  and  Amir  of  Mesopotamia, 
Sec,  and  who,  in  fact,  disposed  of  the  Khalifat, 
and  nominated  and  deposed  those  ecclesiastical 
rulers  at  their  pleasure;  so  that  Mahmiid  in  this, 
his  extended  sway,  may  well  be  said  to  have 
mingled  the  Euphrates  with  the  Ganges.  His 
empire  was  nearly  placed  at  the  point  of  junction 
of  Europe  and  Asia ;  it  nearly  possessed  the  ad- 
vantages of  position  which  adapted  Byzantium  to 
become  New  Rome,  and,  moreover,  included  India 
within  the  sphere  of  its  influence.  Such  an  empire 
might  have  become  powerful  and  enduring — ^might 
have  reached  the  shores  of  the  Mediterranean,  and 
have  been  thus  connected  with  Europe.  It  really 
did  gain  a  wide  authority  and  renown,  and  its  real 
strength  existed  at  least  as  long  as  that  of  any 
other  dynasty  which  has  been  supreme  in  Hin- 
dustan.    Perhaps  one  cause  of  its  stability  may 


TRANSLATOR  S  INTRODUCTION.        XXV 

have  been  the  sagacity  of  Mahmdd  in  not  estab- 
lishing *  his  capital  in  India,  in  not  withdrawing 
from  Ghazna,  and  not  remaining  isolated  amidst 
conquered  and  hostile  nations,  at  a  distance  from 
his  resources.  The  supreme  power  was  thus 
external,  any  check  was  retrievable,  and  the  pride 
and  zeal  of  Muhammadan  fanaticism  was  soon 
aroused  to  suppress  any  revolts  amongst  the 
Hindiis,  with  whom  the  Ghaznevide  subjects  were 
not  as  yet  blended. 

It  is  interesting  to  observe  how  rapidly,  and 
yet  how  readily,  this  empire  grew  on,  how  all 
events  fell  out  to  advance  it,  how  aU  contingencies 
coincided  to  effect  its  augmentation.  Sabaktagin 
and  Mahmiid  are  led  into  war,  or  take  up  arms, 
sometimes  being  in  the  right,  sometimes  in  the 
wrong,  but  they  always  succeed ;  they  capture 
Bost  and  Kasdar,  they  overcome  Dilam,  they  in- 
trigue in  Bukhdr4,  and  so  manage  that  upon  the 
extinction  of  the  Sd,m^nides  the  possessions  of  that 
family  accrue  to  their  own,  and  they  had  very 
early  become  feudal  lords  over  the  princes  of 
Boyah.f  It  is  not  surprising  that  Mahmiid  should 
have  regarded  those  who  opposed  him  as  not  only 

*  But  see  Blphinstone's  India,  vol.  i.,  pp.  534,  535. 

t  See  note. — The  family  of  Boyah  appear  to  have  invari- 
ably assumed  the  surname  "  ad-doulat"  as  Majd-ad-doulat 
(Grlory  of  the  Empire),  Fakhr-addoulat  (Pride  of  the  Empire), 


XXVI       TRANSLATORS  INTRODUCTION. 

rebellious,  but  impious ;  he  saw  events  around 
him  so  wonderfully  controlled  and  directed  by  Pro- 
vidence to  concur  towards  the  aggrandizement  of 
his  empire  and  the  furtherance  of  his  projects,  that 
he  may  almost  be  pardoned  for  regarding  himself 
not  only  as  the  instrument  and  agent,  but  also  as 
the  favorite  of  Heaven. 

It  appears,  indeed,  that  Mahmiid  of  Ghazna 
was  respected  as  an  eminent  theologian  as  well  as 
an  illustrious  warrior,  and  he  flourished  at  a  time 
when  there  existed  ample  opportunity  for  the 
exercise  of  his  ingenuity  as  a  Muhammadan  divine. 
He  was  a  contemporary  of  the  eccentric  Egyptian 
Khalif  Hakim-biamr-IUah,  during  whose  reign 
the  whole  Muhammadan  world  was  in  a  ferment, 
through  the  pretensions  of  the  Sayyads,  or  de- 
scendants of  Muhammad,  and  the  doctrines  of  the 
Batenians,  the  maintainers  of  the  TaMjiah,  and 
the  followers  of  the  remarkable  tenets  ofAli-Ilahia; 
the  coalesceing  fusion  of  all  which  peculiar  notions 
at  last  formed  the  grand  sefction  of  Muhammad- 
an ism — the  Shiites,  and  the  philosophical  school 
of  the  S4fis, — and  also  established  a  ground  for  that 
curious  fact,  the  blending  or  partial  reconciliation 

&c.  This  is  analogous  to  the  titles  of  the  Eoraaa  emperors, 
Forttma  Augusti,  Pietas  Augusti,  &c.,  only  in  the  former 
instance  the  title  was  assumed  by  a  nominal  vassal. 


TRANSLATORS    INTRODUCTIGN.  XXVU 

of  Isldm  with  Hindilism.  The  Sayyads  or  Saids 
caused  some  trouble  to  Mahmdd.  It  was  wisely 
ordered  that  all  traces  of  the  kindred  of  the 
Messiah  should  soon  disappear  from  Christian 
history,  and  indeed  the  discussions  and  dissensions 
which  arose  respecting  His  divinity  might  tend 
to  discountenance  much  regard  to  all  that  was 
associated  with  His  humanity. 

But  numberless  descendants,  real  or  pretended, 
of  Muhammad,  through  his  daughter  Fatima,  and 
his  cousin  Ali,  have  been  the  source  of  continual 
trouble  and  weakness  to  his  religion,  not  only 
through  the  disgrace  which  an  hereditary  race  of 
arrogant,  ignorant,  and  prejudiced  idlers,  would 
naturally  often  produce,  but  also  because  they 
would,  as  might  be  supposed,  be  inclined  to  main- 
tain and  encourage  those  doctrines  which  tended 
most  to  promote  their  own  importance  and  dig- 
nity. They  therefore  possessed  most  influence 
amongst  the  Shiites,  and  they  supported  more  or 
less  the  doctrines  which  possessed  most  affinity 
with  those  of  that  great  sect.  These  doctrines 
were  such  as  were  professed,  in  various  degrees,  by 
the  adherents  of  the  Tashbiah,  and  of  the  Ali- 
Ilahia,  doctrines  which  have  always  been  deeply 
offensive  to  the  Sunnite  Muhammadans,  and  not 
without  good  cause,  for,  if  tolerated  and  carried 


XXVm  TRANSLATORS    INTRODUCTION. 

out,  they  might  found  a  Preparatio  Evangelica,  a 
platform  for  Christianity.  They  were  probably 
originally  Christian  doctrines,  deeply  disguised. 
It  is  not  likely  that  the  Christians  of  the  Greek 
Empire,  of  Armenia,  of  Parthia,  of  Chaldea,  and 
of  Egypt,  so  forcibly  converted  to  Muham- 
madanism,  would  lose  all  Christian  persuasion  and 
habit  of  thought  in  that  cold  and  barren  phase 
of  unsympathizing  monotheism.*  They  still  re- 
tained much  of  the  geniality  of  Christian  doctrine, 
as  regards  the  relation  of  Deity  to  man.  But  as 
they  dared  not  hint  at  any  point  directly  Chris- 
tian, they  were  compelled  to  disguise  their  feelings 
under  a  dark  esoteric  veil.     Those  who  adhered 

*  Sir  John  Ohardin,  in  his  Travels,  mentions  that  the  Prince 
(in  the  Kitab-Tamini  termed  the  STiar)  of  Georgia,  was  but 
nominally  a  Muhammadan,  that  he  renounced  the  Christian 
religion  in  order  to  obtain  the  appointment,  that  the  Catholicos 
or  Patriarch  in  his  (Chardin's)  time,  was  brother  of  the  Prince, 
and  that  with  his  connivance  the  people  would  never  permit 
mosques  to  be  erected  in  Georgia.  May  not  this  juxtaposition 
of  Christianity  and  Muhammadanism  have  influenced  the 
latter,  and  added  force  to  any  tendencies  of  Muhammadan 
sects  in  the  Christian  direction  ?  The  Shar  of  Mahmud's  time 
does  not  appear  to  have  been  a  very  zealous  Muhammadan ; 
moreover,  the  Georgians  were  probably  Eutychians,  who  con- 
fused the  divine  and  human  natures  in  our  Saviour,  and  whose 
tenets  therefore  possessed  a  marked  analogy  with  those  of  the 
Shiites.  It  is  to  be  noted,  however,  that  Mr.  Elphinstone, 
following  Ibn-Haukal  (by  Ouseley),  thinks  that  this  province, 
conquered  by  Mahmud,  is  not  identical  with  Georgia,  com- 
monly so  called. 


TEANSLATOR'S    INTRODUCTTON.  XXIX 

to  these  suspected  notions  were  termed  generally 
Batenians,  or  interiors.  "These  are  so  called," 
remarks  M.  de  Sacy,  "because  they  establish  an 
interior  sense  of  the  Scripture  besides  the  exterior; 
they  say,  whoever  attaches  himself  to  the  exterior 
fatigues  himself  with  vain  practices,  whilst  he  who 
follows  the  interior  may  dispense  with  all  actions — 
they  give  to  faith  a  preference  over  Islamism." 

A  specific  branch  of  these  Batenians  is  the 
sect  of  Tashbiah,  Assimilation,  who  (besides  a  kind 
of  Platonism),  assert  theologically,  "that  there  is 
a  connexion  between  God  and  the  other  beings ; 
that  the  age  is  never  destitute  of  a  prophet  or  of 
law,  that  it  is  never  destitute  of  an  Im4m,  or  his 
authority,  and  that  the  existence  of  an  Im^m 
through  all  times  is  necessary,  whether  manifest 
or  concealed."  AU  this  would  greatly  infringe 
upon  various  positions  and  organic  maxims  of 
the  Kuran.  But  the  maintainers  of  the  Ali- 
Ilahia  advance  far  beyond  these  assertions.  These 
sectaries  are  numerous  in  India,  but  they  seem 
to  have  abounded  also  in  Syria,  Egypt,  &c.,  during 
the  first  six  or  seven  centuries  of  the  Hejira ;  they 
teach,  "that  it  is  necessary  to  the  Almighty  God 
and  eternal  Lord,  that  He  should  descend  from  the 
dignity  of  purity  and  from  the  station  of  unity 
and    absoluteness,    and    that    according    to    the 

d 


XXX  TEANSLATOES   ITfTEODUOTION. 

abundance  of  His  clemency,  He  should,  in  every 
period  and  revolution  of  time  unite  His  spirit  with 
a  bodily  frame,  in  order  that  his  creatures  may 
behold  this  glorious  and  exalted  Lord ;  and  in 
whatever  manner  He  ordains,  acknowledge  and 
reverence  Him."  "That  it  is  determined  that  a 
pure  spirit  may  assume  a  bodily  liheness."-^(^Q& 
Dahistan,  vol.  2,  by  Shea  and  Troyer.) 

Opinions  like  these  would  at  once  set  aside  the 
exclusiveness  of  Muhammadanism,  and  with  its 
exclusiveness  its  main  column,  and  doubtless  Mah- 
mud  regarded  a  deadly  onset  against  them  to  be 
as  meritorious  as  the  sacred  war  upon  infidels. 
What  would  he  have  said,  if  he  had  beheld  such 
doctrines  so  permeate  and  so  prevail  throughout 
India,  that  there  are  now  saints  whom  all  parties 
claim  and  reverence,  that  the  cries  of  Rama  and 
Allah  Akbar  have  been  blended,  and  that  Muham- 
madans  have  enjoined  the  idolatrous  reverence  for 
the  cow  ? 

The  Translator  has  been  unable  to  discover 
any  distinct  allusion  to  artillery  and  fire-arms, 
which  are,  however,  supposed  to  have  been  in  some 
form  not  entirely  unknown  in  those  early  times.  It 
appears  certain  that  Greek  fire  and  rockets  were 
employed,  as  well  as  slinging  and  stoning  machines, 
and  the  aUusion  in  one  of  the  poems  to  the  "  fire- 


TRANSLATORS   INTRODUCTION.  XXXI 

eyed  rocket "  is  plain.  The  use  of  sucli  projectiles 
aproximates  to  that  of  artillery.  But  the  beseiged 
in  the  citadel  of  Ark  cast  on  the  besiegers  pots  full 
of  scorpions  and  serpents,  and  the  gates  of  a  for- 
tress were  forced  open  by  means  of  elephants. 
However,  if  these  engines  of  war  were  at  all  known, 
they  would  scarcely  have  been  acceptable.  Inven- 
tors must  meet  with  men  and  times  ready  to  receive 
and  value  their  discoveries,  as  well  as  produce  new 
facts  and  combinations.  It  was  probably  not  so 
much  bards  who  were  wanting  in  the  earliest  age 
to  sing  the  praises  of  heroes,  as  heroes  who  would 
delight  in  their  strains,  and  if  such  machines  be- 
came universal,  who  could  hope  to  be  a  Ilust^m, 
or  rise  to  royalty  by  the  sword  ? 

The  Translator  connot  discover  any  allusion  to 
Ferdusi,  or  to  the  envious  Vizir  who  injured  him. 
He  cannot  find  the  word  Somnath,  or  the  story 
respecting  the  idol  broken  by  Mahmud,  although 
the  expedition  in  which  this  event  is  alleged  to 
have  occurred,  appears  to  be  included  in  this  Chro- 
nicle of  Utbi.  It  is  not  however,  possible,  to 
decide  with  regard  to  omissions,  without  the  assist- 
ance of  additional  manuscripts.* 

*  In  the  Arabic  queries  published  by  the  late  Lord  Munster, 
several  treatises  are  mentioned  bearing  upon  warlike  machines, 
and  a  slinging  engine  is  engraved,  taken  from  the  Jama  at 
Tuwarikh  of  Eashid-addin.      But  if  these  machines  cast  fiery 

d  2 


xxxii  translator's  introduction. 

There  is  another  point  to  which  it  is  desired  to 
advert :  the  order  and  arrangement  of  early  Eastern 
Histories  or  Chronicles  is  but  rough  and  imperfect. 
Like  those  of  the  middle  ages  in  Europe,  they  are 
often  composed  of  chapters  containing  facts,  with- 
out any  intimation  of  the  bearing  or  relation  of 
these  chapters  to  one   another,  or  to  the  whole 
narrative.     Thus,    in   the   present    work,    various 
chapters  contain  the  history  of  the  several  pro- 
vinces  from  which  the  Ghaznevide  Empire  was 
ultimately  made  up,  but  no  intimation  is  afforded 
with  regard  to  the  point  where  the  thread  of  these 
episodical,  yet  essential  accounts  joins  that  of  the 
main  narration  ;   how,  for  example,  the  affairs  of 
Dilam  or  of  Bukhara  became  involved  with  those 
of  Ghazna.     The  Translator  has  occasionally  sup- 
plied this  information,  but  in  general  the  reader 
must  be  left  to  judge  what  portion  belongs  to  reca- 
pitulation, what  to  explanatory  anticipation,   and 
what  to  the  grand  current  of  the  story.     There  is 
also  a  confusion  and  obscurity  in  literal  translation, 
which  arises  from  too  loose  and  liberal  employment 
of  pronouns,  or  even  their  entire  omission.     The 
Translator  has  in  these  instances  been  contented 
to  offer  a  close  rendering  to  the  reader,  without 

matter,  it  seems  to  have  been  only  the  Greek  fire,  naphtha, 
&c.     And  see  Briggs'  Ferishta. 


TRANSLATOES    INTRODUCTION.  XXXUl 

adding  an  explanation  which  is  sometimes  as  em- 
barrassing as  the  text. 

Whilst  this  work  was  passing  through  the 
press,  the  attention  of  the  Translator  was  invited, 
by  the  obliging  courtesy  of  Professor  G.  Fluegel, 
of  Dresden,  to  a  Paper  read  in  January,  1850, 
before  the  Imperial  Academy  of  Sciences,  at 
Vienna,  upon  the  subject  of  the  JKitab-i-Yamini, 
by  Dr.  T.  Noldecke.  The  learned  author  of  this 
Paper  communicates  his  discovery  in  the  Imperial 
Library  of  two  MSS.  of  the  Arabic  original,  and 
of  two  MSS.  of  the  Persian  Translation,  as  well 
as  of  a  Commentary.  If  this  discovery  had  been 
made  at  an  earlier  period,  the  Translator  might 
possibly  have  endeavoured  to  obtain  a  copy  of  the 
best  of  the  two  Arabic  MSS.  in  order  to  translate 
from  it,  yet  he  doubts  whether  this  communication 
would  have  altered  his  resolution  to  adopt  the 
Persian:  the  Arabic  MSS.  of  Dr.  Noldecke's 
notice  are,  both  of  them  modern,  one  dated  a.d. 
1772,  the  other  1747,  whereas  the  two  copies  of 
the  MSS.  of  the  Persian  version  are  dated,  the 
one  A.D.  1316,  the  other  1321,  about  J  50  years, 
that  is,  from  the  publication.  li^  therefore,  the 
Translator  had  possessed  the  advantage  of  an 
acquaintance  with  these  MSS.,  he  would  probably 


XXXIV  TRANSLATORS   INTEODUOTION. 

still  have  availed  himself  of  the  assistance  of  the 
ancient  Persian,  whereupon  to  ground  an  English 
version,  rather  than  have  adopted  MSS.  which 
may  possibly  prove  to  be  of  minor  authority. 

If,  however,  the  Arabic  original  text  and  that 
of  the  Persian  version  should  ever  be  published, 
and  the  publication  by  authority  appears  to  be 
almost  a  duty,  these  four  MSS.,  and  the  critical 
remarks  of  Dr.  Noldecke,  will  be  most  valuable, 
and  will  doubtless  be  duly  consulted. 

This  learned  dissertation  comprises  two  extracts 
frond  the  Arabic,  one  from  the  Persian  version, 
and  a  specimen  of  the  Comment,  &c. 

The  Translator  feels  it  incumbent  upon  him  to 
offer  his  best  acknowledgements  to  the  Committee 
of  the  Oriental  Translation  Fund,  for  their  libe- 
rality in  publishing  the  present  volumes.  He  has 
felt  much  interest  in  pursuing  a  subject  so  con- 
genial to  a  profession  which  is  bound  so  especially 
to  trace  out  and  diffuse  every  ray  of  "  Light  from 
the  Bast," — light  now  so  sadly  obscured  and 
divided  in  its  original  glorious  abode  from  its 
primeval  sources.  The  credit  'obtained  by  these 
studies  is  not  general,  but  that  disadvantage  will 
be  fully  compensated  if  they  be  in  any  degree 
useful,  and  the  Translator  will  be  rewarded  if  he 


translator's   introduction.  XXXV 

win  the  approbation  of  those  who  are  so  well 
qualified  to  judge  upon  points  of  Oriental  litera- 
ture, with  whom  he  has  had  the  honour  and 
pleasure  of  being  so  long  officially  connected,  and 
to  whom  he  is  bound  by  so  much  kindness  and 
attention. 


NOTES. 

Page  xxiv. — Extract  from  Abul  Earajius,  Sistory  of  Dynas- 
ties, p.  195.  Ed.  Pococke  (from  the  Latin  translation).  "  In 
the  days  of  (the  Khalif )  Al-Kahir,  began  the  dynasty  of  the 
sons  of  (Buwwaya)  Bowaia,  who  were  tliree,  Ahmad-ad-doulat 
Ali,  Rukn-ad-doulat  Al  Hasan,  and  Moez-ad-doulat  Ahmad, 
sons  of  Abu-Shaja-Bowaia,  son  of  Phanachosrawi,  one  of  the 
sons  of  Tazdegird,  son  of  Shahriar,  last  King  of  the  Persians. 
This  family  is  very  noble  amongst  the  Persians,  and  they  are 
doubtless  regarded  as  having  sprung  from  the  Dilamites, 
because  they  had  been  long  established  in  that  country  ;  Abii- 
Shaja-Bowaia  is  said  to  have  been  a  man  in  slender  circum- 
stances, who  dreamed  that  a  fire  proceeded  from  his  body,  which 
extended  and  rose  up,  until  it  almost  reached  the  sky,  then 
clea-ring  itself,  was  divided  into  three  portions,  whence  many 
other  portions  arose,  so  that  the  whole  world  was  illuminated 
by  those  fires,  and  many  regions  and  men  bowed  down  them- 
selves to  them  ;  Bowaia  went  to  an  astrologer  and  related  his 
dream.  He  observed,  "  this  is  an  important  dream,  which  I 
will  not  interpret  unless  you  give  me  a  dress  and  a  horse ;" 
"  I  have,"  replied  Bowaia,  "  only  the  dress  which  I  wear ;" 
"  Give  me,  then,  ten  pieces  of  gold,"  said  the  astrologer  ;"  "I 
have  not  even  two  pieces,"  he  rejoined.  However,  he  gave 
something,  and  the  astrologer  then  said,  "Know  that  three 
sons  of  thine  shall  rule  the  earth,  whose  renown  shall  be 
resplendent  in  the  countries  thereof,  and  from  them  shall  be 


XXXVl  NOTES. 

born  a  multitude  of  kings,  according  as  thou  didst  behold  in 
the  subdivision  of  the  fires  ;"  the  three  sons  of  Bowaia  sub- 
sequently went  to  Tabaristan,  where  Mardawij,  or  Marduanj, 
received  them  kindly,  and  gave  Karaj  to  Imad-ad-doulat-Ali- 
'bn-Bowaia ;  he  so  ingratiated  himself  there,  that  the  inhabi- 
tants made  him  king.  Becoming  more  powerful,  he  seized 
Isfahan,  he  also  possessed  Ariana.  His  brother  Eukn-ad- 
doulat,  was  sent  to  Oazrun,  whence  he  obtained  great  booty, 
and  returned  safe.  The  son  of  Imad-ad-doulat  Bowaia  obtained 
possession  of  Shiraz,  a.h.  322." 

It  is  not  surprizing  that  so  eminent  a  family,  the  heredi- 
tary vizirs  and  controllers  of  the  Khalifs,  should  have  endured 
impatiently  the  virtual  supremacy  of  Mahmiid.  But  the  sultan 
retained  it,  and  would  not  allow  them  the  honours  of  the 
khutbah,  or  coinage,  the  ensigns  of  independent  sovereignty. 

Page  xxix. — The  author  of  the  Dahistan,  saw  a  man  of  this 
sect,  Ali-Ilahia,  who  asserted  that  the  Kuran,  which  is 
amongst  them,  does  not  deserve  confidence,  as  it  is  not  the 
book  which  Ali-Alah  had  given  to  Muhammad,  but  is  the  com- 
position of  Abu-Bakr,  of  Omar,  and  of  Othman;  He  saw  also 
another,  who  said,  "  Certainly  the  Kuran  is  the  work  of  Ali- 
Alah,  but  having  been  collected  by  Othman,  it  ought  not  to  be 
read."  Some  were  seen  among  them  who  asserted,  that  the 
verse  and  prose  attributed  to  Omar,  were  collected  by  Ali,  and 
inserted  in  the  Kuran.  They  value  these  beyond  thela  tter, 
as  having  proceeded  directly  from  Ali-Alah. 

Page  xxxi. — The  following  account  of  the  cause  of  the 
destruction  by  fire,  .of  the  monastery  of  Lauresheim,  is  quoted 
in  Maitland's  Dark  Ages,  p.  235.  "Inter  cetera  ludorum 
exercitia.,  discus  in  extrema  marginis  ora  (ut  solet),  accensus, 
militari  manu  per  aera  vibrabatur,  qui  acriori  impulsu  circum- 
actus,  orbicularem  flamma  speciem  reddens,  spectaculi  gratiam 
exhibet."  A  disc,  set  on  fire  in  the  usual  way,  was  whirled  in 
the  air  by  a  soldier,  and  set  fire  to  the  place.  Such  a  disc, 
whatever  be  its  precise  description,  might,  when  mentioned  in 
Persian,  appear  to  resemble  the  flight  of  a  cannon  ball. 


PEEFACE 

OF 

PERSIAN    TRANSLATOR. 


This  Book  is  the  composition  of  Abii  'Sharaf 
Mauldnd  Ndsih  'bn  Zafar  'bn  Saad  Almunshi 
al-Jarbadkani. 

The  most  fitting  thing  which  the  speaking  tongue 
should  love,  and  towards  which  the  reins  of  the 
will  should  be  turned,  is  the  praise  and  celebration 
of  the  Creator.  May  His  might  be  glorified  and 
His  word  be  exalted !  It  was  He  who  distin- 
guished man  by  the  garment  of  intellect  and 
superiority,  who  adorned  his  exterior  with  splendid 
form,  and  perfect  figure,  and  who  distinguished 
and  illuminated  his  interior  with  the  light  of 
knowledge.  Man  hath  thus  received  the  happy 
gift  of  being  enabled,  with  clear  view  and  pene- 
trating reflection,  to  contemplate  the  wonders 
of  Omnipotence  and  the  mysteries  of  creation, 
and  to  know  that  this  brocaded  surface,  coloured 
with  brilliant  groupings,  and  this  variegated 
curtain  decorated  with  the  lights  of  the  stars, 
received  not  visible  form  without  a  wise  Ordainer 
and  a  preventing  Framer;  that  this  green  expanse, 
set  with  jewels  of  flowers^  and  this  carpet  of  dust„ 


2  PREFACK. 

strealced  with  flowing  streams,  became  possible 
only  through  an  Omniscient  Creator  and  a  power- 
ful Disposer:  and  with  respect  to  man's  being, 
which  is  a  little  world,  the  Creator  carefully  pro- 
vided that  this  stamp  of  nature  which  He  deli- 
neated and  brought  from  nothing  unto  the  basis 
of  being,  should,  in  the  darkness  of  the  womb  be 
ordered  and  arranged  into  different  members  and 
parts,  and  He  enlightened  this  his  darkened  form 
with  the  flame  of  life,  and  sent  forth  a  glance 
from  His  useful  light  to  guard  the  basis  of  his 
existence,  and  to  protect  the  line  of  his  being. 

And  when  the  leavening  of  his  clay,  and  the 
arrangement  of  his  beauty  was  completed,  and 
the  time  for  marching  forth  and  the  period  for 
advancing  unto  the  plain  and  field  of  battle  drew 
near,  He  sent  many  divine  endowments  attached 
to  his  being,  and  many  delights  corresponding 
with  his  construction,  into  the  conduit  of  the 
garden  of  his  special  (frame),  and  bound  by  a 
strong  link  every  one  of  the  comforts  and  grati- 
fications of  the  world  to  his  several  members,  and 
framed  his  various  limbs  into  causes  of  utility  and 
profit,  so  that  by  the  force  of  sight  he  receives 
enjoyment  from  colour  and  from  pleasing  and 
charming  objects,  and  by  the  sense  of  hearing 
might  derive  intelligence  from  the  voices  and  cries 
of  animals,  and  by  the  intensity  of  taste  might 
relish  different  kinds  of  meats  and  drinks,  and  by 


PREFACE. 


the  strength  of  articulate  speech,  his  secrets  and 
his  will  might  be  declared,  so  that  his  Vizir,  the 
Sight,  and  his  General,  Apprehension,  received  all 
that  was  sufficient  in  the  world  of  intelligence  for 
his  consideration  and  for  the  regulation  of  his 
comforts  and  conduct,  in  order  that  the  highway 
of  profit  or  of  harm,  might  be  enlightened  before 
his  eyes,  and  that  he  might  write  the  lesson  of 
good  or  evil  upon  the  tablet  of  his  thought 
(Kurdn,  xxxi.  10),  "This  is  the  creation  of  God, 
show  me  what  they  have  created,  who  are  wor- 
shipped besides  him." 

Next,  salutation  to  the  Sacred  Spirit,  to  the 
flowery  garden,  to  the  pure  earth  of  Muhammad 
Mustafd,  the  Elect,  the  Seal  of  Prophets,  and 
Chief  of  the  Mighty  Saints,  the  blessing  and 
peace  of  God  be  upon  him,  the  dawn  of  whose 
apostleship  purified  the  court  of  the  world  from 
the  darkness  of  error,  and  by  the  polish  of  his 
guidance  gave  brilliancy  to  the  sullied  mirror 
of  hearts,  and  freed  mankind  from  the  participa- 
tion of  idolatry.  A  hundred  thousand  invocations 
of  mercy,  and  rest,  and  salutation  and  peace  be 
upon  his  glorious  caste,  and  pure  progeny  and 
family,  the  source  of  the  morning  light,  and  the 
keys  of  mysteries.  Unto  his  companions  and 
followers,  and  comrades  and  associates,  be  respect, 
may  their  stock  be  perfumed  with  the  gale  of  the 
breeze  of  eternity,  and  their  stability  affixed  by 

ij2 


PREFACE. 


the   nails   of  everlasting  joists,  for  with    God  is 
protection  and  grace. 

Thus  saith  the  servant  of  the  preserver,  and 
orator  of  the  everlasting,  Abii  Ashsharaf  Nasih  'bn 
Zafar  'bn  Saad  Almunshi  Aljarbddakani.  When 
the  Almighty"  adorned  with  the  region  of  Irdk,  or 
indeed  with  the  whole  extent  of  the  horizon,  him 
the  fortunate  in  counsel  and  in  judgment,  the 
splendour  of  the  zenith  of  empire,  and  gave  lofty 
rank,  heavenly  expansion,  and  penetration  for  his 
commands  and  prohibitions  (to  distant  regions), 
apd  all  that  pertains  to  perfect  empire,  unto  the 
Just  Sovereign,  the  Wise,  the  Maintainor,  the 
Successful,  the  Victorious,  the  Warrior  for  Reli- 
gion, the  Consolidator  of  the  Glory  of  the  State 
and  Religion,  he  who  gave  victory  to  IsMm  and 
to  Muslims,  Supreme  Prince  over  both  Worlds, 
Pacificator  of  the_  Earth,  UMgh  Barlk  UlMh, 
(God  exalt  his  power,  and  raise  his  might  and 
magnify  his  victories),  and  when  God  distinguished 
him  with  special  qualities  —  with  justice,  with 
expansion  of  the  wings  of  liberality  and  mercy, 
with  bounteous  benefits  and  advantages  unto  high 
and  low,  with  overflowing  generous  kindnesses 
and  volumes  of  good  actions,  in  a  glorious  station, 
then  his  happy  days  became  a  pledge  for  the  firm 
establishment  of  good  things,  and  for  strengthen- 
ing the  bonds  of  neighbourhood,  and  caused  the 
eager  and  generous   expenditure   of  wealth   and 


PEEPACE. 


jewels  upon  objects  of  piety  and  charity,  and  upon 
the  construction  of  foundations  and  bridges,  and 
mosques  and  minarets,  and  in  an  age  which  was  a 
season  of  violence  and  a  time  of  tyranny ;  the 
plain  of  his  guardianship  and  the  veil  of  his 
government  and  aid  became  the  asylum  of  the 
weak,  the  resource  of  the  poor,  the  refuge  of  the 
injured,  and  the  retreat  of  the  oppressed ;  so  that 
when  any  where  the  foot  of  any  one  failed  through 
the  slippery  vibration  of  affairs,  he  laid  his  hand 
upon  the  handle  of  the  solid  judgment  of  his 
majestic  court,  and  sought  to  hold  firmly  by  his 
assuring  neighbourhood  and  his  protecting  patron- 
age, and  whenever  any  one  was  wounded  by  the 
arrow  of  adversity  from  the  bow  of  the  times,  he 
sought  to  heal  the  scar  of  his  wound  with  the 
plaister  of  his  liberal  and  compassionate  govern- 
ment ;  and  whosoever,  through  the  vicissitudes 
of  change  became  ailing  from  the  poison  of  care, 
obtained  a  remedy  from  the  antidote  of  his  pity. 

Now  in  the  second  month  of  the  year  582, 
when  the  Nabob-Sultanat  of  the  family  of  Seljiik 
came  to  an  end,  and  the  great  Atiheg  Azim 
Muhammad,  son  of  the  Atabeg  Assald  Shams 
Addoula  wa  Addln  Ildegiz  (Allah  sanctify  his 
mighty  spirit),  who  was  the  pillar  of  that  king- 
dom, and  the  regulator  of  that  empire,  and  the 
shepherd  of  that  flock  and  the  protector  of  all,  had 
been  caught  in  the  snare  of  fate,  and  the  govern- 


6  PREFACE. 

ment  had  thus  passed  away  from  his  decorated 
mind  and  experience,  and  strength  and  power,  and 
dread  mastership,  and  the  affairs  of  Irdk  were  all 
in  disturbance  and  confusion,  and  the  devils  of 
Turks  came  forth  from  the  bottle  of  coercion,  and 
nearly  one  hundred  chiefs  of  his  principal  subjects, 
every  one  of  whom  was  a  demon  of  demon  race, 
and  a  Pharaoh  of  rebels  in  the  flesh,  quitted  the 
high  road  of  right,  and  every  one  fixed  his  craving 
upon  the  kingdom  of  Irdk,  and  fortified  themselves 
in  every  side  in  castles,  and  left  the  road  firee  for 
criminals  and  corrupted  men,  so  that  the  impress 
of  the  force  of  these  verses  were  written  upon  the 
page  of  its  condition  (Verses) 

"  There  is  a  flowing  wound  in  my  head,  *         *         * 

*  *  I  fear  that  I  shall  suffer  from  vertigo." 

"  As  to  sovereignty,  why  art  thou  on  the  head  of  him  who 
wears  a  crown  ?  May  est  thou  be  on  the  head  of  him  in  whom 
is  sovereignty." 

And  several  of  the  household  of  the  Prince  went 
forth  and  sought  refuge  with  the  disobedient  ones 
of  the  State,  and  used  words  of  tumult,  and  confu- 
sion, and  division,  and  for  nearly  twenty  years  the 
extension  of  this  strife  and  the  source  of  this 
wretchedness  increased,  so  that  ancient  houses 
departed  and  nothing  remained  on  the  right  or 
left,  and  people  of  substance  became  distressed 
with  poverty  and  want,  the  poor  were  in  straits, 
and  the  slaves  perished,  so  that  labourers  came  to 


PREFACE.  7 

destruction,  and  cultivators  and  sowers  were  dis- 
persed, and  their  dwellings  and  abodes  became  the 
dens  of  wild  beasts  and  tigers.  But  this  king 
(long  may  he  Uve  !)  in  these  days  of  their  butting 
violence,  drew  his  foot  into  the  skirt  of  honour 
and  remained  dwelling  quietly  in  the  protected 
city  of  Kaswln,  which  is  the  splendour  of  the 
world,  and,  with  firm  foot  and  unshaken  greatness, 
exhibited  his  inclination  to  be  well  affected  towards 
and  to  preserve  the  sovereign  Atabegs  (Heaven 
support  them!)  and  paid  his  due  tribute,  and 
attempted  to  be  master  in  nothing,  and  was 
content  with  certain  duties  assigned  by  the  diriia.,4 
and  knew  that  they  would  all  be  bound  by  their 
errors  and  wounded  by  punishment.  Until  the  time 
approached  that  the  State  became  freed  from  their 
injuries,  and  some,  caught  in  the  snare  of.  jthejr 
covetousness,  were  ruined  and  destroyed  ^-j;  man) 
became  a  mark  for  the  arrow  of  the  plaint  of  "^.e 
oppressed,  and  a  portion  remained  humiliated  and 
lost  captives  in  the  desert  of  infidels,  and  the  hell 
of  those  who  are  disobedient  to  the  Lord  of 
Favours,  until  the  very  great  Prince,  the  magnified 
King,  Shums-addoulah  waaddin.  Victory  of  IsMm 
and  of  Mushms,  King  of  kings,  Chief  of  the  East 
and  West,  Itagmash  (may  God  guard  his 
splendour  and  double  his  prosperity !)  who  was 
the  very  unsurpassed  strength  and  mighty  column 
of  the  state,  and  pillar  and  prop  of  the  kingdom, 


PREFACE. 


by  alliance  with  the  noble  ones  of  that  king  who 
was  the  cream  of  Turks  and  flower  of  dominion, 
happily  gave  help,  and  by  his  support  the  joining 
of  the  ropes  of  his  fortune  and  empire  proceeded, 
and  by  the  right  hand  of  affinity  and  alliance,  and 
by  the  support  of  his  advice  and  judgment,  an 
answer  was  given  to  all  those  who  wounded  and 
disputed  in  the  kingdom,  and  by  their  associating 
and  interweaving  with  one  another  the  house  of 
the  master-son,  the.  Lord  Alim,  Sultan  Azim, 
Victory  both  in  worldly  and  religious  matters, 
refuge  of  Islam  and  of  Muslims,  the  Sultan  of 
Sultans,  AbnBakr,  son  of  Aldtdbeg  Alazim,  son 
of  Abn  laafar  Muhammad,  son  of  the  Atdbeg 
Abu  Sair  Ildagiz  (Heaven  eternize  his  rule !) 
became  settled  by  them,  and  they  drove  back  the 
'eoyet%y  necks  and  gaping  beaks  of  the  armies  of 
5yria,  /and  Armenia,  and  Diarbeker,  and  Khur- 
asan, and  Khawarizm,  and  other  places,  who  had 
placed  their  hosts  in  the  cities  and  provinces  of 
Irdk,  and  cleansed  the  laws  of  the  kingdom  from 
the  intermixture  of  malice  by  the  dread  of 
the  swords  of  these  two  eminent  kings,  from  the 
utmost  to  the  nearest  parts  of  the  world.  The 
wolf  was  prevented  from  attacking  the  deer,  and 
the  partridge  sought  aid  in  the  patronage  of  the 
falcon,  the  eyes  of  confusion  were  in  sweet  sleep, 
and  justice  was  awake,  and  the  carpet  of  confidence 
and  trust  was  spread  (Verse) 


PREFACE.  9 

"  In  thy  time  the  lion  sought  not  to  hurt  the  hind,  against 
the  poor  mouse  the  snake  exerted  not  his  strength.  In  thy 
age  the  falcon  even  if  he  were  sick,  from  dread  of  thee, 
expressed  no  desire  for  a  partridge." 

And  at  this  day,  praise  be  to  God,  .from  the 
fortune  of  these  two  will-effecting  princes  and 
these  two  command-issuing  kings  the  foundation 
of  justice  and  ,  equity  hath  been  laid,  and  the  rule 
of  innovation,  and  oppression  and  violence,  rejected 
and  put  away.  May  the  Almighty  establish  for 
unnumbered  years,  through  their  empire  and 
royalty  this  common  gain,  this  shade  of  their 
justice  and  compassion  over  weak  subjects.  "  God 
hath  mercy  on  the  servant  who  saith  Amen." 

Now  forasmuch  as  that  scanty  territory  which 
is  the  native  country  of  this  poor  compiler,  was  in 
the  possession  of  the  court  of  this  prince,  and 
honoured  by  his  fortunate  vicinity,  and  he  com- 
manded (residence)  there  for  many  times  and 
exalted  years,  and  was  attached  to  the  open 
country  of  that  plain,  for  the  enjoyment  of  hunting, 
when  my  turn  came  to  stand  before  his  happy 
stirrup,  there  passed  into  my  mind  (Verse) 

"  There  is  no  guile  with  thee  to  lead  thee,  nor  wilt  thou  be 
led  by  wealth;  speech  may  succeed  if  circumstances  do  not." 

a  passage,  which  may  the  Solomon  of  the  kingdom 
realize,  that  as  a  mouse  it  may  perchance  be  of 
service,  and  with  this  writing  like  a  locust's  foot 


10  PBBFACE. 

transcribe  a  volume,  and  that  in  this  way  might 
form  a  composition  of  the  histories  and  names  of 
kings,  and  of  the  chronicles  of  emperors,  and 
might  convey  it  as  a  gift  to  the  high  presence,  in 
order  that,  at  times  of  leisure  and  hours  of  privacy, 
he  might  receive  recreation  from  hearing  it,  and 
might  derive  example  from  the  vicissitudes  of  cir- 
cumstances and  the  changes  of  the  eminent ;  And 
upon  this  subject  I  requested  the  advice  of  the 
just  lord,  Milld  Mansiir-Muzfir-Mahdi-addunya- 
wa-addln,  glory  of  Islam  and  of  Muslims,  Sayyad 
of  Viziers  in  both  worlds,  generous,  learned,  Abiil 
Kasim  'bn  Muhammad  'bn  Abi  Hanifa  (Allah 
guard  his  splendour  and  perpetuate  his  destiny!) 
who  was  the  Asaph  of  the  kingdom  and  pillar  of 
the  empire.  T  requested  a  reply  upon  the  point. 
He  gave  me  the  most  extreme  encouragement,  and 
indicated  that  "  the  Kitdh  Yamini,  compiled  by 
'JJibi,  is  a  useful  book,  and  is  comprised  in  few 
sections  and  light  bulk,  being  an  explanation  of 
the  events  and  incidents  of  Sultdn  Mahmtid 
Sabahtagin,  with  much  of  the  aifairs  of  the  family 
of  Samdn  and  a  little  of  the  days  of  the  family  of 
Boyah,  and  which  contains  also  some  of  the  his- 
tories and  traces  of  the  kings  of  those  countries, 
and  lords  of  those  regions."  It  would  be  fitting 
(he  said)  in  order  that  these  (historical)  exemplars 
should  approach  nigh  unto  the  understanding,  and 
that  Turks  and  citizens  should  be  directed  thereby, 


PREFACE.  11 

that  you  should  translate  it  into  the  Persian,  and 
not  be  higher  than  the  frame  of  the  book's  style, 
and  avoid  ruggedness  and  ambitious  phrases,  and 
not  regard  it  incumbent  upon  you  to  employ 
uncouth  Arabic  words  and  expressions,  but  what- 
soever the  intelligent  mind  and  generous  nature 
approves,  to  be  therewith  content,  so  that  I  may 
act  as  father  to  this  bride,  and  may  make  the 
unsaleable  goods  of  this  stock  pass  freely  with  the 
Amir.  For,  at  the  present  day,  two  particular 
kinds  of  advantage  will  accrue  from  this  book : 
one,  that  this  Prince  (may  his  fortune  last  for 
ever !)  when  he  contemplates  the  circumstances 
and  the  territories  of  the  kings  and  sultans,  his 
predecessors,  the  extent  of  their  empire,  the 
distance  to  which  their  authority  penetrated,  the 
glory  of  their  power,  autocracy,  and  command- 
ments, may  also  know  that  their  declining  fortune, 
and  the  transference  of  cities  and  peoples,  rendered 
them  not  permanent,  and  all  their  state  has 
decayed,  and  there  remaineth  nothing  of  them, 
except  their  good  name,  their  virtues,  their  gene- 
rous acts,  their  examples,  and  their  mercy.  His 
eyesight,  by  passing  over  these  subjects  of  thought, 
may  become  firmer,  and  his  wishes,  by  traversing 
these  chapters,  may  become  more  true;  And, 
secondly,  that  people  of  virtue,  excellence,  and 
honour  may  know  that  these  kings  caused  to  cir- 
culate amongst  the  people  of  the  sword  the  valu- 


12  PREFACE. 

ables  of  earth  and  the  riches  of  the  world,  and  to 
their  subjects  brought  valuable  property  to  support 
the  kingdom's  slenderness,  making  them  sharers 
and  partners  in  the  possessions  of  the  earth,  And 
none  of  them  deceased  before  the  full  space  of  life, 
or  was  not  useful  even  after  the  consummation  of 
the  days  of  his  age,  And  a  writer,  with  five  folds  of 
paper  and  a  long  ball  (of  ink)  which  cost  (but)  two 
drachms  of  silver,  hath  painted  their  memorials  in 
a  volume  of  annals,  and,  having  placed  their 
impress  upon  the  forehead  of  time,  hath  rendered 
their  name  perennial  unto  perpetuity  everlasting, 
and  hath  adorned  the  interior  of  his  volume  and 
the  contents  of  his  book  with  the  commemora- 
tion of  their  days,  their  words,  and  their  deeds. 
Nearly  three  hundred  years*  have  elapsed  since 
they  framed  histories  in  praise  of  Mahmiid  Sabak- 
tagin,  and  spoke  as  friends  of  the  family  of  Boy  ah 
(Yerse) 

"  Though  eamela  and  bread  should  be  no  longer,  yet  the 
glorious  memory  of  the  sons  of  Marwan  will  be,  and  thou 
shalt  see  the  congratulatory  river  flow  for  ever.  Of  all  that 
the  sons  of  Saman  and  the  kings  of  the  vigorous  have  col- 
lected, they  will  sing  sweetly  after  that  Hasan  hath  (no  longer) 
spoken  of  Ghasan  (the  excellent  of  the  imbecile)." 

As  to  the  Seljiiks,  from  whose  eminent 
kingdoms  these  two  princes  were  but  a  dis- 
tillation,  and   the  rule  of  these  two    sovereigns 

*  Cor.  Two  {?) 


PREFACE.  13 

but  a  drop  in  the  sea  of  their  royalty  and 
empire,  they  are  no  longer  preserved  for  any 
sufficient  period,  and  their  name  will  be  blotted 
from  the  books  of  minds ;  and  as  in  their  days 
people  of  virtue  found  no  success,  and  derived  no 
aid  from  their  diffused  grandeurs,  ordinances,  or 
victories,  no  one  preserved  their  memory,  and  no 
memorial  remained  of  the  vestiges  of  their  eleva- 
tion. 

I  accepted  this  intimation  of  the  Sahib,  the 
just,  Heaven  augment  its  help  to  him,  and  exhi- 
bited to  him  this  exemphfying  parable,  and  I 
appended  this  (proposed)  arrangement  to  the 
(other)  successive  aids  and  marks  of  favour,  and 
gifts,  and  presents,  which  in  the  course  of  my  life 
I  have  found  from  that  court  of  his  brilliancy,  and 
portico  of  his  merits  and  endowments,  and  I 
translated  this  book  from  Arabic  into  Persian. 

Men  of  information  and  intelligence  are  aware 
that  in  the  barbarian  (Persian)  dialect  there  is  no 
power  of  affording  much  gratification,  and  Abii  an 
Nasar  Al  Utbi,  in  the  narration  and  composition 
of  this  book  exhibited  lawful  magic,  and  displayed 
wonderful  novelties,  and  if  any  one  from  the  zenith 
of  eloquence  and  delicacy  of  that  model,  and  the 
copiousness  of  those  expressions,  should  contem- 
plate the  low  cellars*  of  this  translation  and  the 

*  Literally  "  wasliing-places." 


14  PREFACE. 

wretchedness  of  these  words  nothing  but  a  blush 
of  shame  would  be  the  result.     I  am  convinced  of 
the  fact  of  my  deficiencies,  and  in  my  poor  mansion 
(of  mind)   and  confusion   of  intellect  well  know 
both  the  scantiness  of  my  capital  stock  and  the 
deficiency   of  my   workmanship.       However    my 
apology  comes  to  light  upon  two  grounds ;  one  is 
that  I  wished  not  that  the  intricacies  and  niceties 
of  the  aims  and  drifts  of  the  book  should  remain 
under  the  veil  of  obscurity,  and  that  the  arrow  of 
understanding   should  never  attain  unto  it;  and 
the  second  that  I  wished  the  Arabian  plain  (of 
language)    to    possess   a   perfect   amplitude    and 
complete   space,  and   if  any  one  will  peruse  the 
writings  of  this  poor  author  in  Persian  verse  and 
rhythms  perhaps  water*  may  again  come  upon  the 
face  of  his  labour,  and  there  may  ensue  pacifica- 
tion towards  the  standard   of  these  words,    and 
reconciliation  to  the  motes  of  these  idle  tales,  and 
it  may  thus  be  known  that,  althoiigh  my  Persian 
hackney  be  restive,  my  Arab  charger  is  a  pleasant 
goer,  and  although  my  striped  Persian  robe  is  in 
tatters  yet  my  Arabian  embroidered  garment  is  fair 
and  new ;  and  if>  in  the  time  of  the  family  of 
Sd,min  and  the  days  of  the  house  of  Boyah,  which 
was  a  time  of  the  Bdzdr  of  virtue  and  excellence, 
when  the  divers  of  good  manners  and  arts  found 

*  i.e.  Honour. 


PREFACE.  15 

valuable  pearls  and  choice  jewels,  in  the  sea  of 
their  humanity  and  liberality,  and  in  the  gardens 
of  their  protection,  and  science  possessed  fields  of 
sugar-cane,  and  delightful  parterres,  and  were 
blessed  with  their  rich  society  and  admirable 
nobleness,  if  in  the  gardens  of  their  generous 
benefits  they  struck  up  (songs)  like  the  sweet- 
toned  nightingale;  and  like  the  starling  warbled 
by  the  border  of  the  rose-garden — no  matter.  At 
present,  when  the  breeze  favourable  to  virtue  hath 
passed  away,  when  the  fire  of  pride  in  heroes  is 
stanched,  when  excellence  is  superfluous  and  men 
are  wearied  with  the  learned,  and  the  tree  of  their 
art  would  be  without  fruit,  unless  these  last 
breathings  of  dying  generosity,  these  relics  of  libe- 
rality from  the.  just  Sahib,  the  Chief  of  Viziers 
(Heaven  add  lengthened  reserves  to  the  remnants 
of  his  life!)  gave  them  heart  again,  and  com- 
manded a  liveliness  to  commerce  in  their  lofty 
occupation,  and  a  ready  sale  in  their  market.  It 
is  forbidden  then,  to  draw  a  black  pen  over  this 
whiteness,  but  esteem  should  be  in  our  minds  for 
this  magazine  of  books.  This  poor  author  hath 
composed  nearly  two  thousand  verses,  in  praise 
and  commendation  of  this  nobleman  (Allah 
encircle  him  with  glory).  The  greater  portion  is 
concealed  in  the  collection  known  as  "The  Gardens 
of  Melancholy,"  but  some  more  seasonably  placed 
in  the  volume  of  "The  Flame  of  Souls."  The  fol- 
lowing is  a  Kasidah,  which  was  compiled  in  praise 


1 6  PREFACE. 

of  his  blessed  feet,  at  a  time  when  he  came,  having 
composed  something.*  1  have  a  perfect  confidence 
in  the  generosity  and  liberality  of  the  Maulawi, 
the  great  Sahib  Chief  of  Viziers  (may  AUah  per- 
petuate it !)  that  he  will  draw  the  line  of  indul- 
gence over  these  blunders  and  errors,  and  cover 
with  the  train  of  the  robe  of  mercy  and  pardon 
these  slips  and  mistakes, 

If,  however,  in  the  explication  of  the  glories 
and  wisdom  of  this  generous  Lord  and  unparalleled 
Vizier,  one  should  enter  into  detail,  the  widest 
stream  would  afford  no  footing  in  its  abyss  of 
pages,  and  in  seeking  to  express  his  perfection 
neither  length  nor  breadth  would  be  powerful 
enough  to  celebrate  but  a  small  portion  thereof; 
and  in  these  days,  which  are  one  year  of  scarcity 
as  regards  virtue  and  the  virtuous,  and  when  cruel 
fate  is  perhaps  enslaved  to  a  hatred  of  good 
manners  and  of  the  means  of  honour,  and  the  stars 
of  ingenuity  are  settled  in  the  retirement  of 
depression,  and  folly  finds  friends,  the  perfect 
merit,  the  lofty  intellect,  the  liberal,  breast,  the 
wide  ocean  and  good  fortune  of  mind,  the  true 
fortitude,  the  noble  patronage,  the  wide  plain  of 
determined  and  dignified  authority,  the  well- 
ordered  conduct,  sweet  disposition,  special  inge- 
nuousness, and  innate  beauties  of  this  surpassing 
heart  of  super-eminence  and  this  favoured  lord  of 

*  This  Kasidah,  being  obscure,  is  here  omitted. 


PREFACE.  1 7 

favour,  hatli  arrived  as  the  pardon-pleader  of 
fortune,  and  the  fault-coverer  of  the  times. 
People  of  distinction,  in  emigrating  from  these 
flames  and  in  purifying  from  this  distress,  have 
covered  themselves  with  his  overshadowing  veil 
and  have  fled  to  the  strong  fortification  and 
powerful  munition  of  his  reflecting  care  ;  and  one 
of  the  beneficial  qualities  of  his  nature  is,  that  he 
hath  obtained  a  thorough  knowledge  of  the  chro- 
nicles, the  origin  and  the  state  of  peoples,  the  con- 
dition and  whatever  deserves  to  be  known  of  the 
kings  of  Arabia  and  Persia,  and  their  tribes,  and 
hath  become  deep  and  powerful  in  this  science, 
and  aware  of  the  vicissitudes  of  events,  and  his 
mind  hath  solidly  occupied  itself  in  pursuing  this 
knowledge,  and  hath  been  engaged  in  acquiring 
the  experience  of  history,  so  that  his  enlightened 
understanding  and  perfumed  mind  hath  become  a 
bright  mirror,  before  which  the  converse  of  secrets 
and  the  fallacies  of  thoughts,  and  the  sequences  of 
afiairs,  and  the  ends  of  actions,  are  clear  and 
shining  as  the  sun-ray  (Verse) 

"  Oh  thy  intellect,  thou  hast  seen  yesterday  the  difficulties 
of  to-day,  and  oh  thy  thought,  thou  hast  given  this  year  the 
harvest  of  the  past. 

"  Like  Heaven's  foreordaining  by  wisdom  for  all  men. 

"  Like  the  sun,  freely  benefiting  aU  things. 

"  If  they  place  one  principle  of  increase  from  thy  hand  in 
the  puncture  (i.  e.,  graft  from  thy  nature) 

"  No  branch  would  ever  blow  empty  on  the  poplar." 

C 


1 8  PREFACE. 

And  another  of  his  praiseworthy  practices  and 
agreeable  rules  is,  that  not  one  twinkling  of  an  eye 
of  his  life  (may  its  extension  be  conjoined  with  the 
extension  of  time !)  is  wasted,  and  although  most 
of  his  time  is  spent  in  watching  over  the  affairs  of 
State  and  in  promoting  the  peace  of  Muslims, 
when  he  finds  a  moment  of  leisure  he  seeks  recre- 
ation in  the  perusal  of  books  and  the  conversation 
of  the  wise,  and  the  society  of  the  learned,  and  in 
discussing  the  nice  points  of  science,  and  the 
quaint  intricacies  of  knowledge,  and  in  acquiring 
information  upon  the  rules  of  religious  and  eternal 
wisdom,  and  his  soul  and  time  becomes  deeply 
immersed  in  these  things  ;  and  if  I  may  put  forth 
an  assertion  it  is  that  the  curved  umbrella  of  the 
sky  overcast  its  shadow  on  the  forehead  of  such 
greatness,  and  in  the  four  quarters  of  the  world 
there  hath  never  sat  upon  the  four-cornered  seat 
of  the  Vizarat  a  Minister  like  him.  May  he  be 
supported  in  the  perfection  of  his  discernment  and 
the  testimony  of  hie  far-sightedness,  and  may  he 
be  recorded  so  to  be  by  evident  arguments  and 
clear  proofs  (Verse) 

"  I  declare  that  there  is  no   man  like  him ;  to  deny  this  is 
to  deny  that  God  is  one." 

Whoso  hath  entered  the  winter-house  which  is 
the  mansion  of  his  greatness,  the  point  of  contact 
of  his  happiness,  and  the  fountain  of  his  govern- 


PREFACE.  19 

ment,  and  should  see  his  benevolent  foundations 
and  his  conduit-pipes  of  alms,  and  should  witness 
his  religious  houses,  his  treasuries  of  books,  and 
other  curious  and  strange  things,  his  library  book- 
cases, his  choice  volumes  and  appended  pages 
therein  assembled,  and  should  be  aware  of  the 
hospital  for  the  sick,  and  the  valuable  bottles, 
with  various  kinds  of  medicines  and  remedies,  and 
their  divisions  for  the  poor  and  humble,  he  would 
know  to  what  an  extent  his  lofty  mind  hath 
attained  varied  kinds  of  excellence,  by  the  avenues 
of  goodness  and  the  utilization  of  knowledge  and 
reflection,  and  in  the  power  of  the  Almighty,  will 
be  convinced,  by  proof,  that  neither  the  world  in 
its  youth,  or  creatures  in  their  greatness,  or  Para- 
dise in  its  nature,  or  ocean  in  its  seas,  could 
produce  his  equal  (Verse) 

"  Let  there  be  no  denial  that  Grod  hath  collected  all  things 
in  one  universe." 

And  doubtless  it  is  through  his  fortunate  fore- 
lock and  blessed  counsel  that  the  just  Prince,  the 
pacificator  of  the  world,  Ulugh  Barik,  hath  passed 
so  long  a  period  in  such  power,  comfort,  peace, 
repose,  and  affluence,  and  hath  found  such  an 
abundant  hold  of  his  royalty  and  empire  ;  and  the 
hope  of  his  servants  is  this,  that  he  may  still  con- 
tinue in  the  freshness  of  the  youth  and  vigour  of 
his  fortune,  in  increase  of  years  and  influence  of 

c  2 


20  PREFACE. 

power,  that  overflowing  happiness  and  great 
establishment,  as  regards  his  life,  his  possessions, 
his  wishes,  and  his  years,  may  yet  remain  for  him, 
and  that  many  long  years  may  pass  under  His 
Majesty,  his  children,  and  his  descendants  (who 
are  the  apple  of  the  State's  eye,  and  the  liver- 
corner  of  the  empire)  under  the  protecting  shadow 
and  guardianship  of  his  fortunate  standard,  may 
they  arrive  at  command  and  hold  the  world,  and 
for  eternity  may  the  elevation  of  the  office  of 
"Vizier  and  the  seat  of  the  empire's  dignity  be 
adorned  and  illuminated  by  this  great  centre,  this 
bright  moon,  this  phoenix  of  time,  this  sun  of 
generosity,  this  sea  of  munificence,  this  world  of 
knowledge,  and  this  earth  of  intelligence,  if  thus 
God  will  and  His  definitions  (concur). 


ANNALS  OF  THE  LIFE 


A  M  1  E    NASI  E-A  D-BIN    SABAKTAGIN, 


AND  OP  ITS  EVENTS. 


The  Amir  JMTdsir-ad-din  was  a  Turk  by  origin, 
adorned  by  special  favours  of  God,  a  mirror  of 
royalty  and  authority,  in  the  day  of  battle  furious 
as  a  lion,  then,  liberal  as  the  showers,  he  still 
distributed  favours  and  kindnesses  unto  all.  Like 
the  wind  he  blew  upon  the  strong  and  the  weak, 
and  like  the  sun  he  shone  upoi;  the  humble  and 
the  noble.  In  mind  he  was  like  the  sea,  which, 
in  its  liberality,  thinks  not  of  its  bounds,  and  in 
rage  like  the  torrent-flood,  which  regards  not 
ascent  or  descent.  During  dark  events  his  counsel 
was    like   a   path-directing   star;    his   sword,   in 


22  MEMOJKS  OF  SABAKTAGIN, 

cutting  through  his  enemies,  was  hke  the  globe- 
disclosing  fate.  The  marks  of  nobility  and  gene- 
rosity were  bright  and  brilliant  in  his  disposition, 
and  the  evidences  of  good  fortune  and  happiness 
were  plain,  whether  they  were  at  rest  or  in  motion. 
Abiil  Hasin  Khazin  says,  the  Amir  ISTasiraddin, 
during  the  time  of  the  reign  of  Mansiir  'bn  Niih 
Samd,ni,  came  into  the  wardrobe  (household) 
service  of  Abii  Ishak  'bn  Ileptagin,  who  was 
Commander  of  the  Troops  of  Khurasan.  He 
received  the  post  of  Chamberlain,  and  the  binding 
and  loosing  {i.  e.,  the  whole  direction)  of  the  officers 
and  servants,  the  attendants  and  the  troops,  was 
conferred  upon  him.  The  nobles  and  chiefs  of 
that  prince  became  acquainted  with  his  high  effici- 
ency and  ingenuity,  and  learnt  and  knew  his 
enlightened  guidance  in  transacting  this  affair  ; 
and  when  they  sent  Abii  Ishak  Alptagin,  who 
was  Commander  of  the  Army,  to  Ghazna,  and 
relinquished  the  rule  of  that  territory  unto  him, 
they  consigned  the  reins  of  the  guidance  and 
direction  of  the  business  thereof,  and  the  disposal 
and  settlement  of  the  transactions  thereof,  to  the 
weighty  intellect  and  powerful  understanding  of 
Nasiraddin. 

And  when  they  sent  Abii  Ishak  Aluptagin  to 
Ghazna  in  a  short  space  of  time  he  was  consigned 
(to  the  tomb)  and  answered  the  claim  of  (nature's) 


MEMOIRS  OP  sabaktagIn.  23 

debt,  and  there  was  no  one  of  his  family  who  pos- 
sessed a  fitness  for  empire,  and  superiors  and 
chiefs,  free  and  bondmen,  needed  some  one  who 
should  be  apt  and  capable  for  their  sovereignty, 
And  whomsoever  they  preferred,  when  brought  to 
the  touchstone  of  estimation,  possessed  not  the 
perfect  standard,  until  all  became  of  one  associated 
mind  and  one  conjoined  voice  in  agreeing  that  in 
no  one  was  there  such  worthiness,  qualifications  for 
rule,  better  or  nobler  specialities  than  in  Nlisir- 
addln  SabaktagIn.  They  gave  their  assent, 
therefore,  to  him,  as  ruler  and  governor.  They 
covenanted  to  accept  his  sway  and  rule,  and  they 
inaugurated  him,  and  Ndsir-ad-din  SabaktagIn 
took  aU  under  his  protecting  pastorate.  He 
settled  upon  a  firm  basis  the  safety  of  the  State 
and  the  prosperity  of  all,  and  every  one  by  his 
powerful  plans  and  happy  arrangement  obtained 
secure  portions  (fiefs)  and  arranged  comforts. 
Then  he  turned  his  face  unto  the  sacred  warfare 
with  the  infidels  and  the  humiliation  of  the  ene- 
mies of  the  faith,  and  began  to  make  war  upon 
the  country  of  Hindiistdn,  whose  inhabitants  are 
universally  enemies  of  Isldm,  and  worshippers  of 
images  and  idols.  He  turned  then  upon  these 
regions  and  provinces,  and  extinguished,  by  the 
water  of  his  sword- wounds,  the  sparks  of  idolatry 
struck  from  their  fire-altars,  and  gave  to  the  winds 


24  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIN. 

the  temples  and  the  meeting-places  of  those  base 
ones,  and  in  their  room  placed  fabrics  of  mosques  ~ 
and  shrines.  He  received  those  who  believed  into 
the  protection  of  quarter,  and  caught  the  idolaters 
in  the  net  of  destruction,  and  between  him  and  the 
rebellious  contests  of  those  cursed  ones,  and  the 
resistance  of  those  devils,  lamentable  affairs 
occurred,  the  record  of  which  will  remain  upon  the 
page  of  time  until  the  last  day  ;  and  the  Amir,  in 
enduring  the  difficulties  of  those  weighty  affairs 
and  the  intense  stubbornness  of  those  actions  dis- 
played a  front  of  patience  and  endurance  under 
which  human  strength  would  have  failed,  unless 
the  aid  of  the  mercy  and  power  of  the  Lord  had 
provided  an  egress.  These  verses  form  a  recital 
and  picture  of  his  words  and  deeds  : — 

"  Virtue  is  my  ancestor.     Exertion  is  my  father. 

"  My  choice  is  fame,  with  her  grand  gains. 

"  My  occupation  is  to  do  that  which  my  inclination  hateth. 

"  My  idea]  is  a  prince,  heroic,  zealous. 

"  My  word  is  all  that  may  be  stirring  and  fervid ; 

"  And  my  object  is  praise  and  complacency." 

At  a  time  when  he  was  compiling  an  account 
of  the  course  of  these  expeditions  and  had  com- 
manded a  history  of  the  transactions  of  those 
events,  it  fell  into  the  fortunate  (speech)  phrase  of 
the  Sultan  (to  mention)  that  "once  when  I  was, 
during  those  hostilities,  in  the  ranks  of  the  army, 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn.  25 

and  the  enemy  had  been  reinforced  in  great  and 
overflowing  numbers,  and  we  by  a  great  propor- 
tion fewer  than  they,  and  that  sacred  war  had  been 
drawn  out  to  a  great  length,  and  all  the  splendour 
and  means  which  we  possessed  remained  no 
longer,  and  the  road  of  assistance  or  of  seeking  aid 
was  stopped,  and  for  long  we  had  remained  in  the 
difficulties  of  that  distress  and  the  anguish  of  that 
affliction,  and  the  captains  of  those  troops  and  the 
chiefs  of  those  people  sought  relief  from  their 
want  of  strength,  and  the  means  of  sustaining  life, 
and  how  they  should  discover  the  path  of  i)atience 
under  that  misery,  and  endurance  under  that 
hardship,  I  had  no  remedy  except  that  there  was 
a  small  remaining  quantity  of  winnowed  wheat, 
which  1  had  for  the  delicacies  of  the  kitchen  :  this 
I  divided  and  shared  amongst  them  all,  and  every 
day  provided  a  Httle,  according  to  their  need,  until 
God  gave  victory  and  fulfilled  the  promise  con- 
tained in  the  exalted  word  of  Truth,  so  that,  of 
those  accursed  ones,  some  became  the  food  of  the 
sword,  most  were  captive  in  the  chains  of  capti- 
vity, and  many  took  to  flight  in  the  robes  of 
disgrace  and  shame."  And,  in  like  manner,  Abdl 
Hasan  Khazin  relates  (from  Hasan)  Ids  good 
order  and  management  thus  :  "When,  upon  two 
occasions,  I  held  office  under  the  Amir,  he  pos- 
sessed not  ample  means,  and  if  he  wished  in  the 
week  to  entertain  as   guests,  once  or  twice,  the 


26  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn. 

lords  of  the  empire,  he  provided  hberally  from  his 
private  allowance,  that  he  might  thus  be  enabled 
to  adhere  firmly  to  the  rules  whereby  a  good  name 
and  fame  are  preserved.  But  by  all  such  means 
his  fortunes  were  enlarged,  until  the  extent  of  his 
territory  and  empire  became  wide,  and  he  increased 
his  expenditure  in  proportion  to  his  rank  and 
wealth,  unt'l  his  presence  became  the  Kaaba  of 
hope  and  the  Kiblah  of  prosperity  (Verse) 

"  His  pure  soul  made  him  rule  purely,  and  made  him  to 
know  energy  and  diligence,  and  made  him  a  king,  a  hero,  until 
he  exalted  and  digniiied  his  people." 

The    first   victory  which    in   his   happy   age 
appeared  was  the  conquest  of  Bost.* 


Account  op  the  Capttteb  or  the  Pbotiwce  oe  Bost. 

It  originated  in  the  following  circumstances  : 
One  named  Tufdn  was  prince  of  this  territory, 
and  another,  whose  name  was  BditUz,  wrested 
the  country  from  him  by  force,  and  expelled 
him,  Tdfdn,  incapable  of  resistance,  possessed 
no  resource  except  to  retire  from  the  land, 
and  fled  for  refuge,  in  his  distress,  to  the 
protection  of  Ndsir-ad-dln.  Of  him  Tufdn 
requested  troops,  to  recover  his  estate  from  his 

*  Bost,  or  Bust,  in  Sistan  or  Sajastan,  on  the  borders  of 
Zabulistan. 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn.  27 

enemy,  proffering  his  services  and  engaging  him- 
self to  the  distinguished  Government,  by  a  promise 
that  he  would  every  year  send  a  fixed  tribute  to 
the  Treasury,  and,  in  case  of  need,  would  assist  the 
Amir  with  his  army  of  chiefs  and  nobles,  and 
would  fulfil  the  customs  of  service,  and  settle  his 
son  with  Ndsir-ad-din,  as  an  hostage  for  his  obedi- 
ence. The  Amir,  being  of  a  kind  and  generous 
nature,  assented  to  this  petition,  and  sat  down 
before  Bost  with  a  complete  army.  In  this  war 
great  efforts  were  made  on  both  sides,  and  the 
Amir  N^sir-ad-dln  charged  with  the  centre  body 
of  his  troops  and  scattered  the  enemy's  army  into 
the  narrow  abodes  of  the  city.  Many  were 
wounded  and  the  rest  fled.  Tufin  was  restored  to 
his  kingdom  and  expressed  his  thanks  for  the 
generous  and  fortunate  aid  of  Ndsir-ad-din,  yet  he 
began  to  delay  and  evade  the  services  to  which 
he  had  agreed,  meditating  a  falling  short  in  and  a 
retreat  from  the  full  completion  of  his  treaty,  until 
the  proofs  of  his  treachery  and  deceit  became  daily 
more  evident ;  and  one  day,  when  together  in  the 
field,  Ndsir-ad-din  addressed  to  him  some  bitter 
reproaches;  he  returned  an  unbecoming  answer, 
which  drew  on  a  dispute  ;  and  this  went  so  far 
that  Tufd,n  put  his  hand  to  his  sword  and  wounded 
Ndsir-ad-dln ;  and  the  Amir,  witnessing  this 
graceless  act,  clapped  his  hand  upon  his  sword  and 
inflicted  upon  Tufan  a  great  wound.     He  wished 


28  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn. 

to  repeat  it,  but  was  forcibly  restrained  by  the 
soldiers  Nisir- ad-din  hereon  commanded  his 
troops  to  march  forth  upon  that  plain  and  cleanse 
the  tablet  (of  life)  from  their  odious  existence.  In 
the  space  of  one  hour  of  the  day  all  that  country 
was  conquered.  Tiifdn  and  Bditiiz  took  the  path 
of  Kirmdn  and  never  saw  that  country  again,  even 
in  their  dreams,  nor  admitted  a  thought  of  that 
subject  into  their  minds.  But  of  all  the  advan- 
tages which  resulted  to  the  Amir  N^sir-ad-din, 
from  that  victory  (one  of  the  most  important)  was 
the  acquisition  of  the  services  of  the  Shaikh  Abul- 
Fath-Busti,  who  was  without  an  equal  in  virtue, 
acquirements,  understanding,  and  eloquence.  He 
was  Secretary  to  Baitiiz,  and  when  the  two  Amirs 
betook  themselves  away  from  that  country  Abiil- 
Fath  remained  behind  and  concealed  himself 
within  the  city.  They  made  known  unto  Nd,sir- 
ad-dln  his  excellent  qualifications,  who  intimated  a 
wish  for  his  presence.  When  he  offered  his 
respects  the  Amir  received  him  generously  and 
honourably,  confirming  his  former  rank  and  giving 
him  good  promises,  and  commanding  that  so 
respectable  an  individual  should  be  inscribed  in 
the  books  of  accounts,  for  the  same  amount  of 
allowances  as  he  had  received  in  the  service  of 
B41tuz.  He  gave  him  the  same  place  and  com- 
mitted to  his  guidance  the  same  business  as  he  had 
before  directed.      The    Shaikh    Abdl-Fath-Bustl 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAqIn.  29 

thus  relates  : — "  When  the  Amir  Nisir-ad-dln 
valued  me  as  worthy  of  such  good  fortune  and 
honoured  me  with  such  special  favour,  committing 
to  me  the  portfolio  of  requests,  which  is  the  trea- 
sury of  secrets,  I  began  to  think,  This  king  cannot 
have  full  confidence  in  my  deeds  or  words  :  he  has 
but  recently  given  me  pardon  and  protection, 
whilst  he  in  whose  service  I  have  been  was  his 
marked  enemy  and  opponent.  If,  therefore,  some 
envious  or  ill-wishing  person  distort  and  confuse 
my  conduct  it  is  possible  that  the  arrow  of  malig- 
nity may  reach  the  mark.  I  therefore  went  to  pay 
my  respects  to  him  and  said.  There  can  exist  no 
higher  office  or  mark  than  that  with  which  the 
Sovereign  has  been  graciously  pleased  to  distin- 
guish this  servant ;  yet  this  servant  deems  it 
fitting  that  he  should  for  a  while  find  His 
Majesty's  permission  (to  retire)  and  to  remain 
under  the  shadow  of  the  King's  protection,  in  some 
place  appointed  for  that  purpose,  until  the  Sove- 
reign have  fully  arranged  all  afikirs  relating  to  this 
dishonourable  P4itiiz,*  and  the  kingdom  be  at  rest 
from  disturbances  and  changes,  and  the  centre-point 
of  aftairs  revolve  with  stability  ;  then  this  servant 
will  kiss  the  distinguished  hand  and  will  look  this 
office  in  the  face,  when  he  shall  have  become  justi- 
fied from  and  cured  of  this  mark  of  disgrace,  and 

*  This  name  is  either  Baituz  or  Paitva. 


30  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn. 

note  of  suspicion,  and  shall  be  fixed  and  settled  in 
the  high  road  of  confidence  and  the  way  of  reputa- 
tion." 

The  Amir  Nisir-ad-din  approved  this  remark 
and  thus  signified  his  commands  : — "  You  must 
depart  unto  the  land  of  Eukhaj  and  there  remain 
an  expectant  of  favour,  until  the  summons  shall 
proceed  from  our  presence,,  when  you  shall  without 
delay  enter  upon  our  service."  "  The  Amir  accord- 
ingly sent  a  royal  rescript,  and  transmitted  direc- 
tions respecting  me  to  the  officers  of  the  country. 
I  began  to  journey  towards  the  place,  and  enjoyed 
myself  in  the  highest  degree  in  traversing  that 
plain," 

The  Shaikh  further  relates  :  "  One  night  I  was 
returning  thanks  for  the  accomplishment  of  a 
portion  of  the  journey  and  the  passing  of  that 
stage,  and  I  passed  the  whole  night  considering 
and  observing  the  stars  and  the  constellations, 
until  the  streak  of  the  kohol  (eye-lash  dye)  of 
morning  appeared  in  the  openings  of  the  clouds  of 
night,  and  the  bright  flash  of  day  rose  upon  the 
destiny  of  darkened  mankind.  I  descended,  for 
the  purpose  of  performing  the  appointed  duty  of 
prayer,  and  when  I  had  fulfilled  my  devotions  and 
the  light  of  day  had  removed  the  dark  veil  from 
before  my  obscured  eye,  I  looked  upon  the  beauty 
and  the  delights  of  that  wilderness,  which 
resembled  a  cultivated  field.      It  was  fair  as  the 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn.  31 

cheek  of  heart-stealers  and  bedecked  like  tlie 
enchanting  gardens  of  Paradise.  Brilliant  as  the 
peacock's  feathers  and  as  the  banqiaet  of  KaykMs 
were  the  running  streams,  and  the  upland  plains, 
and  the  boundless  wilds.  Then  this  verse  passed 
into  my  mind,  '  Your  father  Adam  was  one  of  the 
rebellious,  but  in  knowledge  you  partake  with 
angels.'  Hereupon  it  fell  into  my  mind  to  cast 
the  sacred  lot,  whether  I  should  go,  forward  or 
remain.  I  produced  a.  book  I  carried  with  me  for 
the  purpose  of  divination,  and  the  first  line  of  the 
volume  was  this,  '  When  thou  hast  fully  arrived 
at  thy  point  -of-  safety  go  not  beyond  it.'  Hereon 
I  said  unto  myself,  what  lot  can  be  more  sure  than 
this  ?  and  no  place  can  be  more  suitable  than  this. 
I  therefore,  commanded  that  my  baggage  waggons 
and  furniture  should  be  turned  towards  this  spot, 
and  here,  for  a  princely  time,  I  remained  in  this 
country,  enjoying  the  cool  shade  of  repose,  and  on 
this  chess-board  I  paraded  like  the  queen,  in  the 
enclosure  of  securitv  and  refreshment,  until  the 
adorned  letters  arrived,  with  the  exalted  rescript 
to  summon  me.  1  hastened  to  the  royal  service 
and,  amidst  the  confidential  officers  of  His 
Highness,  I  attained  to  what  I  attained." 

For,  after  this  occurrence,  the  Office  of 
Requests  was  conferred  upon  this  personage,  until 
the  latter  period  of  the  reign  of  Ndsir-ad-dln,  and 


32  MEMOIES  OF  SABAKTAGIN. 

the  Sultdn  Yamln-ad-doulali  committed  unto  him, 
during  the  early  part  of  his  reign,  the  office  of 
President  of  Investitures,  whence  all  letters  of 
victory  and  the  contents  of  rescripts,  volumes,  and 
account-books,  were  by  his  elegant  composition 
adorned,  polished,  promulgated,  and  finally  re- 
corded. He  was  retained  in  this  advantageous 
and  lucrative  office  until  for  some  cause  he  quitted 
the  presence  and  retired  into  the  land  of  the 
Turks.     He  died  whilst  there  absent. 

The  Amiv  Nasir-ad-din  having  brought  this 
country  to  peaceful  submission  appointed  a  vice- 
governor  and  began  to  meditate  an  -attack  upon 
Kasdar.*  This  place  was  nigh  the  Amir's  terri- 
tory. The  prince  of  that  country  was  hemmed  in 
by  strong  fortresses  and  enclosed  in  a  fruitful  and 
plentiful  land.  Hence  he  imagined  that  the  wheel 
of  altered  fortune  could  not  possibly  turn  against 
him,  and  that  the  hand  of  the  vicissitudes  of  life 
could  never  reach  the  collar  of  his  prosperity,  and 
knew  not  how  utterly  the  King,  favoured  of  the 
moonlit  Heaven,  despised  him,  and,  like  an  eagle, 
could  catch  the  winds  by  the  arrow  of-might,  until 
one  night,  at  the  hour  when  the  bud  of  dawn 
begins  to  blow  and  the  bride  of  morning  is  proudly 
proceeding  from   the   darkened  net-work   of  her 

*  Kasdar,   or   Kusta^,   in  the    mountains   of  Ar   Eushaj 
(Kukhaj  ?) 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn.  33 

couch,  the  Sultd,n  came  with  his  irresistible,  encir- 
cling, faithful  army  and  at  one  blow  rendered  him 
ruined  and  a  prisoner  (Verse) 

"  Lo !  whilst  the  chief  of  the  herd  is  drinking  amidst  the 
females, 

"  Whilst  the  dogs  are  barking  and  a  sacrifice  is  to  be  offered 
on  account  of  a  child  new-born, 

"  One  in  great  haste  roasts  him  for  a  company  arriving." 

For  the  state  of  the  destruction  of  that  morning 
recalled  the  saying,  "  He  took  him  as  the  butcher 
takes  the  sheep."  Afterwards,  through  his  gentle 
and  humane  disposition,  the  Amir  decided  that 
the  Prince  of  that  land  should  be  confirmed  in  the 
possession  of  his  territory,  appointing  unto  him  a 
fixed  tribute,  to  be  paid  year  by  year,  into  the 
Treasury,  and  enjoining  that  the  coin  and  the 
public  buildings  should  be  decorated  with  the 
blessed  name  and  the  happy  surname  of  Ndsir-ad- 
din. 

Ndsir-ad-dln  having  completed  the  conquest  of 
Kasdar,  directed  his  thoughts  towards  the 
conquest  of  infidels.  He  turned  his  face  towards 
India  and  meditated  striking  a  blow  at  those 
accursed,  and  coming  on  the  rear  of  that  land  of 
unbelievers.  With  sincere  fervour  and  pure  design 
of  pleasing  God  he  undertook  the  hardship  of  that 
sacred  war  and  displayed  unshaken  resolution  in 
patiently  prosecuting  it,  until  he  had  utterly  con- 
quered and  possessed  himself  of  many  castles  and 


34  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn. 

strongholds  of  those  far  lands,  whither  the  standards 
of  IsMm  had  never  penetrated  and  upon  which  the 
bright  signs  of  truth  had  never  glanced.  He,  by 
these  fortified  holds  and  territories,  augmented  the 
boundaries  of  his  kingdom.  But  when  Jaipdl,* 
King  of  Hindiistan,  observed  these  things  and  saw 
the  line  of  his  frontier  continually  diminishing,  and 
immeasurable  fractures  and  losses  every  moment 
caused  in  his  States,  that  grievance  rendered  him 
disturbed  and  inconsolable.  He  represented  to 
himself  that  if  he  should  allow  himself  to  be  remiss 
and  slothful  under  so  great  a  cause  for  anxiety, 
and  so  signal  a  misfortune,  nor  set  his  face  to  resist 
it,  his  hereditary  kingdom  would  go  to  the  winds, 
and,  in  such  an  horrible  event,  the  world  would  be 
severe  upon  him.  He  saw  no  remedy,  except  in 
beginning  to  act  and  to  take  up  arms.  He 
assembled,  therefore,  all  his  princes,  feudatories, 
nobles,  and  allies,  and  with  a  great  army 
approached  the  Musalman  territory,  hoping  that 
the  awe  of  his  force  would  procure  him  retribution, 
and  that  the  chasm  which  by  the  powerful  army 
of  Islam  had  been  so  visibly  made  in  his  coasts 
and  his  country  would  be  removed,  and  the  wound 
which  the  gleaming  sword  of  Msir-ad-dln  had 
inflicted  upon  the  iniquitous  infidels  would  be 
closed  up ;  and  in  him  was  exemplified  the  text, 

*  Jaipdl,  Jaibal,  Haibal,  or  Hainal. 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn.  35 

"  They  wish  to  extinguish  the  Hght  of  God  in  their 
hearts,  but  God  fortid  that  his  light  should  not  be 
perfected,  although  the  idolaters  abhor  it."  He 
left  Lamgh^n,  in  full  reliance  upon  the  valour 
of  his  troops  and  in  expectation  of  victory, 
through  his  conquering  army  and  allies.  In  his 
head  was  the  intoxication  of  confidence  and  in  his 
heart  the  blackness  of  vain  conceit  (Verse) 

"  No  one  of  sense  gives  positively  until  he  has  gotten. 
Draw  up  your  robe  dry  from  your  leg,  when  the  billows  are 
twinkling  upon  the  shore." 

And  when  the  Amir  Ndsir-ad-dln  perceived 
this  he  began  the  work  vigorously,  and  marched 
from  Ghazna  against  Jaipal.  They  came  together 
upon  the  frontiers  of  each  state.  Each  army 
mutually  attacked  the  other,  fought  and  resisted 
in  every  way,  until  the  face  of  the  earth  was 
stained  red  with  the  blood  of  the  slain,  and  the 
lions  and  warriors  of  both  armies  and  nations  were . 
worn  out  and  reduced  to  despair.  Then  the  Sultdn 
Yamln-ad-doulah  Mahmiid,*  in  this  contingency, 
remarked  that  all  skill  and  intelligence  was 
unequal  to  the  subjugation  of  this  fort,  and  that 
all  human  power  fell  short  against  it.  And  he 
remarked,  further,  that  in  that  region,  wherein 
was  the  encampment  of  the  accursed,  the  water  of 

*  I.  e.,   the    Prince    Mahmtid,    subsequently    the   Sultan 
Tamin-ad-doulat. 

D  2 


36  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGiN. 

a  spring  was  pure  and  bright,  whilst  free  from 
any  unclean  substances,  but  whenever  any  impure 
thing*  was  thrown  therein  a  great  flash  of 
lightning  shone  forth,  and  furious  winds  arose,  and 
a  bitter  cold  succeeded,  so  that  no  one  could  at  all 
endure  to  remain  there.  The  Amir  Nasir-ad-din 
therefore  commanded  that  they  should  cast  some 
wine-flasks  into  the  fountain.  Immediately  a 
great  darkness  spread  over  the  land  and  the  bright 
day  became  obscured,  and  the  atmosphere,  from 
the  sharpness  of  the  extreme  cold,  drew  over  itself 
a  grey  mist,  so  that  patience  could  no  longer 
endure  such  sufferings,  and  they  were  near  unto  the 
fate  of  death.  Hereupon  Jaipil  sent  a  messenger, 
seeking  a  truce  and  asking  pardon,  and  engaged  to 
surrender  at  discretion,  and  to  send  every  year  a 
fitting  tribute  to  the  Treasury,  and  accept  the 
authority  of  the  Amir  over  his  States,  and  to 
present  gifts  of  homage,  such  as  a  marbit  (yoke) 
of  elephants,  or  any  other  propitiating  gifts  he 
might  command.  The  Amir  Nasir-ad-din,  through 
his  ingenuous  and  generous  disposition,  was 
content  with  this  proposal,  and  wished  to  compose 
this  affair,  and  to  grant  unto  his  chiefs  and  army 
some  gratifying  gifts  out  of  these  splendid  cessions. 
But  the  Sultan  Yamin-ad-doulah  Mahmild  gave 
not  in  to  this,  but  resolutely  refused,  and  said.  You 

*  A  spring,  into  which,  if  a  small  quantity  of  a  certain  drug 
should  be  thrown,  &c.,  Ac. — Dow's  Hindustan,  p,  27. 


MEMOIRS  or  sabaktagIn.  37 

cannot  bring  this  affair  to  an  end,  except  by- 
storming  out,  and  to  grant  a  truce  in  their  calami- 
tous state  would  be  unbecoming  and  unworthy  the 
glory  of  Islam.  • "  Cry  not  for  peace  nor  demand 
it,  for  you  are  the  highest  and  God  is  with  you, 
and  will  not  suffer  your  affairs  to  fail."  When 
then  the  messenger  returned  hopeless,  and  inti- 
mated the  state  of  things,  exposing  the  reply  he 
had  received  and  the  disappointment  of  their 
expectations,  Jaipil  saw  that  there  was  no  resource 
except  in  returning  to  means  of  extremity  and 
despair.  He  sent  back  the  messenger  and  said  (in 
accordance  with  the  proverb)  "  When  they  desire 
terms  grant  terms,  for  that  is  better  than  fighting. 
Do  not  by  fighting  deliver  them  from  their 
weakness  (difficulty)  for  they  can  destroy  lives  but 
once." 

The  substance  of  his  message  was  as  follows  : 
"  You  have  heard  and  know  the  nobleness  of 
Indians,  how  that,  in  seasons  of  extremity,  they 
fear  not  death  or  destruction.  They  run  the  edge 
of  the  sword  over  those  who  wrong  them,  when 
there  is  no  means  of  escaping  the  blade.  In  affairs 
of  honour  and  renown  we  would  place  ourselves 
upon  the  fire  like  roast  meat,  and  upon  the  dagger 
like  the  sunrays."  If  this  disinclination  to  show 
us  the  favour  of  a  truce  and  capitulation  proceed 
from  desire  of  the  enjoyment  of  our  wealth,  our 
elephants,  our  damsels,  or  our  children,  then,  when 


38  MEMOIRS  OP  sabaktagIn. 

the  crocodile  (of  extreme  distress)  arrive  and  the 
wish  for  safety  becomes  a  (frustrated)  desire,  then 
we  shall  throw  all  that  pertains  unto  us,  our  riches 
and  our  possessions,  alive  and  dead,  into  the  fire, 
and  destroy  them,  and  afterwards  kill  ourselves,  so 
that  nothing  but  dust  and  ashes  will  remain. 
"  The  fire  will  consume,  nor  will  they  war  with  the 
dead  and  the  refuse." 

The  Amir  Nasir-ad-dln  hearing  this,  and 
thinking  it  horrible  that  they  should  fulfil  their 
threat,  diverted  his  views  from  the  project  of 
expulsion  by  storm  and  directed  them  towards 
peace  and  kindness.  He  interceded  with  Yamln- 
ad-doulah  Mahmiid  and  prevailed  upon  him  to 
give  up  his  project  of  revenge.  He  was  content 
that  the  enemy  should  present,  by  way  of  ransom, 
one  thousand  packets  each  of  one  thousand  dinars 
sterling,  and  five  stables- full  of  elephants,  and 
should  cede  some  cities  of  Hindustan  and  some 
fortresses  within  the  heart  of  his  kingdom,  and 
that  both  himself,  his  courtiers,  and  the  principal 
officers  of  his  army  should  give  their  sons  as  host- 
ages, until  the  terms  of  the  treaty  should  be  carried 
into  effect  and  the  chiefs  and  dependants  of  the 
conquered  party  should  have  acceded  to  them, 
when  the  territories  and  fortresses  should  be 
restored. 

To  the  whole  of  this  they  agreed,  and  both 
sides    separated    from    one    another,    and,    when 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn.  '  39 

Jaipal  had  gone  a  few  stages  and  was  in  safety, 
and  was  secure  in  the  midst  of  his  kingdom,  his 
base  and  evil  nature  led  him  to  infringe  the  treaty. 
He  entered  upon  measures  contrary  thereto,  and 
as  certain  persons  were  with  him,  by  way  of  doing 
him  honour  and  for  the  purpose  of  taking  posses- 
sion of  the  fortresses  and  territories  ceded  by  the 
agreement,  he  threw  them  into  prison,  by  way  of 
reprisal  for  some  of  his  comrades  and  company, 
who  were  detained  at  the  Amir's  Court,  as  a 
measure  of  retaliation.  When  intelligence  of  this 
was  brought  to  the  Amir  he  would  not  receive  it, 
but  thought  it  a  mere  rumour,  until  the  news  was 
repeatedly  confirmed,  when  the  deceit  and  treach- 
ery of  that  belier  of  kindness  was  manifested,  and 
the  truth  of  his  perfidy  came  forth  from  the  veil 
of  report. 

The  fire  of  jealousy  then  rose  high  in  his 
heart,  and  the  purpose  of  revenge  wholly  pos- 
sessed him.  He  proceeded  to  the  country  of 
the  infidel  traitor,  and  wheresoever  he  came  he 
plundered  and  sacked  the  country  until  it  was 
annihilated.  He  dug  up  and  burnt  down  all  its 
buildings,  and  kiUed  those  deceivers  and  infidels, 
carrying  away  their  children  •  and  cattle  as 
booty.  He  made  the  territory  of  Lamgan  (in 
Kashmir),  which  had  been  the  most  populous  and 
flourishing  of  all  that  country,  entirely  stript  and 
bare.     He  mastered  several  other  territories,  and. 


40  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn. 

destroying  their  temples,  their  sacred  buildings, 
and  their  churches,  built  mosques  in  their  stead, 
making  the  light  of  Isl4m  visible. 

News  of  these  victories  and  intelligence  of  these 
exploits  spread  through  all  the  world,  and  all  the 
people  of  Isldm  rejoiced  exceedingly,  and  he 
returned  to  Ghazna,  on  the  wing  of  victory  and  of 
success  (Verse) 

"  Truly  thou  hast  returned  the  infidel  to  their  milking  (or 
to  Aleppo)  as  happily  as  when  the  ornaments  are  returned  to 
the  maiden  who  has  been  stripped  of  them." 

And  when  Jaipdl  witnessed  the  destruction  of 
his  kingdom  and  experienced  the  consequences  of 
his  treacherous  infraction  of  the  treaty,  seeing  the 
glory  of  his  kingdom  taken  from  him  and  his  con- 
federates made  a  prey  to  the  lion,  he  was  deeply 
chagrined  and  perplexed  in  finding  a  remedy  for 
this  misfortune.  He  found  himself  powerless  to 
do  anything,  except  to  invoke  help,  and  therefore 
dispatched  letters,  seeking  succour,  to  the  various 
provinces  of  India,  imploring  aid.  He  thus 
assembled  nearly  100,000  horse  and  directed  his 
march  towards  the  capital  of  Isldm.  When  the 
Amir  received  intelligence  of  his  return  he,  in  full 
and  strong  hope,  advanced  the  standards  of  Islam 
to  meet  him,  resolute  and  relying  upon  the 
goodness  of  the  Creator  (His  name  be  magnified) 
and  looking  for  the  fulfilment  of  His  promise  made 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn.  41 

respecting  the  gift  of  success  to  His  Word  and 
exalting  the  standard  verses  of  the  faith,  i.  e., 
"  Kill  them,  God  will  chastise  them  by  your  hands 
and  will  pierce  them  through,  and  give  you  victory  - 
over  them  and  comfort  the  hearts  of  believing 
people."  And  when  the  armies  were  near  to  one 
another  the  Amir  went  into  a  thicket,  in  disguise, 
in  order  to  reconnoitre  the  number  of  these 
accursed  people.  He  saw  that  they  were  like  an 
immense  ocean,  and  their  army  like  a  host  of 
innumerable  ants  and  locusts.  However  he  was 
like  a  lion,  who  foresees  a  feast  when  he  beholds 
numerous  huntsmen,  or  like  a  wolf,  more  bold  as 
the  copapany  of  horsemen  is  greater.  Assembling 
his  ardent'and  brave  warriors  he  intimated  to  them 
their  glorious  and  noble  lot,  exhorting  them  to 
destroy  and  vanquish  those  wretches.  All 
appeared  ready  and  eager  for  the  affair,  all  hearts 
being  encouraged  by  a  liberal  distribution  of 
rewards,  honours,  and  promotions.  The  Amir 
Ndsir-ad-din  cpmmanded  that  a  company  of  five 
hundred  men,  a  portion  of  similar  successive 
reserves,  should  make  an  attack  upon  the  enemy, 
and  should  maintain  their  position  with  their 
utmost  efibrts  and  exertions,  and  that  when  these 
had  done  their  utmost  and  had  fulfilled  their 
designed  duty  another  company  of  five  hundred 
should  succeed  in  their  room,  and  that  all  should 
push  forward  in  that  manner.     They  followed  his 


42  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn. 

directions,  and  in  this  manner,  they  made  their 
way  onward,  until  they  terrified  the  infidels.  Then 
they  made  one  simultaneous  charge  upon  them 
and  made  some  prisoners,  but  the  rest  betook 
themselves  to  flight,  throwing  away  all  their  arms, 
and  weapons,  and  incumbrances,  and  so  quitted 
the  land.  "  The  judgment  of  God  is  upon  those 
who  stray  from  him  and  this  judgment  cannot  be 
evaded." 

From  this  time  the  Hindiis  drew  in  their  tails 
and  sought  no  more  to  invade  the  land,  and  were 
content  that  they  were  suffered  to  dwell  in  peace 
in  the  more  distant  parts  of  their  country,  in  order 
that  no  trouble  should  happen  to  them  from  the 
house  of  Isldm.  And  this  territory  was  entirely 
annexed  to  the  lands  of  Isldm,  was  adorned  by  the 
brilliancy  of  the  true  worship,  and  its  inhabitants 
included  in  the  efficient,  excellent,  and  prosperous 
vice-royalty  of  Nisir-ad-din,  being  brought  beneath 
the  wing  of  his  pastoral  care.  And  all  his  subjects 
and  servants  girded  up  their  loins  in  his  behalf, 
and  whenever  he  needed  aid,  or  entered  upon  any 
design  or  expedition,  a  thousand  horse  attended 
his  stirrup  and  were  bound  to  follow  his  victorious 
banner. 

This  afiair  being  concluded  the  Amir  E,idha- 
Abul-Kasim-Niih,  Ibn  Mansiir,  Samany,  King  of 
Khurdsan,  cast  his  eye  upon  Nasir-ad-din,  and 
sought  assistance,  in  order  to  meet  an  army  which 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAQIn.  43 

was  troubling  him,  which  proceeded  from  the 
Turkish  provinces,  which  was  disturbing  him  in 
his  enjoyment  of  territories  that  had  long 
belonged  to  his  throne,  and  was  coveting  his  here- 
ditary kingdom,  that,  by  such  aid,  he  might 
confirm  that  kingdom  to  his  race.  The  Amir 
Ndsir-ad'din,  induced  by  that  generosity  which 
Grod  had  implanted  within  his  august  nature, 
thought  himself  obliged  to  assent  to  this  request, 
and  to  aid  a  king  thus  unjustly  exposed  to  be 
shaken  from  his  ancient  house,  to  restore  his 
kingdom,  to  avenge  him  upon  his  enemies,  and,  by 
coming  to  his  succour,  to  fulfil  the  just  obligation 
of  repressing  those  who  injure  one's  connexions, 
thus  perpetuating  the  record  of  his  glory  in  the 
volume  of  time.  Doubtless  the  Creator  made  his 
zeal  to  be  the  cause  of  the  confirmation  of  the 
empire  unto  him  and  unto  his  posterity,  poured 
constant  benefits  upon  this  energetic  warrior  and 
his  children,  and  retained  his  successors  in  the 
possession  of  that  dominion.  "  God,  the  possessor 
of  the  greatest  good,  grants  His  favours  unto 
whomsoever  He  willeth." 

ACCOrUT  OE  THE  DECEASE  OF  MaNSXTB-'BN-IS'uH.* 

In  the  course  of  the  year  365  the  Amir  Sadid- 

*  Mansur  'bn  Nuh,  a  prince  of  the  family  of  Saman,  was 
(feudal)  sovereign  of  the  whole  extent  of  country  which  lies 
betwfeen  the  Jaxartes  and  the  Indus. 


44  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn. 

Mansdr-Ibn-Niih  had  deceased,  and  his  throne  and 
seat  became  vacant.     The  nobles  and  chiefs  of  the 
state  assembled  and  inaugurated  his  son,  the  Amir 
ilidha-Niih-Ibn-Mansiir   into  that  dignity.       He 
was  in  the  way  wardness  of  early  youth,  when  he  was 
thus  adorned  with  the  splendour  of  government 
the  majesty  of  royalty,  and  the  grandeur  of  power. 
As  soon  as  he  was  firmly  seated  upon  the  throne 
he  opened  his  treasury,  and  expended  that  wealth 
and  those  preci()us  jewels  and  ornaments  which  his 
bygone  ancestors  and  the  grand  viziers  had  accu- 
mulated,   upon   the   chiefs  of  his   army  and   his 
troops,  and  the  various  ranks  of  his  servants,  gra- 
tifying every  one  of  his  dependents  and  compa- 
nions, who  was  well -affected  towards   him,  with 
valuable   presents  and  royal  gifts,    so  that  their 
hearts  became  firm  in  obedience  and  devotion  to 
him,  and  the  directors  of  the  world  placed  their 
heads  upon  the  signature  of  his  commands,  holding 
fealty  to  him,  and  seeking  his  will  and  direction. 
Abul-Hasan- Simjiir,   General  of  the  Army,*  was 
at  Nishapilr.     Unto  him  Nuh-Ibn-Mansiir  sent  a 
commission,  as  Commander-in-Chief  of  the  troops, 
and  intimated  to  him  the  late  events,  his  accession 
to  his  hereditary  kingdom,  and  his  inauguration  by 
the  whole  army.      He  gratified  him  with  various 
proofs   of  kindness,  generous  favours,   and   aug- 

*  I.  e.,  of  Khurasan. 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn.  45 

merited  rank,  and  promised  an  increase  in  Ms 
share  of  benefits,  so  that  Simjur  expressed  the 
greatest  friendship  for  him  and  fully  assented  to 
his  accession.  The  Vizirat  was  confirmed  to 
Abul-Hasan-Utbi,  who,  by  his  excellent  under- 
standing, knowledge,  and  intellect,  arranged  all 
the  affairs  of  the  State  in  due  order,  exhibiting 
himself  as  a  mirror  of  justice  and  equity.  This 
Vizir  rendered  the  chiefs  of  the  State  firm  and 
constant  guardians  of  its  interests,  and  held  the 
restive  by  the  bridle  of  obedience,  so  that  the  fame 
of  the  good  order  and  magnificence  of  that 
kingdom  was  diffused  throughout  the  world,  and 
the  chiefs  of  the  provinces  regularly  discharged 
the  due  tributes  and  the  accustomed  services,  and 
the  Amir-Adhad-ad-doulat,  on  account  of  the 
eminent  rank,  noble  renown,  strict  conduct,  strong 
kingdom,  and  noble  bearing  of  His  Highness, 
considered  his  good-will  worth  seeking,  and  deter- 
mined upon  measures  of  fidelity  and  obedience, 
and  scrupulously  fulfilled  the  requests  offered  from 
that  quarter.  Sometimes,  indeed,  he  evaded 
certain  directions  of  His  Highness,  and  a  spirit  of 
opposition  and  resistance  prevailed,  and  he  exhi- 
bited a  wish  to  decline  some  requisitions,  but  when 
he  carefully  considered  the  effects  of  rebellion  and 
the  consequences  6f  strife  he  resisted  this  tempta- 
tion and  adhered  to  the  rules  of  peace,  and  kept 
his  mind  in  repose  by  the  bond  of  wisdom  and  the 


46  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn. 

advantage  of  friendship.  "  There  is  always  good 
in  the  tractable,  but  never  look  for  service  in  a  fool 
until  the  sun  shines  at  night."  Ahmad  Khaw^- 
razmy  was  one  of  the  confidential  officers  of  Niih 
Mansiir  Siminj,  and  the  Amir  sent  through  him 
every  year  gifts  to  the  glorious  Kaaba  and,  to  the 
honoured  Medina  (God  perpetuate  their  splendour) 
in  order  to  spend  them  duly  in  honouring  the  two 
sacred  places  and  the  holy  men,  thus  to  obtain 
rank  and  merit.  This  officer  relates  thus  : — 
"  Once,  when  I  came  from  Khur^s^n,  on  the  pil- 
grimage, when  I  arrived  at  the  abode  of  Islam,  I,  as 
usual,  presented  my  respects  at  the  Court  of  Adha- 
ad-doulat.*  He  received  me  very  kindly  and  made 
me  describe  the  state  of  affairs  in  Khurdsdn,  the 
mode  in  which  business  was  settled  and  security 
obtained,  and  the  vizd-rat  of  Abul-Hasan-Utbi. 
He  displayed  a  full  acquaintance  of  the  manner  in 
which  this  Vizir  transacted  and  arranged  the 
government,"  and  he  said  "If  any  service  was 
enjoined  by  His  Highness  or  any  request  be  made 
you  may  present  it."  Hereupon  I  presented  a 
memorandum,  given  to  me  by  the  Shaikh  Abul 
Hasan,    containing   the   requisitions  of  the  gifts 

*  Adhaddoulat,  being  an  Amir  of  the  family  of  Buyah  or 
Boyah,  independent  sovereigns  of  the  Caspian  provinces,  was, 
as  will  be  seen,  indignant  at  the  assumption  of  suzerainty  by 
any  prince  of  the  rival  family  of  the  Samanides,  to  which  the 
Ghazuivides  ultimately  succeeded. 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn.  47 

assigned  to  him  to  pay.  These  in  the  whole  were 
one  thousand  robe-pieces,  embroidered  with  the 
name  Amir,  Said,  MaUk,  Mansiir,  Wali-Au-naan, 
Abul-Kasim-Nuh-'bn  Mansiir,  Wali  Amlr-Almii- 
minln,  and  five  hundred  embroidered  with  the 
name  Shaikh  JaHl  Said,  Abul-Hasan,  Abd-Allah- 
Ibn- Ahmad,  and  five  hundred  plain,  in  the  name 
of  the  Chamberlain  Hisam-ad-doulat,  AbulAbbds- 
Tash.  When  he  had  read  this  memorandum  he 
became  excited,  angry,  and  jealous,  and  dropped 
the  bridle  of  self-command  from  his  hand.  He 
turned  his  face,  upon  me  and  said.  If  the  son  of 
Utbi  would  be  content  with  the  government  of 
E[:hurisd,n  and  draw  his  foot  into  the  skirt  of 
peace,  and  think  of  moderation  it  would  be 
happier  for  him  and  for  his  master,  than  these 
degrading  directions  which  he  proposes  to  me. 
However  I,  with  my  sharp  blood-drawing  sword, 
will  let  the  proud  breeze  into  his  brain,  and  with 
the  fire  of  my  noble  horses  will  scatter  fire-ashes 
from  the  depths  of  the  Jihun.  For,  with  our  lion- 
warriors  and  brave  soldiers,  we  will  go  forth  to  the 
chase,  until  he  shall  know  his  place  and  no  longer 
present  to  me  thus  authoritatively  such  exorbitant 
demands  as  these.  "  Return  to  them,  we  will 
surely  bring  an  army  against  them,  and  we  will 
surely  compel  them  to  come  forth,  to  receive  scorn 
thereby.  They  are  vile,"  Ahmad  Khaw^razmy 
says,     "My  limbs  were  full  of  terror  at  him  :  I 


48  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn. 

arose  and  left  the  durbar,  and,  in  my  apprehension 
and  dread,  left  all  to  his  good  faith.  When  the 
season  for  marching  forth  on  the  pilgrimage  arrived 
he  sent  and  called  me  back,  and  addressed  me  with 
great  kindness  and  respect,  and  said,  I  have  issued 
an  order,  in  accordance  with  the  memorandum,  in 
order  that  you  may  receive  the  whole.  I  am  un- 
willing that,  on  account  of  such  a  matter,  any  ill- 
will  should  enter  the  mind  of  Abul  Hasan,  or  any 
vexation  find  its  way  unto  him  ;  therefore  you 
must  go  to  the  robe-makers  and  give  orders  for 
the  robes,  in  such  numbers  and  in  such  amount  as 
you  desire,  so  that  when  you  return  all  may  be 
done  and  laid  up  ready  for  you.  So  I  went  and 
ordered  the  robes,  as  directed  by  the  requisition, 
and,  when  I  returned,  conveyed  them  to  Bukhdrd, 
with  other  gifts  and  offerings  of  friendship." 
Abul  Hasan  Utbi  carried  away  the  prize  (literally 
staff  of  precedency)  from  all  his  equals  in  high- 
mindedness,  virtue,  and  generosity.  The  most 
eminent  poets  of  the  age  were  zealous  in  his  praise, 
and  composed  sets  of  encomiastic  stanzas  upon 
him,  in  particular  Abii-Tali  Mahiiny,  who  arranged 
many  good  verses  in  commendation  of  him 
(Verse) 

"  These  compositions  of  Utbi !  they  divide  the  skull  from 
the  neck,  when  they  reproach !  He  has  such  intellect !  like  the 
iron-end  of  a  spear,  when  it  starts  forth  from  his  breast,  the 
earth  is  not  large  enough  for  its  scope.  When  he  draws  forth 
his  pen  to  reply  or  to  announce  clouds  and  heroes  are  tumul- 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn.  49 

tuously  drawn  along.  He  resembles  the  pilgrim  ascending  the 
sacred  mountain,  or  the  sacred  proclaimer,  joyfully  sounding 
forth  the  accomplishment  of  the  pilgrimage  and  the  arrival  at 
the  goal." 

The  office  of  Great  Chamberlain  was  given  to 
Abiil-Abbis  Tdsh,  who,  upon  his  investment  with 
the  office,  exhibited  good  points  of  conduct,  and  in 
conciliating  hearts,  rendering  dispositions  friendly 
and  directing  the  various  ranks  of  the  army,  dis- 
played an  unsullied  hand,  exhibiting  becoming  zeal 
in  supplying  the  wants  and  fulfilling  the  wishes  of 
every  one,  being  ready  to  aid  and  intercede  for  all. 
The  Shaikh  Abiil-Hasan-Utbi  earnestly  endea- 
voured also  to  promote  his  welfare  and  dignity, 
opening  to  him  various  opportunities  of  advantage 
and  profit,  until  he  became  remarkable  for  wealth 
and  jewels.  The  cause  of  the  authority  which  he 
possessed  in  the  State  and  the  army  was  this,  viz., 
because  A  bill  Abbds  Tdsh  was  one  of  the  slaves  of 
Abii  Jabar  Utbi.  He  was  eminently  adorned  with 
intellect,  possessing  traces  of  a  noble  and  generous 
disposition,  whence  he  profited  by  the  instructions 
of  his  master,  and  became  an  excellent  and  accom- 
plished man.  Abu  Jafar  Utbi  perceived  him, 
therefore,  to  be  well  fitted  for  the  service  of  the 
Amir  Sadid-Mansiir  Niih,  and  sent  him  as  a 
present  to  that  Prince.  And  when  the  Shaikh 
Abiil-Hasan-Utbi,  who  knew  him  intimately  and 
possessed  perfect  confidence  in  his  fortunate  supe- 


50  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIN. 

riority,  good  judgment,  wisdom,  and  influence, 
acceded  to  office  he  admitted  him  to  a  full  share  of 
the  administration  of  affairs,  and  raised  him  so 
high  in  office  that  the  great  men  of  the  world 
found  it  necessary  to  inscribe  themselves  as 
attached  to  his  service  and  to  wear  the  badge  of 
obedience  to  him.  The  Amir  then  gave  the  office 
of  Chamberlain*  to  F4ik,  who  had  also  been  a 
slave  of  Mansiir-ibn-Niih,  and  had  obtained  great 
influence  and  power  with  that  Prince,  becoming 
his  arm  and  breastplate,  through  his  strict  probity 
and  merit.  The  command  of  the  army  of  Khur- 
d,s4n  was  confirmed  to  Abiil  Hasan  Simjiir,  and 
these  two  officers  exerted  themselves  to  the  utmost 
in  consolidating  the  splendour  of  the  kingdom  and 
protecting  the  garden  of  the  State.  The  afiairs  of 
His  Highness,  by  means  of  their  union  and 
concord,  arose  in  dignity  up  to  the  star  Capella, 
until  the  sidelong  crooked  eye  of  fate  marked  him, 
and  with  wounding  glance  caused  fortune  to 
change,  so  that  a  foundation  so  well  supported  and 
a  throne  so  solidly  founded  in  dignity,  began  to  be 
challenged  and  disturbed  by  the  hand  of  novelty. 
"When  the  command  is  fulfilled  decay  draws 
near ;  we  may  look  for  ruin  when  it  is  said  '  It  is 
done.'  "  The  origin  of  the  disgrace  and  injury  of 
this  kingdom  is  to  be  found  in  the  affairs  of 
Sistan. 

*  I.e.,  second  chamberlain. 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn.  51 

History  or  KnALAr-iBN-AnMAD,  King  or  Sistan. 

Khalaf  Ahmad,  King  of  Slstd.n,  undertook,  in 
the  year  354,  the  pilgrimage  to  Mecca,  and  left  his 
kinsman,  Tdhir-ibn-Hussain,  Viceroy  of  his  terri- 
tories. This  man  set  himself  up  in  rivalry  to  the 
King,  seduced  the  army  of  Khalaf,  seized  his 
strongholds  and  treasures,  and  desired  to  possess 
himself  of  the  throne  of  Slstan.  When  Khalaf 
returned  he  found  his  kingdom  in  confusion  and 
his  return  to  his  capital  intercepted.  He  fled  to 
Mansiir-ibn-Niih,  Samany,  and  implored  his  aid, 
to  deliver  his  kingdom  from  the  grasp  of  T4hir. 
Mansiir  was  disposed,  as  he  was  a  kinsman,  to 
favour  him,  and  sent  his  army  with  him  towards 
Slst^n,  in  order  to  restore  him  to  his  country  and 
remove  his  grief.  T4hir,  when  he  received  intel- 
ligence of  the  succour  given  by  Mansiir 's  army, 
left  the  country  and  fixed  himself  at  Isfarain,  so 
that  Khalaf  repossessed  himself  of  his  kingdom, 
and  the  generals  and  supporting  troops- of  His 
Highness  Mansiir  returned  content.  Then  Tdhir 
rushed  upon  him,  defeated  him,  and  compelled 
him  to  fly  to  Bddghlz.*  Khalaf,  in  his  distress, 
again  betook  himself  to  His  Highness  Mansiir, 
and  earnestly  implored  his  succour  and  help. 
Mansiir  received  him  with  generosity  and  esteemed 

*  Badghiz,  a  town  of  Khurasan,  on  the  road  from  Herat  to 
Meruar-Eud. 

E  2 


52  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn. 

it  a  duty  to  afford  him  honourable  regard  and 
effectual  aid.  He  therefore  dispatched  a  chosen 
army  of  warriors,  to  assist  him.  When  Khalaf 
came  to  SIstan  with  that  army  Tihir  had  died,  and 
his  son  Hussain  had  succeeded  him  in  his  opposi- 
tion to  Khalaf.  He  commenced  an  obstinate 
resistance  and  took  up  a  strong  position,  in  one  of 
the  fortresses  of  Sistan.  Khalaf  besieged  him  in 
the  citadel  of  Ark.  Many  battles  took  place  and 
many  of  the.  soldiers  of  Hussain,  son  of  Tdhir,  were 
slain.  Hussain,  in  this  extremity,  sent  a  person 
to  His  Highness  Mansiir,  requesting  that  he  might 
be  freed  from  the  stigma  of  rebellion,  and  offering 
service  and  submission.  He  further  entreated  that 
access  might  be  opened  for  him  to  His  Highness, 
and  that  a  safe  conduct  might  be  granted  him 
through  the  beleaguering  troops,  that  he  might 
present  his  respects  at  the  Court  and  obtain  the 
honour  of  kissing  hands.  Mansilr  accepted  his 
excuses  and  issued  a  rescript,  according  to  his 
demand,  for  his  admission  to  the  presence.  Khalaf 
was  reinstated  in  his  kingdom  and  his  authority 
was  established  upon  the  former  basis.  Thus  he 
passed  many  years,  until  excess  of  pride  and 
wealth  affected  his  mind,  and  he  forgot  what  he 
owed  unto  that  dynasty,  and  began  to  delay  and 
refuse  transmitting  tribute  and  customs  to  the 
government  of  Bukh^r^.  The  Amir  reproved  him 
in  rescripts  and  letters,  filled  with  good  advice,  and 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn.  53 

reminding  him  of  tie  assistance  formerly  rendered 
to  Mm  ;  but  he,  through  the  intoxication  of  rebel- 
lion and  the  vapour  of  sedition,  was  carried  onward 
in  his  career,  and  proceeded  in  strengthening  and 
rooting  himself,  and  in  looking  more  acutely  with 
the  eye  of  undutifulness,  until  Hussain-Ibn-T4hir 
was  sent  against  him,  with  all  the  warriors  and 
heroes  of  Khurasdn,  who  besieged  him  in  the 
fortress  of  Ark.  This  siege  lasted  a  long  time, 
and  the  Vizer  Abul  Hasan  Al  Utbi  sent  mes- 
sengers continually,  and  expressed  to  the  chiefs 
and  nobles  his  eager  desire  for  the  completion  of 
the  enterprize ;  but,  after  aU  eiforts,  the  reahzation 
of  his  wish  never  came  forth  from  the  veil  of  Pro- 
vidence, and  his  aim  never  reached  the  mark.  The 
affair  remained  unaccomplished  for  years,  because 
the  height  of  this  castle  was  so  great  as  to  be  as 
unknown  as  the  secrets  of  Heaven,  and  every  voice 
was  (united)  with  the  voice  of  angels.  Its  roof 
reached  the  plain  of  Arcturus,  and  the  sentinel 
could  hear  the  distant  angelic  hymns,  and  from  its 
noble  summit  brilliancy  spread  and  the  clouds  wore 
a  delicate  robe  for  its  height  (Verse) 

''  For  the  service  of  every  (impious)  rebel  are  its  peaks,  for- 
by  it  tbou  mayest  ascend  to  Heaven  on  a  staircase." 

And  around  it  was  a  great  moat,  in  whose  depth 
imagination  could  find  no  footing,  and  in  fording 
which  every  foot  would  sink  in  mud.      Like  the 


54  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn. 

crocodile  it  conveyed  away  horseman  and  footman, 
and,  like  fate,  it  allowed  stability  neither  to  clay 
or  hard  earth  (Verse) 

"  Mortals  totter  by  its  side,  as  the  motli  by  the  edge  of  the 
flame,  and  its  dread  almost  exhausted  the  cavalry,  as  the  sand 
swallows  the  showers." 

And  Khalaf,  by  various  skilful  sidelong  strokes 
and  crafty  blows,  continually  troubled  the  be- 
siegers, and  upon  every  place  where  they  stood 
cast  at  them  pots  full  of  serpents  and  scorpions, 
from  slinging  machines,  and  made  whatever  they 
confided  in  a  place  of  ambuscade,  and  made  their 
nights  sleepless.  Seven  years  were  thus  consumed, 
through  the  stubbornness  of  this  hero,  and  the 
resistance  of  this  crafty  one,  and  the  men  remained 
unable  to  accomplish  the  affair,  and  property,  and 
treasure,  and  horses,  and  men,  and  arms  were 
wasted.  The  vestiges  of  the  weakness  and  the 
indications  of  the  debility  of  the  army  of  Khur^s^n 
became  unfolded  and  published,  and  the  honour 
and  the  exultation  of  the  enemy,  and  the  strength 
of  the  opponents  became  manifest,  and  every  look 
and  every  day  afforded  room  for  some  fresh  blow 
and  some  new  injury  to  the  Prince's  warriors.  But 
there  is  an  end  to  everything  and  a  limit  to  every 
kingdom,  to  every  condition  happens  decay  and  to 
every  dynasty  applies  the  quotation,  "God  erases 
and  establishes  whatsoever  He  willeth,  and  with 
Him  is  the  book  of  Fate." 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn.  55 

And  when  Abul  Hasan  Simjilr  became  sensible 
of  the  badness  of  this  business  and  the  dulness  of 
this  market  he  attached  himself  to  traitorous 
determinations,  and  he  constructed  the  measure 
of  self-protection,  and  from  preserving  the  good 
state  of  the  kingdom,  and  establishing  conserv- 
ative regulations,  betook  himself  to  laxity  and 
indifference,  and  fell  into  the  habit  of  leaving  and 
carelessly  neglecting  the  duty  of  the  accumulation 
of  reinforcements  and  the  thickening  of  the  army, 
and  the  strokes  of  the  billows  of  troops  (Verse) 

"For  us,  the  .guidance  of  fortune  will  not  favour  us,  but 
whilst  it  beholds  him  who  is  earnest.  All  that  fortune  pro- 
duces is  the  reed ;  manliness  mounts  a  spear-head  upon  the 
reed." 

So  that  the  sons  of  the  dynasty  and  the  advisers  of 
the  presence  extended  the  tongue  of  reproof,  and 
found  a  wide  field  for  correction  and  attack,  and 
said — "  Marks  of  support,  of  attachment,  of  honour, 
from  the  family  of  Samdn,  have  been  more  conspi- 
cuous with  regard  to  none  of  the  princes  and 
officers  than  with  regard  to  the.  son  of  Simjiir,  and 
unto  no  other  subject  did  the  Amir  Sadid  Ibn 
Mansilr  Ibn  Niih  exhibit  a  more  tender  regard 
and  preference ;  and  he  conferred  upon  him  the 
province  of  Khurisdn,  which  is  the  white  of  the 
State's  eyes  and  the  best  portion  of  the  kingdom, 
in  order  that,  when  trial  should  arise  and  misfor- 


56  MEMOIRS  OP  SABAKTAGIn. 

tune  attack,  he  might  prove  a  fervent  heat  and  a 
powerful  column,  and,  in  fulfilling  the  obligations 
of  gratitude  for  this  favour,  might  devote  his  head 
and  his  life,  and  prove  a  protecting  veil  to  the 
King,  his  heirs  and  successors.  Xow,  since  he 
begins  to  belie  his  favours  and  displays  connivance 
and  indifference  in  the  performance  of  the  obliga- 
tions of  duty,  and  in  the  defence  of  the  honour  of 
the  throne,  it  may  be  necessary  to  issue  a  docu- 
ment for  his  removal,  and  to  give  his  rank  and 
allowance  to  another  of  the  servants  of  the  State, 
who,  in  the  efficiency  of  his  orders,  in  the  stopping 
up  outbreaks,  and  in  the  conciliation  of  aU  may 
exhibit  firmness."  And  they  dispatched  from  His 
Highness  a  document,  for  his  removal  from  his 
government  and  from  the  command  of  the  army 
of  Khurasdn,  and  settled  his  dignity  and  office 
upon  Hisam-ad-doulat  Tdsh.  And  when  this 
document  came  to  Abul  Hasan  Slmjiir  the  sinful- 
ness of  pride  withdrew  the  bridle  of  self-command 
from  his  hand,  so  that  he  gave  a  peevish  reply  and 
openly  uttered  a  rebellious  word,  and  rejected  the 
rescript  of  His  Highness.  Afterwards,  finding  the 
eye  of  understanding,  he  looked  into  the  issue  of 
affairs  and  thought  that  any  rebellion  against  the 
master  of  his  prosperity  would  meet  with  unplea- 
sant consequences,  and  that  to  draw  upon  the 
records  of  Slmjiir  the  mark  of  treachery  and  the 
path  of  disobedience  would  be  the  cause  of  reproof 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn.  57 

and  repentances,  expose  himself  to  vexation  and 
difficulty,  and  bring  upon  liimself  misfortune 
instead  of  plenty,  and  that  to  taste  the  poison 
upon  the  bow  is  not  the  part  of  the  wise. 
Wherefore  he  assembled  his  children,  chiefs,  and 
followers,  and  calmed  them  with  various  kinds  of 
good  counsel  and  chapters  of  advice,  and  said 
(Verse) 

"  As  to  the  Commander  of  Believers  and  as  to  that  which 
he  hath  done  it  is  Fate  which  hath  prostrated  us,  there  is  no 
disgrace  in  the  acts  of  Fate." 

And  he  assured  every  one  of  them  that,  to  be 
content  with  the  determination  of  God  and  to 
betake  himself  to  the  path  of  humility,  as  (sub- 
mitting to  all  that  proceeded)  from  the  master  of 
his  prosperity,  would  be  the  assurance  of  safety. 
And  (for  thee,  they  said)  not  to  take  consequent 
measures  for  these  injuries,  or  reprisals  for  this 
enmity,  wiU  be  more  fitting  than  to  render  thyself 
a  recipient  of  misfortune  and  to  distract  thyself 
with  care,  and  to  rub  the  side  against  the  wall  of 
strife.  He  therefore  summoned  the  messenger 
back,  and,  having  submitted,  he  expressed  peni- 
tence and  made  apologies,  and  begged  acceptance 
of  his  excuses,  and  said,  "I  am  a  young  shoot  of  a 
tree,  planted  by  the  King  and  supported  by  the 
water  of  his  generosity  and  the  floodgates  of  his 
benefits,  and  under  the  canopy  of  his  beneficence 


58  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn. 

and  the  veil  of  his  generosities,  I  sprouted  forth 
and  exhibited  myself,  and  having  in  his  fortunate 
garden  drawn  out  my  branches  and  become  fruit- 
bearing,  if  he  suffer  my  service  for  the  sake  of 
fruit,  and  confirm  his  extended  favour  and  his 
esteemed  goodness,  for  that  may  he  be  praised  and 
thanked,  or  if  he  pluck  me  up  from  the  root  and 
make  me  fuel  for  the  fire,  for  that  may  he  be 
excused  and  pardoned."  So  he  sent  back  the  mes- 
senger, with  all  obedience,  and  he  rose  up  from 
the  surface  of  the  kingdom  of  Khurasan  and 
removed  to  the  borders  of  Kohistan,  and  there 
awaited  for  that  which  should  arrive  from  His 
Highness,  upon  the  subject  of  the  rescript,  who 
commanded  that  he  must  go  to  the  borders  of 
Slstdn,  and  to  make  an  efficient  manifestation  of 
good  order,  bravery,  and  excellence  in  the  affairs 
of  that  place,  where  all  has  fallen  into  confusion, 
like  a  knot  of  crimes,  and  in  these  urgent  matters 
which  remain  in  perplexity,  like  the  square-root  of 
the  surd,  and  to  release  the  army  from  the  diffi- 
culties of  distance  and  the  vacillations  of  anxiety. 

Abiil  Hasan  Simjur  went  then  to  Slst^n,  and 
between  him  and  Khalaf  the  grounds  of  their  old 
affection,  concord,  love,  and  friendship  became 
strengthened  and  settled.  When  he  arrived  at 
that  place  he  immediately  sent  some  one  to  him, 
and  intimated  the  path  of  agreement,  saying  thus, 
"Theresidenceof  His  Excellency  in  this  country  hath 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn.  59 

been  of  long  continuance,  and  many  injuries  have 
arisen  in  portions  of  the  kingdom  ;  and  since  that 
regarding  which  we  are  eager  and  for  the  preser- 
vation of  which,  in  its  dignity,  we  have  devoted 
our  head  and  our  Hfe,  i.  e.,  your  principaHty,  is 
going  to  the  wind  and  is  becoming  impracticable, 
our  efforts    (to  serve  you)  are  stopped  and   our 
pains  fruitless,  therefore  this  is  the  way,  i.  e.,  that 
thou    shouldest    rise    up    from    this    place    and 
shouldest    remove    to    another    place,    whilst    I 
conduct  away  this  army  from  this  country,  under 
the  pretence  of  obtaining  that  which  they  seek  and 
of  receiving  that  which  they  request,*  and  when 
the  field  is  clear  that  will  be  the  fittest  time  to 
arrange  presents  and  to  settle  tribute."     Khalaf 
listened    to   this    advice    and    accepted    it,    and 
acknowledged  that  these  words  proceeded  from  the 
source    of    safety    and    security.      Therefore    he 
departed  from  the  fortress  of  Ark  and  went  to  the 
Castle  Tdk,  and  Abul-Hasan  and  the  chief  men  of 
the  State  entered  within  the  citadel  and  sent  the 
good  tidings  (of  success)  and  dispatched  letters  of 
victory  to  His  Highness  and  to  all  parts,  and  per- 
formed the  Khuttah   and   decorated   the   coined 
money  with  the  surname  of  N"uh-Mansiir.     And 
they  directed  their  path  towards  Khurasan ;  but 

*  That  is  Simjfir  prevailed  upon  Khalaf  to  retire,  and, 
offering  apparent  submission,  to  reserve  his  troops  for  more 
important  enterprizes. — De  Sact,  Notices  et  Uxtraits,  Sfc. 


60  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGiN. 

the  full  explication  of  that  which  after  this  affair 
happened  anew  between  Khalaf  and  Husain-ibn- 
Tdhir  will  fully  come  in  its  place,  and  be  presented, 
please  God ! 


HisTOET  or  Hisam-Adbotjlat-Tash,  the  Chambeklain, 

AND  THE  TBAHSrEEBNOE  Or  THE  GOTEENMBNT. 

Then  they  sent  to  Hisdni-Addoulat-Td,sh,  at 
Nishapiir,  a  commission  for  the  rank  of  Com- 
mander-in-Chief and  General  of  the  Army,  and 
they  committed  unto  his  faithful  and  brave  hand 
the  reins  of  loosing  and  binding,  of  letting  go  and 
holding  fast,  of  urgency  and  deficiency,  and  they 
attached  unto  him,  for  the  sake  of  assistance  and 
support,  ralk-Khd,s.  And  a  company  of  the  chiefs 
and  nobles  and  eminent  men  of  the  State  were 
dispatched  to  follow  his  standard,  and  they  abun- 
dantly furnished  him  with  money,  and  horses,  and 
arms,  and  stores,  and  military  necessaries.  And 
when  he  arrived  at  Nishapur  he  spread  open  the 
carpet  of  justice,  equity,  and  kindness,  and  placed 
upon  the  thread  of  good  order  the  affairs  of  the 
Treasury  and  of  the  Custom-houses,  and  impressed 
the  footsteps  of  liberality,  and  lessened  from  the 
poor  subjects  the  want  of  food,  and,  by  the  security 
of  his  armies,  before  and  behind,  settled,  confirmed, 
and  fixed  the  marks  of  government,  and  the  laws 
of  authority  and  power,  in  the  most  distant  places. 


MEMOIRS  OP  SABAKTAGIn.  61 

And,  at  this  period,  Shfi,ms-Almwdli-Kabiis- 
Ibii-Wasamgir  and  Fakhr-Addoulat-Ali-bn-Biiyah 
arrived  at  Kharasdn,  on  account  of  the  opposition 
which  existed  between  them  and  Muwid-Addoulat. 
And  the  cause  of  this  state  of  things  was  that 
Rukn-Addoulat  had  three  sons,  who  each  possessed 
a  fitness  for  government,  Azd-Addoulat-Abu- 
Shujaa,  and  Muwid-Addoulat-Buwayyah,  and 
Fakhr-Addoulat-Ali.  And  he  divided  into  three 
parts  some  territories  of  Ir4k  and  some  part  of 
Khurasdn,  and  Fars,  and  Karm^n,  and  other  terri- 
tories which  were  on  his  Treasury  list,  and  he 
assigned  to  each  of  them  his  portion. 

At  this  period  Wathlkl  wrote  upon  this 
subject,  in  the  part  relating  to  the  Sabseans  {apos- 
tates) given  in  his  published  work,  the  Kitdb- 
Kiikgi.  And  when  Rukn-Addoulat  died  Azd- 
Addoulat  coveted  and  contended  for  that  territory 
which  had  been  assigned  unto  Fakhr-Addoulat,  and 
hindered  him  from  obtaining  it,  and  defeated  his 
army.  He  (therefore)  betook  himself  to  recover 
his  country  and  transfer  it  unto  himself,  and  he 
fixed  himself  at  Hamadin,  the  capital  of  the 
kingdom.  And  when  the  two  princes  drew  near 
to  engage  one  another,  the  chiefs  of  the  army  of 
Fakhr-Addoulat  becanje  treacherous  and  went  to 
Azd  Addoulat,  and  joined  themselves  to  the  body 
of  his  troops,  and  he,  in  this  condition,  began  to 
dread  and  to  think  upon  the  severe  disposition, 


62  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn. 

and  the  bad  temper,  and  the  depth  of  deceit  of 
Azd-Addoulat.  For,  not  long  previously,  he,  ty 
the  hands  of  his  soldiers,  had  murdered  Bakhtidr, 
his  uncle's  son.  Therefore  Fakhr-Addoulat  began 
to  fear  and  proceeded  from  the  midst  of  the  army, 
with  some  of  his  own  private  attendants,  to  the 
country  of  Dilam  and  went  towards  Jurjan,  and 
attached  himself  to  Shams-al-Muall-Kabiis-Ibn- 
Washamgir,  and  took  refuge  under  his  care  and 
protection. 

And  Shams- Al-Muali  made  his  rank  exalted, 
his  state  respected,  and  his  condition  happy,  in  the 
utmost  degree  ;  nay  he  exchanged  his  own  power 
for  his  safety  and  prosperity,  so  that,  through  his 
care  and  generous  disposition,  he  played  away  his 
ancient  kingdom,  which  was  the  most  noble  of  his 
jewels  and  the  most  precious  object  of  his  affection. 
The  explanation  of  this  remark  is  as  follows  : 
Azd-Addoulat  and  Muwid-Addoulat  sent  a  mes- 
senger to  Shams-Al-Mu41i,  and  entreated  him  to 
give  up  Fakhr-Addoulat  into  their  hands,  and 
they  promised  much  in  return  for  that  :  they  pro- 
mised treasure  in  money,  and  gifts  in  revenue,  and 
that  part  of  the  territories  of  the  (fugitive  prince) 
which  they  had  left  to  him,  and  they  made  repre- 
sentations to  him  respecting  alliances  and  treaties 
for  union,  and  for  the  preservation  of  independ- 
ance,  and  respecting  his  becoming  involved  and 
implicated  in  cares  and  troubles.    Shams -Al-Muali 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn.  63 

gave  answer  :  "In  tlie  law  of  manliness  and  in  the 
rules  of  preserving  honour  it  is  forbidden  to 
diminish  promises,  or  to  infringe  truth  and  gene- 
rosity,  and  what  crime  can  be  baser  than  this,  that 
when  such  a  prince  has  taken  refuge  in  a  place, 
and  in  this  place  expects  to  receive  generosity  and 
protection,  to  make  him  see  trouble  to  betray  him, 
and  to  sell  him  for  some  small  worldly  goods,  and 
not  rather  to  strive,  at  the  expense  of  his  own  life, 
to  preserve  his  dignity  and  to  keep  his  life  safe ; 
and,  for  my  part,  I  think  that  when  in  the  midst 
of  a  troop  of  cavalry  and  at  the  time  when  men 
exposed  their  lives  in  the  heat  of  battle,  and  when 
they  grieve  not  to  strike  with  the  sword,  then 
(only)  may  this  proposal  be  carried  out.  For  if 
this  thought  passed  over  the  mind  it  would  have 
no  effect  except  th's,  that  Kabiis  will  be  renowned, 
and  that,  with  the  flaming  voice  of  victory,  the 
men  of  Gilan,  with  their  bright  sharp  spears,  will 
bring  him  upon  the  place  of  honour." 

And  when  this  answer  came  to  Azd-Addoulat 
he  was  angry,  and  entertained  an  intention  of 
opposing  and  subduing  Kabiis,  and  he  wrote  to 
Muwid-Addoulat  that  it  was  necessary  to  make 
preparations  and  to  set  forward  to  try  the  strength 
of  Kabiis,  And  he  sent  unto  him  the  men  whom 
he  required  as  soldiers,  and  all  necessaries  and 
provisions,  and  whatsoever  was  requisite  to  expe- 
dite the  afiair.     And  he  marched  from  the  city 


64  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn. 

Ray*  and  set  forward  to'  Dildm,  in  the  direction 
of  Jurjdn.t  with  a  great  army  of  Turks  and  Ara- 
bians, and  wherever  he  came  he  devastated  the 
territory  of  Kabiis,  and  sent  in  his  own  Treasury 
collectors,  and  took  possession  of  everything,  until 
he  marched  upon  the  city  of  Asterabad.l  And 
Shams-Al-Mud,ll  made  haste,  in  order  that  he 
might  preserve  the  city  of  Karkdn,  which  was  his 
capital  city,  from  their  attack,  and  when  Muway- 
yad-Addoulat  had  arranged  their  troops  in  order 
of  battle  on  the  road,  then  blood  began  to  flow 
from  the  sword  like  rain  from  the  clouds,  and  from 
the  blood  of  the  slain  the  field  of  battle  became 
like  a  bed  of  tulips  (Verse) 

"  At  the  time  of  attacking  and  flying,  when  all  glistens  with 
blood,  the  air  becomes  thick  and  the  earth  rubyrred,  Fate 
becomes  blind  and  Fortune  deaf." 

Defeat,  however,  befell  his  cavalry  (i.  e.,  that  of 
Kabiis)  and  the  enemy  drove  him  into  the  midst 
of  the  forests,  and,  having  thus  put  him  to  flight, 
gained  a  great  booty.  And  Kabiis  went  to  one  of 
his  castles  and  there  was  maintained  upon  his 
treasures  and  concealed  property  for  a  time,  but 
he  made  a  removal  in  alarm  and  went  to  Nishapiir. 

*  Eay,  a  city  in  Persian  Irak. 

t  Jurjan,  a  river  of  Mazandaran,  which  falls  into  the 
Caspian  Sea. 

X  Asterabad,  a  celebrated  town  on  the  borders  of  the 
Caspian. 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIN.  65 

And  Fakhr-Addoulat  joined  him,  by  the  road  of 
Istawa,*  and  their  separated  armies  fell  in  with 
them.  And  they  wrote  a  letter  to  His  Highness, 
at  Bukhdrd,  and  intimated  to  him  what  had 
befallen  them,  and  they  represented  unto  him  that 
they  were  well  acquainted  with  the  excellent 
goodness  and  compassion  of  His  Highness,  in 
assisting  the  oppressed  and  in  succouring  the 
wretched.  And  they  informed  him  of  the  injustice 
that  had  happened  to  each  of  them,  through  the 
violence  of  their  enemies,  and  of  their  struggle  for 
their  hereditary  kingdom  and  their  ancient  house, 
and  that  they  woiild  conjecture  no  hope  of  restora- 
tion or  happiness  except  by  his  help  and  assistance, 
for  that  to  remedy  and  rectify  their  losses  would 
be  impossible,  unless  by  the  concurrence  and  coun- 
tenance of  His  Majesty. 

Niih-Ibn-Mansiir  gave  an  answer  full  of  all 
kinds  of  generosity  and  professions  of  service, 
befitting  the  principles  of  generosity,  and  agreeable 
to  the  rules  of  attention  and  respect,  and  he  sent  a 
royal ,  order  to  Hisim-Addoulat-Tdsh,  that  he 
should  hold  both  of  them  in  honour,  and  see  that 
they  were  treated  with  the  utmost  dignity  and 
respect,  and  that  he  should  restore  them  to  their 
hereditary  kingdom,  and  that  he  should  exert 
himself  to  oppose  their  enemies   and  to   repulse 

*  Istawa,  or  Istou,  probably  on  the  route /rem  Mazanderaa 
to  Tds,  in  Khurasan. 

F 


66  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIN. 

those  who  disturbed  them.  Hisdm-Addoulat- 
Tdsh  fully  obeyed  the  royal  order  and  took  the 
way  which  had  been  commanded,  and  rendered 
them  becoming  service,  and  assembled  the  dis- 
persed army,  and  marched  forth  from  Nishapiir,  to 
the  district  of  Jurjan,  in  order  that  he  might  first 
recover  Jurjan,  where  was  the  capital  city  of 
Kabils,  and  might  deliver  his  mind  from  any 
anxiety  respecting  himself,  and  then  might  attend 
to  the  affairs  of  Fakhr-Addoulat. 

And  he  commanded  Falk  that  he  should  set 
off  by  the  road  of  Koms,  in  the  direction  of  Ray, 
and  that  he  should  intercept  the  assisting  forces 
and  auxiliaries  of  Muwayyad-Addoulat,  in  order 
that,  when  he  should  see  an  army  before  him  and 
behind  him,  and  when  his  heart  should  be  occupied 
on  both  sides,  his  weakness  of  spirits  and  feeble- 
ness of  condition  might  become  increased.  But 
when  r4ik  had  gone  two  or  three  marches  on  that 
road  he  began  to  repent  and  to  consider  the  divi- 
sion of  his  army,  and  the  diminution  of  the  total 
number  of  the  body  of  his  troops,  which  would 
result  from  the  constant  attention,  the  restraint, 
and  the  harassing  vigilance  of  a  distant  expedition. 
And  he  thought  it  expedient  to  recall  F^ik,  and 
the  two  other  princes  came  back  with  him.  And 
Muwayyad-Addoulat  went  into  the  city  and 
entrenched  himself  strongly,  by  means  of  gates, 
and  walls,    and   moats,    and   in   this   fortress  he 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn.  67 

waited  patiently  for  nearly  two  months.  And  the 
army  of  DiMm,  when  this  news  arrived,  halted  and 
set  forward  on  their  return  to  the  city ;  and  in 
these  skirmishes  th&y  never  turned  away  from 
striking  with  the  sword,  and  they  ran  hither  and 
thither,  like  the  breathing  (that  flutters)  before 
death,  and  split  upon  the  point  of  an  arrow  and 
the  edge  of  a  hair,*  and  in  these  contests  their 
battles  were  like  sword-cutting  destiny  and  like 
life-devouring  time.  And  when  the  period  qf  the 
stay  of  the  army  at  Karkan  had  become  extended 
a  scarcity  arose  and  the  means  of  strength,  which 
is  the  support  of  life,  became  cut  off,  and  the 
matter  came  to  that  point  that  they  kneaded  their 
grains  of  com  with  clay,  for  leaven,  and,  by  this 
expedient,  just  preserved  themselves  from  starva- 
tion. And  Utbi  relates :  "  I  have  seen  the 
soldiers'  bread  made  of  this  leaven."  He  says  this 
in  the  middle  of  his  volume,  for  the  purpose  of 
pointing  out  their  condition  and  the  scantiness  of 
their  means  of  subsistance.  And  when  the  delay 
had  become  injurious  and  unfortunate,  and  when 
they  could  be  patient  no  longer,  they  came  out 
from  the  fortress  and  arranged  in  order  of  battle, 
and  Fakhr-Addoulat,  with  the  best  part  of  the 
army  of  Khurasan,  opposed  Ali-Kamah,  who  was 
the  general  of  the  army  of  Muwayyad-Addoulat, 

*  The  success  on  both  sides,  that  is,  was  undecided  and 
Binall,  although  the  contests  were  severe, 

f"2 


68  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn. 

and,  at  one  attack,  drove  him  from  the  field  and, 
putting  him  to  flight,  proceeded  unto  AstarabS,d  ; 
and  if  the  army  of  Khurasd,n  had  given  sufficient 
support  to  Fakhr-Addoulat,  all  that  army  would 
have  been  broken  up  and  that  hand  cut  off. 
However  they  displayed  slothfulness,  in  order  to 
(indulge)  their  covetousness  and  their  evil  disposi- 
tion, and  (the  enemy,  therefore)  returned  back 
again  and,  detaching  themselves  from  the  main 
body  of  the  army  of  the  soldiers  of  Dilam,  they 
made  an  attack  upon  the  followers  and  the  rear  of 
the  army  of  Khurasdn,  which  was  occupied  with 
plunder,  and  made  them  all  the  food  of  the  sword. 
And  in  the  midst  of  the  army  with  AburAl-Abas- 
T&sh,  Abu-Sayad  was  distinguished,  and  a  com- 
pany of  the  troops  of  Kh'arazm,  whose  arrows,  like 
the  destiny  of  slaughter,  never  missed  the  mark, 
and  many  companies  of  the  army  of  Dilam  were 
swept  away  by  their  hand. 

And  Abu-Alfazb,  a  man  who  was  astrologer 
to  Muwayyad-Addoulat,  had  made  a  calculation 
(and  advised  him)  that  at  that  conjuncture  he 
ought  to  delay,  until  the  planet  Mars  began  to 
decline  from  the  zenith,  and  then  resolve  upon 
battle,  and  use  his  utmost  endeavours  upon  the 
field,  and  that  if  victory  ensued,  in  accordance  with 
his  wishes,  well,  but  if  not  that  he  should  sally 
forth  with  his  troops,  from  that  confined  place, 
unto   the  open  plain,   and   commit  the  event  to 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn.  69 

destiny.  And  Muwayyad  kept  this  a  concealed 
secret  and  made  arrangements  for  the  aflfair,  until 
the  time  appointed  and  the  period  defined  (namely) 
on  the  fourth  day  of  the  week  of  the  month 
Ramadhan,  in  the  year  371,  when  he  went  forth 
with  the  whole  body  of  his  army.  And  the  army 
of  Khurasan  thought  that  they  were  attacking 
them,  in  the  same  manner  as  they  had  done  on 
former  days,  and  that  they  were  coming  out  of  the 
fortress  with  a  portion  of  their  troops.  And  the 
soldiers  commonly  said  that  Muwayyad- Addoulat 
had  secretly  beguiled  F&ik  and  had  carried  him 
out  of  the  (right)  way  by  many  gifts  and  great 
presents.  For  this  reason,  at  the  appointed  fortu- 
nate time,  he  displayed  inactivity,  and  when  the 
army  of  Dildm  made  a  charge,  at  the  usual  time, 
Fdik  turned  his  back,  Hisdm-Addoulat  and  Fakhr- 
Addoulat  kept  their  ground  in  the  centre,  and  dis- 
played great  firmness,  until  the  greater  part  of 
their  army  was  broken  and  night  approached,  and 
a  powerful  and  spirited  enemy  came  up.  Then 
Fakhr- Addoulat  said,  "It -is  not  expedient  that 
we  should  remain  longer,  since  the  enemy  hath 
gained  the  superiority  and  have  obtained  rein- 
forcements, and  no  one  remains  with  us,  since  the 
elephants,  which  were  the  protection  of  our  centre,, 
and  some  troops  who  were  not  engulphed  in  the 
torrent,  have  now  turned  their  back  and  given  up 
with   all  the  others.     And  (since  those  who  are 


70  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAOiN. 

Btriving  for  the  safety  of  their  lives  do  not  regard 
advantage,)  they  left  all  their  elephants  and 
chanted  fthat  verse  of  the  Koran)  "  He  who  hath 
saved  his  head  surely  he  had  gained."  They 
therefore  deserted  their  camp,  with  its  immense 
treasures,  and  many  valuables,  and  innumerable 
jewels  and  slaves,  and  abundance  of  embroidered 
cloths,  and  different  kinds  of  fruits  and  grains  ; 
and,  until  they  arrived  at  Nishapilr,  they  halted 
and  delayed  at  no  place.  And  they  informed  His 
Highness  of  Bukhd,ra  of  the  state  of  affairs,  and 
gave  intelligence  of  this  untoward  and  incredible 
news.  And  at  Bukhdri  they  first  comforted  them 
and  gave  them,  according  to  their  promise  (the) 
assistance  (of  troops).  And  Sahile-Kafy-Ismdll- 
Ibn-Abdd  dispatched  the  messengers  of  good  news 
to  the  extremities  and  capital  cities  of  the  pro- 
vinces, and  transmitted  letters  of  victory  unto  all 
parts  and  meridians  of  the  world.  And  the  poets 
of  that  age  and  the  learned  of  that  time  originated 
elegant  verses  and  pure  compositions,  in  the 
description  of  this  event.  And  the  poet  Bajalay 
thus  speaks  upon  the  affair  of  Muwayyad- 
Addoulat  (Verse) 

"  Was  there  ever  a  condition  like  ttine,  in  the  contest  of 
the  renowned  falconry,  of  the  family  of  Sdmdn,*  and  (a  family 
so)  fat. 

"Write  to  him  whom,  whilst  at  ease  in  Bukhara,  ease 
forsook  in  his  sleep,  when  men  were  cut  off  from  him."    ' 

*  Soman  signifies  ^o^. 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn.  71 

And  Abul-Husain-Utbi  called  the  troops  from 
Khurasan  and  Mawaralnahr,  and  appointed  them 
to  assemble  together  at  Man!*,  for  that  that  place 
should  be  the  place  appointed  for  the  rendezvous 
of  all  the  army,  until  that  he  himself  should  be 
able  to  move,  and  by  his  own  means  should  be 
able  to  rectify  his  own  injuries,  and  should  place 
upon  a  firm  foundation  the  dignity  of  the  kingdom 
and  the  freshness  of  the  State.  Niih-Mansilr  gave 
him  a  khilaat  of  great  value,  and  provisions  and 
necessaries  for  the  soldiers,  and  the  rank  of 
General,  with  the  designation  to  the  ojBSce  of  Yiz^r 
and  of  Generalissimo  were  annexed  to  the  khilaat. 
But,  as  some  have  said  (Verse) 

"  When  affairs  have  come  to  the  highest  they  return  to  the 
decline." 

When  his  affairs  had  arrived  at  the  highest 
dignity,  and  the  deepest  authority,  and  the  most 
perfect,  prosperity,  and  the  utmost  fruition  of  hope, 
he  began  to  set  his  face  downward,  and  that 
khilaat  was  the  cause  of  the  unfastening  of  the 
rope  of  his  life.  And  the  cause  of  this  event  was 
as  follows  :  Abul-Husain-Simjiir  always  attributed 
his  removal  from  the  government  of  Khurasdn 
unto  Utbi,  and  was  continually  preparing  together 
with  Fdik,  for  attacking  and  obstructing  his  dig- 
nity, and  was  constantly  exerting  himself  to  injure 

*  Meru  or  Man). 


72  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn. 

his  condition,  by  means  of  underhand  aspersions, 
until  Faik  kept  in  a  citadel  for  that  object  all  his 
■weU-disposed  youths,  and  for  that  purpose  placed 
them  close  to  one-another,  and  associated  them 
together.  And  they  jealously  watched  an  oppor- 
tunity of  assisting  him,  until  they  prepared  a  fit 
time  for  accomplishing  the  matter.  But  Abul- 
Husain  became  aware  of  this  state  of  things  and 
became  alarmed,  and  signified  the  state  of  the 
matter  to  Nilh-Mansiir,  who  entrusted  a  body  of 
his  chosen  troops  with  the  care  of  him,  in  order 
that  they  might  be  contimiously  attached  to  him, 
in  the  way  of  protection.  And  they  did  keep  him 
preserved  and  guarded  from  the  snares  of  the 
enemy,  until  a  certain  night,  when  he  was  going 
towards  the  palace,  when  a  troop  of  these  young 
soldiers  followed  behind  him,  and  they  gave  him 
wounds  at  every  step,  and  blows  without  respect, 
and  gave  to  the  winds  his  life,  which  was  the 
fodder  of  generosity,  and  spilt  upon  the  ground 
the  virtues  of  his  unrivalled  disposition.  And  the 
troop  who  were  his  guards  left  him  the  captive  of 
misfortune  and  the  victim  of  distress,  as  some 
poets  have  said  (Yerse) 

"  They  have  the  kidneys  and  the  bellies  of  the  greedy  and 
lustful.  No  one,  by  giving  aid,  will  now  become  a  martyr  for 
the  food  of  the  word"  (i.  e.,  for  heavenly  reward). 

And  they  left  him  upon  the  road,  bathed  in  his 
blood  ;  afterwards  they  removed  him  to  a  garden. 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn.  73 

in  order  that  they  might  bring  assistance  to  him, 
in  the  manner  in  which  His  Highness  should 
command.  At  the  dawn,  when  the  mofning 
breeze  blew  upon  him,  he  groaned  :  the  gardener, 
when  he  heard  his  groan,  ran  to  His  Highness's 
palace  and  announced  that  his  master  was  at  the 
point  of  death.  They  sent  several  persons  and 
conveyed  him  to  the  building  called  Hahandaz. 
A  multitude  of  physicians  were  appointed  for  him, 
in  order  that  they  might  cure  him ;  but  the 
arrangement  of  that  affair  had  passed  away  from 
the  hand  of  the  physician,  for  at  that  very  time  his 
soul  was  released,  and  the  field  of  the  world  of  the 
exalted  and  the  wise  became  empty.  The  office  of 
Vizir  in  him  received  its  last  seal  and  the  kingdom 
of  Khurisin  never  saw  another  Yizlr,  and  never 
did  a  nobleman  like  him  sit  upon  the  cushion  of 
justice,  and  in  no  history  is  it  mentioned  that  any 
of  those  vizirs  who  have  been  distinguished  and 
commended  possessed  such  perfect  excellence  and 
beneficence,  or  such  abundant  skill  in  guiding  and 
governing,  as  were  united  in  him.  And  Ibn-Jafar- 
Jami  says  thus,  in  his  panegyric  (Verse) 

"My  eye,  deeply  grieving  for  thee,  Abdl-Hussain,  hath 
reflected  thee  in  every  eye.  The  anguish  of  my  sorrow  hath 
absorbed  me  and  made  me  to  see  the  day  of  Husain"  {i.  e., 
reminded  me  of  the  commemoration  of  Husain' s  martyrdom). 

Some  of  the  ingenious  had  written  on  the  door 
of  his  visiting  chamber  as  follows  <Verse) 


74  MEMOIES  OF  SABAKTAGIn. 

"Thj  brothers  pass  by  thy  tomb, 

"  And  are  alarmed  at  thy  condition  (or  dignity). 

"  They  no  longer  employ  lofty  words. 

"Eegret  for  thee  overmasters  all  high  (notions)." 

And  Hisdm-Addoulat-Tdsh  and  Shams-Al- 
Mualy-Kabiis,  and  Fakhr-Addoulat  (had)  detained 
their  army  on  the  road  at  Nishapiir,  in  order  to 
receive  intelligence  respecting  his,  i.  e.,  the  Vizer's 
joining  them,  and  Abn-Nasr- LJtbi,  who  was 
deputy-governor  of  Nishapur,  relates,  as  fol- 
lows : — 

"  One  day  Hisdm-Addoulat-Tash  called  for  me, 
and  when  I  went  to  His  Excellency  I  saw  the  gen- 
tlemen of  the  privy  chamber  assemble  together, 
and  a  private  audience  was  being  given  :  all  were 
giving  their  opinion,  and  they  thought  it  conve- 
nient that  they  should  by  some  means  obtain  some 
assistance  in  this  war,  and  some  means  of  repulsing 
the  enemy.  And  when  they  saw  me  they  wel- 
comed me  eagerly  and  confided  to  me  the  subject 
of  their  consultation,  and  requested  that  I  would 
intimate  to  His  Excellency  the  Vizir  the  recent 
state  of  their  affairs,  in  order  that  he  might  not  lay 
down  the  path  of  delay  and  procrastination  in  their 
business,  but  should  hasten  to  provide  for  troops 
and  to  cause  them  to  enjoy  tranquillity  of  mind. 
And  Shams-Al-Muall-Kabiis  lifted  up  his  head 
from  among  them  and  said,  according  to  that 
mystical  writing  (of  the  Kordn)  "  "War  is  a  water- 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn.  75 

bucket,''*  the  aflfairs  of  the  kingdom  are  entirely 
distracted  by  war,  and  there  is  no  stability  either 
in  the  front  or  in  the  rear  of  the  State,  and  at  the 
present  our  affairs  are  bound  in  the  knot  of  diffi- 
culty, and  our  wishes  are  withdrawn  under  the 
veU  of  disappointment,  and  our  desires  beneath 
the  curtain  of  error,  but  another  time  HeaVen  may 
untie  this  knot,  and  this  desire  may  be  joined  to 
accomplishment,  and  this  hope  may  be  crowned  by 
prosperity.  For  a  prudent  man  seeks  for  the 
means  of  entering  into  victory  and  success,  by  his 
efforts  and  exertions,  and  arrives  at  the  desired 
effect  by  means  of  'patience  and  resolution,  whilst 
the  weak-minded  man  remains  depressed,  amidst 
weakness  and  vexation,  and  his  wishes  and  desires 
are  ruined,  through  confusion  and  delay,  arid  you 
may  regard  the  maxim  contained  in  this  writing 
as  a  quotation  almost  prophetic  (Verse) 

"  The  timid  are  looking  (idly)  for  the  weak  to  become 
strong. 

"  But  this  is  the  baseness  of  a  miserable  nature. 

"  If  you  are  not  content  to  want  (patiently)  a  matter  you 
seek, 

"Tou  wiU  not,  be  content  to  want  anything  below  the 
stars. 

"  So  the  desire  of  death  in  contemptible  affairs, 

"  Is  as  the  desire  of  death  in  great  affairs  (i.  e.,  impatience 

*  Or  water-reservoir,  possibly  which,  if  it  breaks  its  dykes, 
becomes  a  destructive  torrent.  So  the  legining  of  strife  is  as 
the  letting  out  of  water,  Sfc, 


76  MEMOIES  OP  SABAKTAgIn. 

and  weariness  of  life  are  exhibited  by  some  perverse  disposi- 
tions, even  under  trivial  difficulties)." 

Abu-Nasr-Utbi  said,  "  I  have  good  proof  of 
the  purity  of  his  elegance  and  of  the  excellence  of 
his  disposition,  which  in  depth  and  abundance  sur- 
passes the  sea,  and  as  to  the  greatness  of  his 
thoughts  and  the  expansiveness  of  his  intellect  I 
have  known  the  perfection  of  their  acuteness  and 
vivacity." 

And,  at  the  conclusion  of  ■  this  affair,  the  news 
of  this  afflicting  difficulty  and  the  report  of  this 
fire-burning  distress  arrived  ;*  and  their  affairs 
became  broken  in  their  hand,  and  the  arrangement 
of  their  transactions  and  of  their  hopes  declined, 
and  their  inclination  to  sorrow  and  their  engrossing 
agitation,  on  account  of  this  good  friend,  took  pos- 
session of  their  hearts.  And  they  recalled 
His4m-Addoulat-T4sh  from  His  Highness  of 
Bukh^r^,  in  order  that  he  might  examine  into  all 
this  wrong  and  trace  out  the  whole  of  this  affair. 
And  he  declined  aiding  and  assisting  them,f  and 
adhered  to  His  Highness.  And  he  killed  some  of 
the  offenders  with  the  sword,  and  arrested  some 
and  made  examples  of  them ;  but  some  became 
dispersed  into  the  distant  regions  of  the  world. 
And  the  office  of  Vizir  was  confirmed  to  Abil-Al- 

*  i.e.    The  intelligence  of  the  assassination  of  Utbi   the 
Vizir. 

t  i-e.  The  assassins. 


MEMoms  OF  sabaktagIn.  77 

Hdsdn.  But  his  disposition  was  too  narrow  fully 
to  embrace  this  office,  and,  for  that  reason,  he 
could  not  fully  support  that  station. 

And,  in  the  midst  of  this  affair,  Abul-Husain- 
Sinjiir  arrived  from  Sistdn,  and  came  to  his  place, 
without  permission,  and  sat  down,  as  a  seeker  of 
strife  and  disturbance,  and  felt  an  inclination  that, 
on  account  of  the  unfortunate  defence  of  Jurjan, 
and  on  account  of  the  defeat  which  had  happened  to 
the  army  of  Bukhdrd,  there  might  be  some  oppor- 
tunity of  disposing  of  his  goods  and  making  his 
market  brisk.*  Abiil-Hasdn  greatly  blamed  and 
reproved  him,  for  that  attempt,  and  directed  him, 
by  way  of  counsel  and  good  advice,  that  he  should 
arise  from  the  plain  of  Khurasdn  and  should 
remove  into  Kohistan,  which  is  in  Sistdn,  until  the 
affairs  of  those  parts  should  arrive  at  some  final 
issue,  and  that  the  unfortunate  events  which  had 
taken  place,  through  recent  occurrences,  should  be 
rectified,  and  the  wind  of  abundance  and  the 
streets  of  the  market  should  arise  to  greater  esti- 
mation. And  he  promised  him  that,  when  the 
sincerity  of  his  obedience,  and  his  constancy  in 
good  service,  and  his  ready  firmness  in  devotion 
to  the  State  should  "become  conspicuous,  he  should 
receive  various  generous  gifts,  and  that  there 
should  be  an  augmentation  of  his  allowances,  and 

*  i.  e.  Embrace  the  opportunity  of  expediting  his  affairs. 


78  MEMOIRS  OP  sabaktagIn. 

an  increase  of  his  rank,  and  an  elevation  of  his  step 
towards  the  throne,  and  that  the  settlement  of  his 
allowances  should  be  doubled. 

But  when  His4m-Addould,t-Tdsh  went  to 
Bukh^ri  and  Abu-Ali-'bn-Simjiir  found  the  plain 
of  Khur^s4n  empty,  he  watched  an  opportunity 
and  arranged  with  Fd-Ik  the  means  of  sending 
messages,  and  of  writing,  and  of  alliance,  and  of 
fraternity,  and  entreated  him  to  join  in  opposition 
to  Tash  and  with  the  followers  of  his  standard,  and 
with  those  who  were  well  pleased  with  his  supe- 
riority and  pledges.  And  he  made  the  Sultdn 
odious  to  the  family  of  the  nobles,  inviting  them 
to  ally  and  unite  themselves  with  him.  And  he 
succeeded  in  his  evil  request.  And  it  happened  to 
him  according  to  the  saying,  "The  intervening  space 
can  meet  with  its  measure."  *For  between  them  an 
alliance  and  treaty  took  place,  and  a  sincere  unity 
was  apparent.  And  he  seized  the  officers  who 
were  over  the  revenues  of  Khurasan,  and  took 
every  one  of  the  sacred  and  secular  endowments  as 
revenue,  for  their  own  expenditure.  And  the  two 
proceeded  unto  the  city  of  Merii  and  actively 
exerted  themselves  in  raising  the  revenue  of 
Khurasd.n,  until  Tdsh  found  it  necessary,  on 
account  of  the  difficulties  to  which  he  was  reduced, 
to  endeavour  to  repel  them,  and  to  discover  some 

*  i.  e.  All  difficulties  may  be  surmounted. 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn.  79 

planwhicli  should  be  sufScient  to  put  a  stop  to  the 
injury  and  the  wrong  which  they  were  inflicting 
upon  his  country  and  his  subjects.  Therefore  he 
opened  his  treasures  and  distributed  his  well-pre- 
served jewels,  and  the  most  valuable  portions  of 
his  wealth  and  his  furniture,  amongst  the  whole  of 
his  army,  and  proceeded  from  Bukhird,  and 
attacked  the  revenue-defrauders.  And  messengers 
came  and  went  between  them,  and  laboured  at  the 
means  of  agreement  and  of  putting  an  end  to 
enmity,  and  extinguishing  the  causes  of  strife. 
And  they  threatened  them  with  the  ruinous  effects 
of  contention,  and  the  unpleasant  consequences  of 
enmity  and  provocation.  And  they  arrived  at  this 
conclusion,  that  Nishapiir  should  belong  to  Tdsh, 
and  Balkh  to  Fdik,  and  Herdt  to  Abii-Ali.  And 
upon  this  foundation  they  made  peace,  and  each  of 
them  went  to  his  own  country.  And  Abii-Bakr- 
Khawarazmy  says,  in  his  poem  of  congratulation 
to  Abu-Ali,  upon  his  appointment  to  the  province 
of  Herit  (Verse) 

"  Thou  dost  congratulate  the  Amir  of  Herat,  since  he  has 
now  been  raised  aboTO  receiving  congratulations  for  striking 
blows  upon  her.  How  may  this  world  congratulate  the  com- 
munity of  a  country  which  this  world  possesses"  (i.  e.,  which  is 
worldly  and  selfish). 

And  Hisam-Addoulat-Tash  came  to  Meni, 
and,  at  the  time  of  his  setting  out  from  Bukhara, 
had  dismissed  Mazni  from  the  office  of  Vizir,  and 


80  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn. 

had  given  his  appointment  to  his  own  Chamber- 
lain, Abd-Arrakman-Farsi,  because  that  Mazni 
well  knew  the  secret  plans  of  Abd-Ali  and  Fdik, 
and  because  that  it  was  notorious  that  his  oil- 
bottle,  i.  e.y  of  connivance,  was  poured  upon  their 
affairs  and  that  his  delay,  during  the  stirring  of 
their  rebellion,  was  conspicuous.  When,  however, 
he  arrived  at  Menl  his  chamberlain  declined  the 
office  of  Vizir,  and  that  office  was  committed  to 
Abd-AUah-Ibn-Aziz.  He  was  well  known  and 
remarkable  for  his  opposition  to  the  family  of 
Utbi,  and  had  continually  expressed  a  vehement 
eagerness  in  attackiijg,  in  annoying,  counteracting 
and  detesting  them.  And,  as  soon  as  the  office  of 
Vizir  devolved  upon  him,  he  removed  Tdsh  from 
the  charge  and  Generalship  of  the  army,  and  gave 
an  order  for  the  appointment  and  settlement  of 
that  dignity  upon  Abii-All-Husain-Simjilr.  And 
since  it  was  evident  that  the  recent  weakness  and 
decay,  and  languor  that  had  taken  place  in 
the  freshness  and  vigour  of  the  State  was  wholly 
the  result  of  the  weak  counsels  and  erroneous 
system  of  the  Vizirs,  and  since  any  rectification  of 
this  evil  was  not  to  be  imagined  possible,  except 
by  a  change  and  alteration  in  this  system,  he 
therefore  sent  to  T^sh,  from  His  Highness,  a  royal 
order,  and  annulled  the  right  of  having  his  name 
mentioned  in  the  public  prayers,  which  had  been 
given  to  that  prince  by  the  chiefs  and  generals  of 


MEMOIRS  OP  SABAKTAGIn.  81 

the  Army,  and  ordained  that  his  surnames  should 
be  of  the  same  amount  as  they  had  been  in  the 
time  of  Amir-H^jibl,  and  commanded  thathe should 
remove  from  the  governor's  place,  and  depart  from 
the  midst  of  Khurasdn,  and  proceed  with  his  wives 
and  children,  and  should  make  his  calculation  and 
diminish  his  province  within  these  two  limits,  and 
should  exhibit  the  contentment  he  formerly  exhi- 
bited, with  his  wealth,  and  emoluments,  and  titles. 
And  when  this  royal  order  reached  T£sh  he 
became  aware  that  his  ill-wishers  had  found  the 
means  of  attacking  him,  and  that  the  plots  of  his 
enemies  had  arrived  at  the  mark,  and  that  they 
wished  to  build  the  foundation  of  implacability  and 
to  lay  the  foundation-stone,  in  order  that,  in  the 
course  of  time,  their  hatred  might  become  effectual 
and  that  they  might  cut  short  the  regard  which 
existed  between  him  and  the  author  of  his  fortune, 
and  might  contrive  some  method  of  making  His 
Excellency  his  enemy,  so  that  his  former  service 
and  his  previous  duty  might  become  annulled  and 
disregarded.  He  therefore  summoned  the  chiefs 
of  the  army  and  the  officers  of  the  forces,  and  said, 
"  You  well  know  my  usual  conduct  with  respect  to 
my  zealous  service,  my  upright  intentions,  my 
single-heartedness,  my  good  counsel,  and  my 
acknowledgment  of  the  duty  which  I  owe,  for  the 
benefits  received  from  His  Majesty,  and  that,  for 
the  purpose  of  establishing  the  Government  and 


82  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn. 

settling  his  kingdom,  I,  during  the  period  of  my 
command  and  trust  over  you,  have  displayed 
myself  as  one  established  upon  the  rules  of 
kindness,  and  that  I  have  never  complained  of  the 
fulfilment  of  my  duty,  for  the  advantage  of  the 
places  belonging  to  my  district,  both  in  strength- 
ening them  and  advancing  their  prosperity,  and  I 
have  employed  all  my  thoughts  in  endeavouring 
to  secure  the  best  result,  and  I  have  extended  to 
all  the  protection  of  kindness  and  of  favour,  in 
assisting  and  benefiting  them.  Now,  under 
present  circumstances,  when  the  opinion  of  His 
Majesty  has  become  changed  with  regard  to  me, 
and  he  hath  been  pleased  to  confer  my  employment 
upon  another,  there  is  nothing  remaining  for  me 
except  obedience  and  submission,  therefore  every 
one  of  you  is  entirely  at  liberty  to  make  your  own 
choice  with  regard  to  your  own  affairs.  Every 
one  of  you  who  may  prefer  to  continue  associated 
with  me  will  be  honoured  and  generously  treated, 
and  his  condition  will  be  specially  distinguished  by 
good  maintenance,  rank,  protection,  and  liberty 
and  freedom,  as  to  times  and  places ;  and  if  any  of 
you  wish  to  separate  from  me  he  will  meet  with  no 
opposition  or  hindrance,  on  my  part."  Upon  this 
all  requested  a  month's  leave  of  absence,  in  order 
that  they  might  consult  with  their  followers,  and 
give  a  reply  to  him  with  their  eyes  open, 
with  collected  minds,   and  in  the   way   of  duty. 


,     MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn.  83 

And,  at  another  meeting,  the  result  was  this 
(Verse) 

"  Love  hath  settled  upon  you,  where  thou  art  from  that 
place  never  can  I  remove  or  part." 

(Verse) 

"  "Whilst  I  am  not  in  the  dust  (of  the  grave)  I  wiU  never 
take  off  my  "hand  from  the  skirt  of  thy  excellence." 

And  all  agreed  upon  the  following  opinion 
(namely)  We  can  have  no  choice  except  to  remain 
associated  with  and  attached  unto  thee,  and  we 
cannot  dispense  with  the  obligation  of  passing  both 
our  prosperous  and  unprosperous  days,  our  cold 
and  warm  fortune,  in  thy  society  and  in  thy 
friendship  (Verse) 

"  If  any  grief  should  happen  unto  us  all  wiU  be  well,  if  our 
country  grieve  not,  for,  with  regard  to  him  who  hath  prospered 
us,  if  the  lions  and  the  Arabians  attack  him  (we  wiU  defend 
him)." 

And  at  last  they  wrote  unto  His  Highness  and 
reminded  him  of  the  unshaken  duty  and  the  well- 
manage'd  arrangements  of  Hisam-Addoulat,  and 
suppUcated  him  that  he  should  protect  him,  who 
was  the  connecting  link  of  friendship  and  the 
confluent  fountain  of  their  affairs,  from  being  con- 
founded and  distressed,  and  that  he  should  take 
care  that  their  face  should  preserve  its  ornament 
and  protection,  by  means  of  the  dignity  of  his  pas- 

G  2 


84  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn. 

torate  and  the  good  consequences  of  his  content- 
giving  rule,  and  that  he  should  make  no  change  or 
alteration  in  his  rank  and  office.  Abdull4h-Ibn- 
Azlz  gave  no  answer,  except  noisy  and  quarrel- 
some words,  and  a  perpetual  repetition  of  asperity 
and  reproach,  and  deluded  them  with  deceit,  pre- 
tences, and  false  promises,  like  the  Sir4b  which 
the  thirsty  traveller  accounts  to  be  water,  until, 
when  he  comes  to  it,  he  finds  it  nothing.  And 
they  were  aware  of  his  double-dealing  and  false- 
hood, and  they  paid  no  regard  to  his  letters  and 
his  exhortations,  and  they  became  more  zealously 
inclined  to  surround  and  obey  Tdsh  (Verse) 

"Thou  art  content  witt  thy  last  wife,  even  if  she  be 
regarded  with  jealousy,  but  if  she  with  whom  thou  art  content 
is  reproached  thou  wilt  be  friendly  to  her  and  not  turn  thy 
face  from  her."     [_MS.  here  extremely  doubtful^] 

Account  or  the  DEPAETrsE  of  TIsh  feom  JxjejAn  to 

BrEHAEA. 

And  when  Tash  came  to  Bukhdr^,  from  Jurjan, 
Muwayyad-Addoulat  died ;  and,  before  that  war 
which  has  been  described  broke  out,  th6re  had 
arrived  intelligence  of  the  death  of  Azd-Addoulat, 
and  TS,sh,  from  dread  of  the  insults  of  his  enemies, 
and  in  order  to  avoid  dispiriting  the  soldiers,  kept 
this  intelligence  secret.  And  the  chiefs  of  the 
State  of  Dilam  entered  into  a  consultation, 
respecting  the  choice  of  some  one  out  of  the  great 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn.  85 

families  of  the  kingdom,  who  might  be  regent  of 
the  State.  The  election  fell  upon  Fakhr-Addoulat, 
who  was  of  a  high  rank  in  the  family  of  Buwayyah 
and  of  eminence  in  the  royal  household,  and  dis- 
tinguished in  the  counsels  of  the  State,  as  well  as 
of  rank,  superiority,  and  eminent  merit.  And  the 
Lord  Kafi-IsmaiUbn-Abbad  dispatched  couriers 
and  wrote  letters  to  him,  and,  under  pretext  of 
condoling  with  him  upon  the  decease  of  his 
brothers,  they  congratulated  him  upon  the  acqui- 
sition of  his  kingdom  and  its  remarkable  freedom 
from  aU  things  causing  anxiety  or  blame,  and  from 
all  the  consequences  of  war.  And  they  nominated 
his  brother,  Khusni-Firdz  to  the  office  of  lieute- 
nant and  viceroy,  in  order  that,  during  the  vacancy 
of  the  dignity,  the  afiairs  and  the  comfort  of  the 
royal  throne  might  not  again  receive  injury.  And 
Fakhr-Addoulat  hastened  and  turned  from  Nish- 
apiir  to  Jurjdn,  in  a  short  time,  and  the  whole 
body  of  the  troops  set  forward  to  meet  his  stirrup  ; 
and  they  became  well  settled  on  the  string  of  obe- 
dience and  service  to  him,  in  true  inclination  and 
regard,  and  he  thus  returned  to  the  possession  of 
his  own  kingdom,  by  the  right  of  justice  and  of  a 
last  will,  and  the  provinces  of  his  brother  were 
restored  unto  him,  by  right  of  inheritance,  accord- 
ing to  that  (which  is  said  in  the  Kiiran)  "  He 
giveth  the  kingdom  unto  whomsoever  He  willeth 
and  He  removeth  it  from  whomsoever  He  willeth. 


86  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn. 

for  He  worketh  that  which  He  pleaseth."  And 
Abu-Bakr-Khdwarizmi,  in  that  complete  Kasidah 
which  he  composed,  as  an  elegy  upon  Muwayyad- 
Addoulat,  and  as  a  poem  of  condolence  and  con- 
gratulation to  Fakhr-Addoulat,  thus  saith  (Verse) 

"Thou  Last  benefited  through  thy  brother,  but  renown 
through  a  brother  never  prospers. 

"Amongst  men  (fraternal)  enmity  is  not  new  nor  is  he 
exceptional. 

"  Fortune  came  to  thee  like  as  thou  dost  see 

"  That  infants  c&n  fight  before  they  can  request"  &c. 

Abu-Alfaraj,  his  friend,  also  composed  a 
Kasidah,  as  an  elegy  upon  Muwayyad-Addoulat, 
some  of  the  verses  found  in  which  are  as  foUows 
(Verse) 

"  Oh  that  before  the  offering  of  the  victim  there  could  have 
been  redemption ! 

"  Oh  that  the  afflicted  could  have  been  glorified  by  redeem- 
ing! 

"  But  our  eyes  had  veiled  death,* 

"  We  did  not  glance  at  Pate's  selection. 

"  Say,  then,  to  the  world,  Thou  art  stripped,  clothe  thyself 

"  With  thy  grief,  upon  us  are  the  garments  of  mourning  ! 

"  Thou  hast  set  the  seal  to  sorrow. 

"  Henceforth  thy  market  is  cold." 

And  a  messenger  was  sent  by  Fakhr-Addoulat 
to  T4sh,  with  a  letter,  to  this  effect :  "  I,  with  the 
assistance  of  my  army  and  by  God's  help,  have 
effected,    by   mUd    and   gentle   means,   such    an 

*  The  idea  of  his  death  had  not  occurred  to  us. 


MEMOIRS  OP  SABAKTAGiX.  87 

arrangement  that  the  days  of  misfortune  and  the 
times  of  distress  have  passed  away,  and  affairs 
have  become  settled  and  arranged,  upon  a  footing 
of   firmness  and    stability,    and  this    hereditary 
kingdom  hath  become  freed  from  strife  and  from 
the  wounds  of  contention."     And  Td,sh  wrote  a 
reply  and  congratulated  him  upon  -his  success  in 
his  objects  of  pursuit,  and  upon  his  meeting  with 
his  unshaken  dignity,  and  upon  the  diminution  of 
the  period  of  misfortune,  and  upon  the  arrival  of 
the  fortunate  days  of  the  State,   and  upon  the 
arrival   of  the   bride   of  royalty,    and    upon   his 
meeting  with  the  object  of  his  wishes.    And  in  the 
replies  to  these  letters  he  (moreover)   represented 
the  history  of  his   affairs,  the   craftiness   of.  the 
envious,  the  neglect  of  duties,  the  favouritism  and 
the  ruin  which  had  proceeded  from  His  Highness 
of  Bukhdrd,  through  the  calumnies  of  enemies,  and 
how  their  success  depended  upon  the  overthrow  of 
prosperity,  and  how  his  government  had  become 
extravagantly  wasteful  and  unbecoming  his  august 
position.      Fakhr-Addoulat,  in    answer    to    this, 
wrote  a  very  bulky  epistle,   and   used  the  most 
perfect  words  and  the  most  high-flown  language, 
in  setting  forth  his  special  affection  and  the  sin- 
cerity of  his  attachment  and  alliance,  and  said, 
Whatsoever  God  may  have  given  of  His  bounteous 
free-will,  in  kingdoms,  and  riches,  and  treasures, 
and  such  things,  he  should  consider  His  Excellency 


88  MEMOIRS  OF  SABA  KTA GIN, 

as  a  partner  in  these,  and  with  regard  to  whatso- 
ever treasure,  rank,  stores,  or  army  which  he  sup- 
plicated, there  would  exist  no  difficulty,  and  that 
he  must  keep  to  the  well-defined  road  of  unity  and 
free  intercourse,  and  would  be  happily  settled  upon 
the  ground  of  stability.  But  he  found  it  needful 
for  various  powerful  considerations,  to  request  that 
His  Excellency  should  not  forget  to  grant  unto  us 
the  favours,  and  the  assistance,  and  the  acknow- 
ledgment, and  the  attention  which  were  given  in 
ihe  time  of  our  former  highnesses.  And  he 
further  said,  "  If  I  should  devote  all  my  life  in 
fulness  for  this  benefit,  and  in  the  accomplishment 
of  the  duty  due  to  this  generosity,  and  if  I  should 
expend  my  possessions  in  acts  (of  gratitude)  unto 
His  Excellency,  I  should  notwithstanding  regard 
myself  as  deficient  and  wanting."  And  he  treated 
Abu-Said-Shibi,  who  had  arrived  with  the  letter 
from  His  Excellency  Fakhr-Addoulat,  with  the 
most  perfect  generosity  and  respect,  and  sent,  as  a 
fitting  troop  to  accompany  him,  near  a  thousand 
Turkish  and  Arabian  cavalry,  by  way  of  assistance. 
And  when  they  arrived  at  Nishapiir  Abd-AUah- 
Ibn-Abd-ArrazS,k,  who  was  one  of  the  officers  of 
the  army  of  Khurasan,  joined  him,  and  both  of 
them  united  in  offering  friendship  and  service  to 
Td,sh,*  and  Tdsh  proceeded  towards  Nishapiir,  and 

*  i.  e.  (Sisdm-ad-doulaf)  Task. 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn.  89 

when  he    came   near  Abiil-Husain-Simjotiri  had 
proceeded  forward  and  had  gone  into  the  city,  and 
had  taken  up  his  residence  in  the  castle.     When 
Tash   arrived   Abu-Said-ShibI  and  all  who  were 
eminent  in  Nishapur  joined  him,  and  came  down 
on  the  western  side  of  the  city.     And  for  several 
days  battles  took  place  and  the  armies  joined  in 
fight.     And  in  the  end  two  thousand  more  cavalry 
of  the  army  of  DiMm  arrived,  as  a  reinforcement, 
men  of  action,  well  provided  with  provisions  and 
arms.     And  when   Abul-Hasan  received  intelli- 
gence of  their  arrival,  and  became  aware  of  their 
strength  and  magnificence,  and  became  acquainted 
with  their  skill  and  power,  in  storming  difiicult 
passes  and  taking  possession  of  fortified  cities,  as 
well  as  the  good  order  of  their  aflFairs,  and  the 
success  of  their  sieges,  he  came  out  of  the  city  in 
the  middle  of  the  night,  and,  under  the  veil  of 
darkness,  took  the  road  of  flight.     And  the  army 
informed  T4sh  and  they  pursued  upon  their  rear, 
and,  on  account  of  their  heavy  accoutrements  and 
baggage,  a  considerable  booty  was  obtained.    And 
T^sh  came  to  the  city  and  entered  at  the  west  side. 
And  Abii-Mansur-Thalabl    says,    on  that    event 
(Yerse) 

"  Tell  him  of  whose  eagerness  (to  take  me)  I  am  fearful. 

"That  sportive  (youth)  hath  hunted  for  hearts  with  hi* 
temple  locks. 

"  As  to  his  temple  locks  let  one  behold  them  in  the  even- 
ing. 


90  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIw. 

"  For  truly  the  heart  (or  courage)  of  Ibn-Simjtir  becomes 
-  highly  susceptible,  through  Tash."* 

Then  Tdsh  dispatched  letters  from  Nishapiir,  to  > 
His  Highness  of  Bukhiri,  and  humbly  entreated 
the  rectification  of  his  condition  and  the  conferring 
of  forgiveness  upon  him,  and  the  permission  to 
explain  his  apologies.  And  he  begged  to  be 
allowed  to  speak,  for  the  purpose  of  the  setting 
aside  his  errors,  and  offering  an  entreaty  for  favour 
and  for  pardon  of  all  past  mistakes.  And  he  said 
"  Our  refuge  is  in  God."  If  we  have  committed 
offences  unto  whom  is  the  way  of  forgiveness 
closed  ?  according  to  this  sentiment  (Verse) 

"  Give  me  surgeons  and  be  to  me  the  blessing  of  a  pardon- 
giver,  and  by  thy  forgiveness  unwrap  from  me  the  pain  of 
shame.  Truly,  pardon  is  a  luckless  misfortune,  yea,  contemp- 
tible, except  when  it  is  developed  in  the  casting  down  of  our 
faults." 

And  Abd- Allah -Ibn-Azlzf  took  the  course  of 
neglecting  and  becoming  deaf  to  these  apologies  and 
representations,  contained  in  the  volume  of  these 
great  chronicles. |  And  he  much  employed  artful 
and  entangling  language,  in  his  communications 

*•  The  MS.  of  these  wild  verses  appears  unsound.  They 
however,  ^ply  an  ironical  allusion  to  Simjiir's  forwardness 
(compared  to  a  lover's  ardour)  and  subsequent  nocturnal 
retreat. 

t  Vizer  at  Bukhara. 

J  Possibly  a  satirical  allusion  to  the  tediously-lengthened 
details  of  these  letters  from  Tash. 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn.  91 

with  Niih  and  his  mother,  who  was  regent  of  the 
kingdom,  and  assured  the  prince  thus :  "  Tdsh 
hath  fled  from  Dildm  and  you  have  given  him  an 
asylum  in  a  portion  of  this  State  ;  but  he  is  sharp- 
ening his  teeth  to  set  forward  in  this  direction ; 
and  if  he  goes  on  in  this  contemptuous  manner  and 
you  do  not,  in  good  time,  command  concerning  him 
that  which  is  good  and  proper,  you  wUl  assuredly 
lament  for  the  loss  of  this  kingdom,  and  you  must 
cut  off  aU  wish  for  retaining  these  provinces, 
whilst  you  are  deceived  with  his  false  gilding,  his 
studied  letters,  his  boldness,  and  his  deceit."  And 
they  said  that  they  ought  to  transfer  the  reins  of 
this  business  from  his  hand  and  restrain  him  from 
(the  power  of  effecting)  any  measure,  evil  or  good. 
Utbi  says:  "I  now  remember  that  I  extracted, 
for  the  sake  of  friendship,  two  verses  from  Ibn- 
Almutara  (Yerse) 

"  There  are  two  things  from  which  the  tears  flow  (namely) 
the  two  eyes,  when  we  heat  the  departure  (of  one  beloved). 
There  are  two  things  which  never  perfectly  meet  with  sociality, 
the  want  of  youth  and  separation  from  friends. 

Utbi  says  those  verses  do  not  contain  the 
strongest  expressions,  in  regard  to  the  state  of 
affairs  and  to  their  appHcabiHty  to  the  times, 
there  are  two  other  verses  composed  in  this 
measure  (Verse) 

"  There  are  two  things  which  the  trainer  cannot  manage  to 
break  in,  the  mind  of  women  and  authority  in  young  men. 


92  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn. 

Tor,  as  to  women,  they  ever  incline  towards  their  passions ; 
and  as  to  our  brother  youth  he  floats  without  a  rein"  (rudd  er) 

Truly,  as  regards  the  beauty  of  these  verses 
there  is  nothing  deficient,  and  that  which  he  hath 
said  he  hath  said  with  the  utmost  perspicuity  and 
with  the  perfection  of  intelligence,  and  the  nicety 
of  judgment,  and  he  is  a  rule  for  those  who  are 
possessed  of  acumen,  and  an  excellent  judge  of  the 
right  way  of  choosing  and  examining.  But  it  is 
impossible  that  the  aflFection  afforded  to  a  nurse 
should  be  equivalent  unto  that  given  to  a  mother, 
or  that  the  compassion  and  favour  felt  towards  a 
kinsman  should  equal  that  felt  for  a  father,  or  that 
the  attachment  to  a  hireling  should  resemble  that 
towards  a  friend,  or  that  a  vizir,  however  distin- 
guished for  efficiency,  in  the  rules  for  governing 
and  guarding  a  kingdom,  could  surpass  a  king, 
although  he  be  naturally  efficient  and  remarkable 
for  firmness  and  gravity.  And  Tdsh  neglected  the 
afiair  of  Abul-Hasan-Simjiir,  and  took  no  further 
trouble  upon  the  subject  of  his  strife-causing  sword, 
for  he  waited  for  His  Highness  of  Bukh^rS,,  in 
order  that  that  fire  might  perchance  be  suppressed 
by  no  other  means  than  by  separation  and  by  con- 
trivance. And  His  Excellency  (Tdsh)  gave  his 
utmost  assistance  and  effected  a  settlement  of 
affairs,  and  a  remedy  for  those  transactions  and 
fiery  disputes  which  had  recently  occurred,  and  by 
jevery  possible  means  endeavoured  to  give  content- 


MEMOIRS  OP  SABAKTAGIN.  93 

ment  to  Nilh.  Nevertheless  the  wound  which  had 
been  inflicted  upon  hearts  was  not  yet  perfectly 
healed,  and  the  dust  (of  strife)  which  had  settled 
upon  the  border  of  minds  became  increased  still 
more  and  adhered  more  firmly.  And  they* 
watched  for  an  opportunity  to  depress  him  and  to 
obtain  the  mastery  over  him.  And  he  was  occu- 
pied in  settling  his  affairs,  and  in  gathering  and 
forming  the  army.  And  Abiil-Hasdn-Simjiir  sent 
to  Karmdn  and  requested  an  army  from  the  Amir 
Abiil-Fawaras-Ibn-Azd-Addoulat.  And  he  sent 
unto  him  two  thousand  select  cavalry,  composed  of 
his  Arabs  of  the  Nejd,  and  Fiik  joined  him,  and 
so  great  an  army  assembled  that  neither  mountains 
or  plains  might  turn  them  aside  (Yerse) 

"  As  to  Yemen,  that  part  of  it  which  is  exposed  to  the  sun 
is  narrow,  but  the  small  part  of  the  sun  upon  it  makes  that 
little  most  excellent." 

And  they  by  common  consent  set  forward  to 
Nishapilr,  in  order  that  they  might  take  possession 
of  it  again.  Tdsh,  with  his  army,  returned  back  in 
front  of  them,  and  they  put  their  hand  to  the 
sword  and  they  fiUed  the  air,  as  far  as  the  hearing 
extended,  with  flame,  from  the  collision  of  their 
battleaxes,  and.  they  drew  an  ornamented  page 
upon  the  preface  of  the  earth,  with  the  blood  of 
warriors  (Persian  verse) 

*  i.  e.  Simjur  and  his  partizans. 


94  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn. 

"  The  world,  by  dint  of  drawing  in  the  breath,  became  like 
a  vowel  point  (or  dot).  Tate,  in  hatred,  opened  her  jaws  like  a 
pair  of  compasses.  In  the  battle-field  the  beak  of  the  Simurgh 
death  became  like  the  foot  of  the  musical  partridge."* 

And  the  army  of  T^sh,  on  account  of  its 
remaining  a  long  time  at  Nishapiir,  was  reduced 
to  extremity,  from  scarcity  of  provisions  and  debi- 
lity, and  the  want  of  the  necessaries  of  life,  and 
began  to  be  reduced  to  fear,  and  to  be  contented 
with  the  path  of  cowardice  and  flight,  if  that  by 
any  means  they  might  cast  themselves  from  that 
whirlpool  of  misery  upon  the  shore  of  safety,  and 
save  themselves  from  the  confinement  of  that 
distressing  condition,  into  the  free  plain  (of 
liberty).  And  T4sh  resolved  to  make  one  more 
attack,  which  should  be  the  seal  of  the  affair,  and 
to  make  other  and  successful  onsets  on  his  flank. 
And  Abiil-Hasan-Simjur  and  his  son,  Abii-All, 
closed  foot  to  foot,  and,  with  firm  front  and  strong 
determination,  exerted  themselves  in  repulsing  this 
charge  ;  and  Tash  betook  himself  to  his  tents,  and 
the  greater  part  of  his  army  were  dispersed,  and 
reduced  to  difficulty  and  weakness,  and  the  army 
of  the  enemy  came  upon  his  rear  and  gave  him 
one  charge,  and  he  was  scattered  with  loss  and 
departed,  being  put  to  the  rout,  and  the  army  of 
Dilam  departed  from  his  alliance,  and  the  people 

*  Probably  cloven,  that  is,  men  were  slain  in  the  battle  by 
several  weapons,  &c. 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn.  95 

of  Khurasdn  came  upon  them,  whilst  dispersed, 
and  put  many  of  them  to  the  sword  and  conducted 
the  remainder  in  the  chain  of  slavery,  and  sent 
them  to  Bukhdrd;  and  when  they  came  to  the 
presence  they  brought  them  to  the  midst  of  Buk- 
hdrd,  with  the  utmost  cruelty  and  the  greatest 
contempt,  and  the  buffoons  of  the  city  came  before 
them,  pointing  at  them  and  jeering  them,  and  used 
insulting  expressions  towards  them,  and  addressed 
to  them  derisive  jokes,  and  severe  songs  and  vitu- 
perations. Afterwards  they  imprisoned  them  in 
the  fortress  of  Kahandaz,  until  some  perished  of 
cruel  treatment  and  some  obtained  their  freedom ; 
but  God  knows. 


AcCOriTT    OF    THE   AeEITAI   OF   TlSH   AT    JrEJAN,    AND    THE 

Appoiittment  of  Abijii-Khaie-Simjub  TO  BE  Geneeal 

OTEE  THE  AeMT  OF  KhxTeIsaN. 

Tdsh  came  to  Jurjdn  and  Fakhr-Addoulat 
resigned  to  him  the  royal  palace,  as  it  was  adorned 
with  magnificent  furniture  and  numerous  vessels, 
and  appurtenances  of  royalty  and  beautifully- 
carved  plate,  and  vases  of  gold  and  silver,  and 
utensils  for  cooking,  and  wine-cellars,  and  all  other 
furniture  therein.  And  he*  went  to  Ray  and  he 
made  a  noble  present  to  himf  of  five  thousand 
dinars,  and  two  thousand  packets  of  one  thousand 

*  i.  e.  Takr-ad-Doulat.  t  »'•  «•  Tash. 


96  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn. 

dirdms,  and  five  hundred  embroidered  throne-robes, 
with  several  Arabian  horses  and  mules,  with  orna- 
mented bridles  and  breasts,  and  all  things  belong- 
ing unto  them,  as  arms  and  coats  of  mail,  and  cui- 
rasses and  helmets,  and  surcingles,  and  shields 
adorned  with  gold,  and  Indian  swords,  and  various 
kinds  of  armour  enamelled.  And  he  granted  unta 
him  all  the  taxes  and  revenue  of  Dihastdn,  and 
Abgun,  and  Astarabdd,  except  a  small  part,  which 
was  to  be  expended  in  building  fortresses,  and  in 
maintaining  the  Cutwdls  and  the  registrars.  And 
T4sh  proceeded  to  confer  presents  and  marks  of 
generosity  upon  the  regiments  of  his  army,  and 
commanded  that  unto  every  one  (of  his  soldiers 
from)  those  countries  there  should  be  assigned 
pensions  and  allowances,  until  their  condition 
should  become  better  than  it  was  at  'Khurisia, 
with  regard  to  abundant  harvests  and  fruitful 
crops,  and  increased  wealth.  And  Fakhr-Addou- 
lat  sent  from  Tabarist^n  successive  supplies,  and 
all  kinds  of  fresh  gratifications,  and,  with  perfect 
affection,  exhibited  the  feelings  of  his  heart,  by 
new  gifts,  as  frequent  as  the  twinkling  of  the  eye, 
and  he  felt  no  envy,  at  any  part  of  his  dignity  and 
prosperity.  And  S4hib  Kifi,  through  his  great 
intelligence  and  perfect  zeal,  became  acquainted 
with  the  extravagance  which  had  taken  place  in 
expenditure  and  gifts,  and  in  the  squandering  of 
treasure  which  necessarily  followed  this  extreme 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGiir.  97 

generosity  of  Pakhr-Addoulat,  and  he  made  a 
severe  piece  of  advice,  upon  this  waste  and  whim 
of  His  Highness  (Verse) 

"  Let  not  the  king  waste  all  upon  glory :  let  him  decorate 
glory  with  the  chain  of  wealth.  That  arrangement  of  affairs  of 
which  glory  is  the  (only)  opulence  wiU  ruin  him,  when  his  ene- 
mies are  more  warlike  and  their  wealth  greater.  There  is  no 
glory  in  this  world  for  him  who  is  of  scanty  wealth,  as  there  is 
no  wealth  in  this  world  for  him  who  is  of  scanty  glory." 

Fakhr-Addoulat  said  one  day,  in  reply  to  this^ 
"  The  real  favours,  the  sincere  kindness,  and  the 
continual  benefits  of  T4sh  to  me  are  such  that  if, 
in  return  for  one  of  them,  I  should  expend  the 
whole,  both  of  my  hereditary  and  acquired 
kingdom,  even  to  this  garment  which  I  wear,  in 
advancing  the  happiness  of  his  condition  and  in 
promoting  his  fortune,  I  should  not  regret  it.  In 
short  I  can  never  be  sufficiently  grateful  for  one  of 
his  generous  deeds,  and  I  would  not  shake  off  the 
obligation  by  which  I  am  bound,  on  account  even 
of  one  of  his  favours."  Then  he  related  an  account 
of  one  of  his  kindnesses  and  said,  "  My  brothers 
wrote  letters  to  Khurasdn  and  requested  him  to 
withdraw  from  me,  and,  with  respect  to  consider- 
able property  which  they  were  bound  to  send  to 
the  Sulti,n,  by  way  of  tribute,  they  said  that  they 
would  give  an  order  to  him,  allowing  him  to 
appropriate  it  to  his  private  use.  This  property 
consisted  of  the  valuables  of  Irdk,  such  as  magnifi- 

H 


98  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn, 

cent  robes  and  famous  horses,  and  other  produc- 
tions and  curiosities  of  those  countries  and  cities. 
This  property  then  they  offered  in  order  to  make 
their  court  and  to  convey  bribes  to  him,  in  order 
to  stop  all  excuse  and  render  evasion  impossible. 
^But  he  was  not  led  by  covetousness  for  these 
desirable  objects  into  treachery.)  And  when  the 
news  of  this  letter  and  the  truth  of  these  sayings 
reached  me  the  bright  day  became  dark  unto  my 
eyes  and  all  good  sleep  departed  from  me,  and  my 
hope  of  life  became  cut  off.  There  seemed  to  be 
no  path  of  purity  and  no  road  of  escape  possible. 
Therefore,  through  the  thought  of  this  untoward 
event  and  the  diabohcal  suggestion  of  that  un- 
manly conduct,  I,  for  the  whole  night,  was  one 
who  sleeplessly  watches  the  stars  and  is  attacked 
by  vexation.  My  heart  was  grieved  and  my  eye 
was  mournful,  and  my  mind  was  intently  expect- 
ing that  my  destruction  would  take  place  in  the 
morning,  and  some  (calamitous)  event  occur,  when 
a  messenger  arrived  from  the  Chamberlain,  Tdsh, 
who  requested  an  audience,  and  came  before  me, 
and  sat  down  politely,  and  offered  to  conduct  me. 
I  hesitated  and  doubted  whether  this  were  hospi- 
tality or  misfortune,  an  effect  of  friendship  or  dis- 
sension, For  I  made  no  doubt  that  the  arrow  of 
my  brother's  deceit  had  reached  the  desired  mark, 
and  that,  in  the  very  interior  of  my  private  resi- 
dence,  a   great  treachery  and  some  hidden  evil 


MEMOIRS  OF  sabaktagIn,  99 

deeds  were  transacting.  I  commanded  to  bring  my 
horse  and  I  mounted,  in  the  utmost  trepidation, 
the  most  uncomfortable  anxiety,  my  finger  having 
scarcely  power  ta  hold  the  reins  and  my  hand 
having  scarcely  strength  remaining  to  grasp  the 
whip.  When  I  arrived  at  his  palace  he  received 
me  with  unbounded  respect,  and  treated  me  with 
greater  honour  and  regard  than  usual,  and,  by  his 
kind  familiarity  and  extreme  good-fellowship  I 
became  a  little  more  at  my  ease,  and  my  emotions 
and  perturbations  of  alarm  abated,  and  that  part 
of  my  apprehension  began  to  diminish.  Then  he 
asked  for  the  letters  of  my  brothers  and  gave  them 
to  me,  rejecting  them  as  treacherous,  malevolent, 
and  inimical,  as  scorpion-calumniators,  and  as 
inMnging  the  rights  of  relationship.  And  he  said, 
'  I  wished  to  have  retained  these  letters  and  to 
have  kept  your  noble  mind  above  examining  these 
shameful  transactions,  and  agitating  these  filthy 
matters.  However  I  thought  it  best  to  bring 
them  forward  and  to  let  others  know  the  truth  of 
the  matter,  and  to  expose  the  depth  of  this  cor- 
rupting wound,  and  to  draw  the  veil  from  the 
surface  of  the  matter,  so  as  to  render  it  free  from 
all  doubt  or  qiiestion,  and  I  considered  it  more 
conducive  to  your  repose  of  heart  and  tran- 
quillity of  mind  so  to  do.'  And  he  then, 
with "  hand  clenched,  made  an  oath  (saying) 
'  I  would  not  sell  one  combing  of  thy  hair,  nay,  I 

H  2 


100  MEMOIRS  or  SABAKTAGiN. 

■would  not  sell  one  thread  from  thy  comb,  for  all 
the  revenue  of  Irdk,  and,  as  regards  any  sums  at 
my  command,  I  would  give  them  to  the  winds  and 
regard  them  as  carrion,  as  worthless  as  a  nut-shell 
and  as  a  date-skin,  in  comparison  with  the  restora- 
tion of  thy  meanest  possession.  Nay,  I  have  not 
yet  conferred  upon  you  the  tenth  part  of  the 
honour  and  the  benefits  which  I  have  in  my  mind 
to  give  you,  on  account  of  my  sincere  affection  and 
disinterested  love.  And  if  I  were  to  spend  all  my 
property,  even  to  this  ring  which  I  wear  upon  my 
finger  and  to  this  robe  wherewith  I  am  clothed,  in 
the  preservation  of  thy  prosperity  and  in  the 
averting  accidents  from  the  area  of  thy  glory,  and 
in  vindicating  thy  hereditary  kingdom  from  those 
who  trouble  it,  I  should  not  overpay  thy  fidelity 
and  thy  services,  and  I  will  never  depart  from  this 
devotion  or  from  acting  upon  this  resolution^  until 
God,  through  his  confirming  power,  shall  cause 
you  to  arrive  at  the  summit  of  prosperity  and 
place  you  under  the  protecting  asylum  of  good 
fortune,  and  shall  grant  settled  victory  and 
conquest.'  With  respect  to  one,  then,  who  dis- 
played so  humane  a  resolution  and  who,  under  cir- 
cumstances which  involved  no  previous  obligations 
to  me,  and  amidst  objects  of  covetousness,  dis- 
played such  generous  zeal  towards  my  defenceless 
person,  how  can  I  think  it  right  or  how  can  I  con- 
sider it  lawful,  in  acknowledgment  of  his  actions. 


MEMOIRS  OP  SABAKTAgIn.  101 

to  supersede,  or  to  neglect  him,  or  to  pursue,  with 
respect  to  him,  the  path  of  dismissal  and  indiffer- 
ence. No,  by  God,  and  by  the  holy  Kaaba,  and 
by  the  soul  of  Eukn-Addoulat,  I  will  never  join 
in  forgetting  his  merit  or  in  belying  his  protec- 
tion; therefore  I  will  not,  with  respect  to  him, 
in  any  way  lessen  or  diminish  his  rank  or  allow- 
ance, especially  since  I  have  obtained  sufficient 
abihty  and  means  convenient,  and  God  hath 
granted  to  me  settled  comfort  and  maintenance 
enough  (Verse) 

" '  Oh  may  blessings,  the  requital  of  his  patronage,  increase 
and  grow!  like  a  maiden  pure  from  reproach,  bashful,  and 
retired,'  &c. 

*'  *  For  although  I  should  meet  with  the  utmost 
zeal  and  the  most  extreme  valour  nevertheless  he 
is  first  in  previous  excellence  and  in  past  genero- 
sity. He  is  upon  the  step  of  benefits  and  I  upon 
the  floor  of  thankfulness.  And  it  cannot  be  con- 
cealed that  the  upper  seat  of  judgment  is  superior 
to  the  floor  of  ordinary  custom  (Verse) 

" '  O  thou  who  dost  confer  kindness,  thou  mayest  expect 
ihanks.  Tet  thanks  follow  benefits  and  do  not  precede 
them.' " 

The  whole  of  the  company  who  were  assembled 
at  that  place  and  who  listened  to  that  speech 
admired  the  eloquence  of  that  harangue  and  the 
splendour  of  that  citation,  and  uttered  exclama- 


102  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn. 

tions  of  wonder  at  his  great  intellect  and  at  his 
gentle  disposition,  and  at  his  sincere  faithfiilness, 
and  at  the  wideness  of  the  plain  of  his  generosity, 
and  at  the  loftiness  of  the  summit  of  his  thoughts, 
and  at  his  benevolent  nature.  And  Sdhib  Kdfi, 
after  that,  greatly  promoted  the  welfare  of  Tdsh, 
and  the  preservation  of  his  comforts,  and  the 
advancement  of  his  prosperity,  and  used  the 
utmost  exertions  to  obtain  his  approval.  And 
Tdsh  remained,  for  the  space  of  three  years,  at 
Jurjin,  and  all  his  mind  was  devoted  to  the  service 
of  Niih-Mansur;  and  he  felt  grieved  and  anxious 
at  his  estrangement  from  His  Excellency,  and 
desired  to  be  forgiven  and  redeemed  from  every 
mark  of  disobedience  and  every  breach  of  fidelity. 
And  he  conjectured  this,  that  he  might,  perchance, 
cease  his  harsh  demeanour  and  rise  up  from  the 
pretext  of  such  determinations  and  blameable 
conduct,  and  determine  to  let  down  the  rope  of 
obedience  and  approach  the  side  of  fidelity.  And 
he  sent  Abii-Said-Shibi  to  Fakr-Addoulat,  and 
requested  assistance,  in  order  to  return  to  the 
Court  of  Khurasd,n.  And  he  nominated  Asfar- 
Ibii-Kardawayah  and  sent  two  thousand  cavalry 
out  of  the  army  of  Dilam,  to  accompany  him. 
And  he  wrote  to  Xasr-lbn-Al-Hasan-Ibn-Firdz, 
that  he  should  enrol  himself  amongst  the  body  of 
those  troops,  and  arrange  for  their  command  and 
government,  and  that  they  should  proceed  to  join 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn.  103 

His  Excellency  Tdsh,  and  should   pay  due  and 
ready  obedience  unto  his  orders,  and  in  all  things 
acknowledge  their  subjection  to  his  commands  and 
to  his  standard.     And  he  spent  much  money  in 
equipping  his  army,  and,  by  means  of  half  of  those 
gifts  which  had    been    presented  to   him    from 
Kurkan,  sent  supplies  to  the  whole,  of  treasure, 
and  necessaries,  and  arms,   and  presents.     And 
when  Abd-Said  arrived  at  Koms,  which  was  then 
the  residence  of  Nasr,  it  happened  altogether  unto 
him   as  it   happened  to    Tbn-Al-IIazar,   at    the 
banquet  of  the  sons  of  Tamln.*     For  Nasr  com- 
manded that  they  should  cut  asunder  with  the 
sword  the  left  and  right  parts  of  these  forces,  and 
should    entirely    cut    up    their  limbs  and  their 
quarters.     And  he  confined  the  army  in  subterra- 
neous  caverns  and  removed  all  openings  which 
could  allow  them  to  breathe,  and  applied  fire,  so 
that  all  of  them  perished  in  the  anguish  of  that 
suflFocation.     And  as  to  the  auxiliary  forces  which 
were  with  them  he  took  them  almost  all,  but  some, 
who  were  the   gleanings  of  the  people  and  the 
remnants  of  the  sword,  fled  and  arrived  at  Ray. 
And  Takhr-Addoulat  became  extremely  confused 
and  agitated  at  the  arrival  of  this  news,  and  the 

*  It  is  not  known  to  what  circumstance  the  author  here 
alludes.  It  refers  to  some  unexpected  treachery,  for  Nasr  has 
been  just  mentioned  as  one  to  whose  care  the  troops  had  been 
recommended. 


104  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn. 

occurrence  of  this  unfortunate  event,  and  set  off  on 
his  march  towards  Koms,  with  a  design  of  revenge 
and  an  intention  of  retribution,  and  he  summoned 
Tdsh  from  Jurjdn,  in  order  that,  by  their  joint 
assistance,  they  might  obtain  a  victory  worthy  of 
that  which  had  been  done  to  them,  and  in  propor- 
tion to  the  events  which  had  occurred.  And  when 
they  came  to  Koms,  Nasr  saw  the  spectre  of  death 
opening  his  jaws,  and  the  eagle  of  fate  drawing 
her  wing  around  him  and  sharpening  his  claws 
(against  him).  Therefore  he  saw  no  expedient 
except  in  coming  to  terms,  apologizing,  and 
seeking  pardon.  He  made,  therefore,  Tdsh  his 
intercessor,  and  Fakhr-Addoulat,  when  he  saw 
this  behaviour  and  submission,  took  compassion 
upon  his  old  age,  and  the  mediation  of  his  kindred 
with  respect  to  him  became  successful,  and  he  gave 
up  all  intention  of  revenge.  And  he  directed  his 
attention  to  Khuzistd,n,  and  to  that  quarter  whence 
came  the  sound  of  war  from  his  nephew  Bahi- 
Addoulat-'bn-Azd-Addoulat,  on  account  of  the 
uncomfortable  differences  which  had  lately  fallen 
out  between  them.  Therefore  he  proceeded 
towards  Khuzistdn  with  that  brave  army.  And 
Badr-'bn-Hasanawayah,  with  an  army  raised  from 
the  people,  returned  to  his  service  and  to  his 
standard,  and  brought  back  with  him  the  com- 
monality and  all  the  public  officers  of  Khuzistdn. 
And  he  sent  Finizan-'bn-Al-Has4n  to  Basrah,  in 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn.  105 

order  that  he  might  also  take  possession  of  Basrah 
and  add  it  to  the  number  of  his  auxiliary  cities. 
And  when  Firuz^n  passed  over  the  river  of  Moses* 
the  whole  of  the  population  of  Basrah  rose  up  to 
assist  the  army  of  Baha-Addoulat,  who  were  sta- 
tioned in  the  city.  And  they  broke  down  the 
dykes  of  the  reservoirs,  so  that  the  whole  of  the 
plain  was  filled  with  water  and  the  roads  became 
entirely  obliterated,  and  they  were  caught  in  the 
mud  (produced  by  this  "water)  and  they  found  no 
means  of  exit.  And  a  great  army  came  from 
Mousel,  in  support  of  the  people  of  Basrah,  and 
when  the  army  of  Firuz^n  beheld  their  numbers 
and  their  bravery  they  extricated  themselves  from 
these  whirlpools  (fords)  and,  in  a  broken  and  con- 
fused manner,  they  returned  unto  Fakhr-Addou- 
lat,  and  complained  before  him  of  the  extreme 
suffering  of  that  condition  and  the  misery  of  those 
muddy  places,  and,  in  conclusion,  began  to  put 
forth  a  petition  for  maintenance  and  for  pay,  and 
for  various  other  advantages.  And  Faklir- 
Addoulat  became  wearied  with  their  continual 
application  and  their  numerous  questions,  and 
began  to  condemn  their  weakness  and  debility, 
and  want  of  energy  and  of  resolution,  and  their 
imposition  upon  good  nature,  and  began  to  regard 
it  as  disgraceful  and  odious  to  seek  for  men  to  do 

*  The  Tigris. 


106  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn. 

an  afiair  not  done.  And,  following  out  this 
thought  he  began  to  entertain  the  design  of  a 
truce,  and  came  to  Hamaddn  and  from  that  place 
set  forward  to  Riy.  This  event  happened  in  the 
year  379,  in  which  year  a  terrible  plague  broke 
out  at  Jurj^n,  and  the  greater  number  of  the 
soldiers  of  Tash,  and  the  chief  officers  and  the  most 
eminent  of  his  privy  counsellors  and  scribes 
perished  in  that  plague,  and  at  the  last  Tdsh 
became  involved  in  this  inisfortune,  and  his  life, 
through  that  suffering,  departed  to  the  other  world 
and  thus  yielded  to  the  weakness  of  old  age,  to  the 
anxiety  caused  by  foreigners,  and  to  his  separation 
from  his  associates.  During  the  period  of  his  resi- 
dence at  Jurjan  much  oppression  took  place,  from 
his  troops  and  armies,  and  much  injury  was  done, 
by  extortions  and  requisitions,  and  a  commence- 
ment was  made  of  oppressive  exactions,  which 
debilitated  it.  And  when  the  news  of  his  death 
was  published  all  the  populace  of  the  city  arose, 
and  the  mob  began  to  attack  his  officers  and  to 
murder  his  nobles  and  his  wise  men,  and  to  carry 
forth  and  plunder  his  property,  wherefore  the 
officers  and  chiefs  of  the  army,  being  compelled  to 
repulse  them,  were  unable  to  fulfil  the  usual  cere- 
monies of  mourning  or  to  attend  to  the  care  of  his 
interment, 

They  succeeded,  however,  in  escaping  from  the 
confinement  of  the  city,  unto  the  open  space  of  the 


iIEMOIB,S  OF  SABAKTAgIn.  107 

desert,  and  proceeded  to  consult  upon  the  choice  of 
some  one  as  his  successor,  who  should  hold  the 
chief  command,  and  the  unanimous  choice  of  all  of 
them  fell  upon  the  sister's  son  of  Tdsh,  whom  they 
accordingly  placed  upon  the  seat  of  government. 
And  he  distributed  among  them  the  treasures  and 
the  possessions  of  Tdsh,  and,  through  his  firmness, 
obtained  such  authority  that  he  made  all  fear  him, 
and  all  content  with  him,  and  to  adhere  firmly  to 
his  service.  But  a  clamorous  crowd  arose  from 
the  city,  and  their  cries  of  "  help !  help !  to  the 
rescue  !"  rose  to  the  skies,  for  the  mob  of  the  city 
stretched  forth  the  hand  of  violence,  with  open 
murmurs,  and,  forsaking  the  limits  of  law,  per- 
mitted themselves  audaciously  to  break  the  bond 
(of  restraint)  and  to  tear  up  the. foundations  (of 
propriety)  and  to  lay  aside  all  reverence  (for 
authority).  And  they  set  out  by  the  way  of 
Bikaribdd,  to  repress  them,  and  some  of  these 
dogs  and  mob  of  wolves  came  in  from  the  city, 
to  fight  against  them,  and  when  they  had  thrown 
their  moth  into  the  fire  of  destruction,  and  that 
army  turned  in  from  its  ambush,  many  of  that 
mob,  coming  into  collision  -v^ith  the  horses,  and 
into  distress  from  the  camels,  were  defeated  and 
retreated  to  the  city,  and  a  great  number  of  theses 
dwarfs  and  mob  perished,  and  the  belly  of  the 
wolves  was  filled  with  the  carcases  of  the  dead. 
And  unto  the  people  there  happened,  after  this 


108  MEMOIES  OF  SABAKTAGIn. 

event,  a  fate  such  as  had  never  happened  to  any 
people  since  Yazid-'bn-Ahnuklib.  And  when  the 
affair  (of  massacre)  had  arrived  at  its  utmost 
degree  the  Imdms,  and  the  learned  men,  and  the 
devout  men,  and  the  worthy  men  asked  pardon 
and  brought  forward  the  glorious  Kordn,  as  their 
intercessor,  so  that  the  cry  of  distress  arising  from 
tumult  was  suppressed,  and  the  soldiers  held  their 
hand  from  slaughter  and  returned  unto  their 
residences  and  barracks.  And  they  began  to 
reflect  upon  the  consequences  of  their  condition 
and  upon  their  present  lot.  And  their  opinions 
became  changed  upon  this  subject,  so  that  the 
more  select  portion  of  the  older  officers  became 
inclined  to  Khurasdn,  and  the  royal  army  and  the 
troops  of  the  country  chose  the  service  of  Fakhr- 
Addoulat.  And  Sahib-Kifi  sent  a  letter  and  gave 
unto  them  aU  assurances  of  attachment  and  pro- 
mises of  good,  and  was  willing  to  augment  their 
pay  and  their  rank  ;  and  he  requested  them  that 
some  of  them  should  arrange  that  Abii-Ali  should 
become  their  Inspector*  and  should  enrol  their 
names  on  the  muster- list,  and  that  he  would  pay 
the  chief  part  of  their  aUbwances  and  wages.  To 
this  they  did  not  consent,  for  their  love  of  their 
homes  and  their  affection  to  their  abodes  at  Khu- 
rasan held  back  the  bridle  of  their  will,  and  they 

*  The  controller  of  the  army,  a  kind  of  censor  (M.  Kasi- 
mirski)  muster-master  ?  or  commissioner  of  musters  ? 


MEMOIBS  OF  SABxVKTAQiN.  ]  09 

went  to  Nishapiir,  and  became  enrolled  in  the 
army  of  Abill-Hasdn-Slmjdr,  who  was  at  that  time 
governor  of  Khurasan,  and  they  made  him  Lieu- 
tenant-General  of  the  army  of  the  country,  until 
an  inspector  should  come.  And  the  Inspector 
carried  their  names  with  great  respect  to  Ray. 
And  when  they  came  to  His  Highness,  Fakhr- 
Addoulat,  he  caressed  them  greatly  and  appointed 
two  territories  as  a  gift  unto  them,  one  (consisting 
of)  the  subjects  of  the  parts  belonging  to  Tdsh,  as 
a  means  of  gratifying  their  service  and  augmenting 
their  body.* 

And  when  the  Lord  Abii-All  came  to  Jurjdn 
and  beheld  the  impertinence  of  the  mob,  and  the 
exaltation  of  the  common  people,  consisting  of  the 
remainder  of  the  populace  who  had  laid  hands  on 
the  army  of  Khurasan,  and  had  become  drunk 
with  wickedness,  and  carried  away  with  folly  and 
iniquity,  he  occupied  himself  in  attending  to  that 
business,  and  he  arrested  all  of  them,  and  put  to 
death  nearly  three  thousand  men  of  the  poor 
thieves  and  evil-doers  of  that  mob,  and,  moreover, 
put  to  death  every  one  who,  during  his  whole  life, 
had  for  one  day  taken  up  an  iron  weapon  or  had 
made  use  of  bakers'  shovels,  or  such  things,  for 
the  purpose  of  offence.  Some,  therefore,  he 
fastened  upon  trees,  and  some  he  made  a  mark  to 

*  MS.  here  imperfect. 


110  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn. 

shoot  at  with  arrows,  but  the  body  of  them  he 
passed  over  the  sword,  and  thus,  by  his  severity 
and  violence,  that  affair  was  settled,  and  the  insur- 
rection of  these  base  creatures  and  originators  of 
injury  and  malice  came  to  an  end.  But  God 
knows  what  is  just. 

HiSTOET     OF    THE      CONDTJCT     OF     ABUt-HASAN-SfMJUE,     AS 

Q-ENEKAL  or  THE  Armt  oe  Khtteasaw,  unto  the  end  of 
HIS  Life  and  the  Teansfeben ce  of  that  office  unto 
HIS  Son. 

When  Tash,  in  his  flight  from  Abd  All  and 
Faik,  came  to  Jurjdn  the  Vizir  Abd-Allah-'bn- 
Aziz  was  extremely  importunate  with  Abiil-Hasan- 
Simjiir  that  he  would  consent  to  attack  him,  and, 
on  account  of  his  indifference  respecting  the  right 
of  the  Khutbah  of  the  country  of  Korkan,  and  on 
account  of  his  slothfulness  in  the  matter  of  Tdsh, 
and  on  account  of  his  permitting  his  frontier-line 
to  be  diminished,  he  blamed  him.  But  he,  in  this 
matter,  continued  to  act  as  became  his  old  age,  and 
to  observe  the  usual  duties  of  mildness  and  gravity, 
so  that  he  let  the  matter  rest,  and,  upon  various 
pretexts  abstained,  obtained  his  end  and  repulsed 
these  suggestions  ;  for  he  thought  that  if  he  were 
to  lay  the  foundation  and  commence  any  quarrel 
with  the  army  of  Dildm  he  would  not  arrive  per- 
fectly at  the  object  of  his  wishes  and  would  not  be 
advancing  towards  the  desired   result.      And   it 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn.  '  111 

miglit  happen  that  he  might  become  struck  with 
the  evil  eye,  and  that  the  same  accident  might 
befall  him  as  befell  Tash  at  Kark^n,  and  the  mis- 
fortune of  that  error  and  the  injury  of  that  affair 
might  afflict  aU  his  remaining  years,  and  his 
ancient  kingdom  and  his  well-establishsd  province 
for  this  cause  might  become  disturbed,  and  its  set- 
tlement be  called  in  question. 

And,  in  the  year  377,  they  removed  Abd-AMh- 
'bn-Aziz  from  the  office  of  Vizir  and  banished  him 
to  KhwS,razam,  and  gave  that  dignity  to  Abii-Ali- 
Damagdnl.  And  he  used  his  utmost  exertions  to 
transact  his  business  effectually,  and  he  put  a  stop 
to  those  corruptions  which  had  found  admission  in 
some  districts  of  the  State.  But  his  strength  and 
authority  became  diminished  by  this  circumstance. 
The  greater  part  of  the  country  remained  in  the 
grasp  of  the  dependants,  and  the  Vizir  was  unable 
to  remove  them,  and  the  army,  at  the  instigation 
of  a  malignant  person,  became  intractable,  and  the 
Turks  found  assistance,  and  the  influence  of  Vizirs 
suffered  detriment,  and,  disturbances  having  arisen, 
they  removed  him  also,  and  gave  the  office  of  Vizir 
to  Abil-Nasr-Z^id.  He  was  a  man  of  great  effici- 
ency in  business,  a  man  of  great  good  sense  and 
perfect  intelligence,  well  known  and  distinguished 
for  his  great  eloquence,  and  for  his  skill  in  applying 
his  mind  to  affairs,  and  ennobled  amongst  the  most 
eminent  of  his  age  and  the  excellent  of  his  time. 


112  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn. 

But,  in  a  short  period,  they  gave  an  order  for  dis- 
missing him  also,  and  restored  the  chief  office  to 
Abil-Ali-Damagdnl.  And,  in  these  days,  Abul- 
Hasdn-Ibn-Simjiir  went  from  Nishapiir  and  pro- 
ceeded upon  a  journey  of  recreation,  and  took  with 
him  one  girl  out  of  all  the  women  of  his  seraglio, 
and  died  suddenly  whilst  amusing  himself  with 
her. 

And  his  son  Abii-Ali  occupied  his  throne,  the 
chieftainship  of  the  family  of  Simjiir  and  the  baili- 
wick and  lordship  of  Khurasan  were  conferred 
upon  him,  on  the  ground  of  being  heir  and  on  the 
ground  of  merit.  And  all  laid  their  necks  before 
him  and  unanimously  girded  up  the  loins  of  service 
and  obedience  unto  him.  But,  on  the  part  of  His 
Highness  of  Bukhara,  they  nominated  Fiik  as 
governor  of  Herdt.  And  when  this  news  came  to 
Abii-All  he  sent  a  letter  to  Falk,  and  in  this  letter 
alluded  to  the  rights  of  former  friendship  and  past 
attachment  of  regard  in  various  services,  and  said, 
"  Have  the  former  intercessions  made  for  me,  and 
the  zealous  pleas  offered  for  me  by  your  father, 
and  the  obligations  of  my  own  service,  imposed 
such  a  debt  of  gratitude  upon  you  that,  at  the  time 
of  his  decease,  you  should  thus  inflict  such  a  wound 
upon  me  from  the  most  distant  and  unexpected 
quarters  ?  Or,  otherwise,  how  is  it  that  you  have 
drawn  the  hand  of  covetousness  over  my  provinces 
and  my  portion  ?  it  would  rather  have  become  you 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGllf.  113 

to  have  refrained  from  this  violation  of  honour  and 
fidelity.  And  yet,  with  regard  to  me,  thou  hast 
overlooked  the  observance  of  treaties  and  of  former 
attachment ;  otherwise  this  outrage  and  this 
attack  upon  my  hereditary  kingdom  and  ancient 
right  would  never  have  occurred,  and  this  scorn 
and  contempt  would  never  have  proceeded  from 
you."  And,  after  many  words,  they  came  to  this 
agreement,  that  Herdt  should  belong  to  Fdik,  and 
Nishapiir  and  the  command  of  the  army  to  Abil- 
AH. 

Accordingly  both  of  them  set  forward  to  their 
own  country  and  to  their  own  provinces.  And  they 
caused  to  be  dispatched,  from  His  Highness  of 
Bukhd,r4,  the  commission  and  the  robe  of  honour, 
such  as  is  usually  given  to  the  generals  in  the 
army.  And  Abii-Ali  imagined  that  they  had 
sent  them  for  him,  but.  when  they  had  conveyed 
them  some  stages  and  had  arrived  at  the  top  of 
the  two  roads,  they  conveyed  them  towards  Herdt, 
whence  it  became  known  to  Abd-Ali,  with  respect 
to  Fdlk,  that  their  former  agreement  had  been  set 
aside  and  particularly  it  appeared  evident  that 
Fdlk  designed  to  reap  the  hairvest  of  these  gifts, 
and  it  was  clear  that,  if  this  treachery  should  reach 
its  mark  and  this  thought  be  carried  on  to  action, 
and  if  he  should  be  at  all  remiss  in  opposing  this 
attempt  and  in  maintaining  the  dignity  of  his 
family,   his  standard  would  again  receive  injury 

I 


114  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn. 

(lit.,  be  pecked  at).     And  lest,  by  any  means,  any 

offence  sbould  be  committed,  to  the  detriment  of 

his  condition  and  to  the  troubling  himself  and  his 

family,  he  used  the  utmost  diligence  in  the  matter 

and  ceased  not  to  examine  into  the  affair,  from 

beginning  to  end  (Yerse) 

"  Truly  the  Divine  command  is  before  the  eyes,  but  we  have 
gone  on  casting  away  from  our  remembrance  the  conse- 
quences" (of  sin). 

And  when  the  news  came  that  Fdlk  had 
departed  from  Herit  he  pursued  him  and  met  him 
between  Her^t  and  Biishaikh,*  and  defeated  him 
completely,  with  the  loss  of  many  killed  and 
wounded,  and  Fdlk  fell  back  in  confusion  to 
Meniriid,t  and  a  body  of  the  army  of  Abii-Ali 
went  after  him,  as  far  as  the  bridge  of  Menlriid. 
But  he  was  prepared  for  them  and  arranged  his 
army  to  receive  them,  and  he  made  prisoners  of 
some  of  the  troops  and  carried  them  to  Bukhdri. 

And  Abii-All  went  to  Merd,  and  sent  some 
one  to  His  Highness  of  Bukhd,rd,  with  an 
humble  offer  of  allegiance,  and  proposed  to 
regard  himself  as  bound  to  His  Highness  by  the 
rules  of  servitude,  and  to  gird  himself  to  his  service 
as  one  of  his  devoted  attendants,  and  to  strengthen 
him  by  means  of  his  kindred  and  his  friends,  and 
he   made   an   earnest   request  that   they    should 

*  Bushaik  or  Pushauj,  near  Herat,  on  the  North. 

t  Merur6d  or  Meru-arrud,  now  Murghab,  in  Khurasan. 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn.  115 

confirm  his  fether's  office  unto  himself  and  should 
not  suffer  to  pass  away  those  ancient  rights  of 
patronage  (on  the  one  hand)  and  of  clientship  (on 
the  other)  which  had  so  constantly  existed  between 
the  royal  house  of  Sdmdn  and  the  family  of 
Simjilr,  and  should  not  expel  him  from  the  list  of 
servants  and  the  body  of  dependents,  and  that  he 
should  not  listen  to  or  receive  the  reports  stirred 
up  by  troublesome  persons  against  his  fidelity,  and 
that  he  should  not  account  anything  as  lawful 
which  might  be  a  cause  of  abuse  and  of  despair. 
Niih-'bn-Mansiir  listened  to  his  words  with  favour 
and  satisfaction,  and  determined  that  his  request 
should  obtain  its  object,  and  he  confirmed  to  him 
the  command  and  gave  to  him  the  surname  of 
Imad-Addoulat.  Therefore  he  returned  to  Nisha- 
piir  with  the  object  of  his  wishes,  and  by  every 
good  method  and  popular  measure  occupied 
himself  in  arranging  and  setting  in  order  his 
affairs,  and  in  regulating  his  business.  And  the 
means  of  his  glory  and  the  degree  of  his  honour 
became  so  increased  that  unto  his  other  surnames 
they  added  the  name  of  Amlr-Al-Umard-Al- 
Muwayyad.  And  (the  poet)  Abd-Bakr-Khwd- 
razmy  says  thus,  in  his  eulogy  (Verse) 

"  The  eminent  keep  their  thoughts  and  their  breasts  behin,d 
a  veil. 

"  Dust  (of  blame,  &c.)  falls  upon  them  and  in  the  morning 
it  niakes  them  an  example. 

"  Truly  in  the  morning  they  are  in  a  state  of  captivity, 

I  2 


116  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn. 

although  at  eve  they  were  in  a  state  of  greatness,"  &c.,  &c. 
(alluding  to  the  discomfiture  of  Paik). 

And  when  his  affairs  had  arrived  at  a  great 
height  of  power  he  took  into  his  service  a  body  of 
men  from  the  country  and  the  villages  of  Khura- 
san, and  began  to  divide  his  property  and  his  taxes 
amongst  his  followers  ;  and  when  Niih-'bn-Mansilr 
requested  of  him  that  he  would  set  apart  some 
portion  of  his  territory  for  the  supply  of  the  royal 
Treasury  he  refused  his  consent,  and  gave  answer, 
"  This  province  is  to  be  regarded  as  a  collected 
whole,  without  division,  and  the  means  of  the 
treasury  must  not  be  drowned  (overwhelmed)  in 
expenses  upon  the  dissipated,  and  the  whole  extent 
of  this  province  would  not  suffice  for  them. 
Therefore  it  would  be  necessary  thait  His  Highness 
should  order  me  some  additional  allowance,  and 
add  another  province  to  those  which  I  already 
possess,  as  a  means  qi  maintaining  hospitality." 
And  thus,  during  this  affair,  he  vacillated  between 
obedience  and  disobedience,  and  exhibited  the  ill- 
disposed  (mind)  behind  the  curtain  of  sincerity. 
*And  Abil-AH  began  to  make  arrangements  for 
raising  money  and  stimulating  payments,  and 
began  to  stretch  out  the  hand  of  oppression,  and 
he  reduced  the  better  part  of  the  revenue  of  Khu- 

*  Or,  he  put  forward  Ab6-Ali-Nasaf  (as  collector)  for  the 
purpose  of  raising  money,  &c. 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTA of N.  117 

rasdn  to  its  lowest  point,  and  made  demands  upon 
the  people    for  money,   whether  they  could   or 
whether  they  could  not- comply  with  them,  until 
the  blood  of  both  the  upper  and   lower  classes 
oozed  out.      They  afterwards  presented  a  paper 
accusation  against  the  Collector  to  the  Diydn,  and" 
put  him  to   death    with   the  greatest   suffering, 
exposing  him  to  the  torture  upon  the  rack  and  to 
the  blows  of  sticks.     And  a  messenger  was  sent  to 
Hardn-'bn-Ildk-Khdn,   the  Turkish  Prince,    who 
was  appointed  to  arrange  with  him  plans  of  agree- 
able intercourse,  and  settle  a  treaty  of  alliance  and 
hospitality.     And  they  made  a.  secret  agreement 
with  him,  that  they  should  divide  the  kingdom  of 
the  family  of  Sdmdn  with  him  that  Bukhdrd  and 
Samarkand,  and  all  the  country  beyond  the  river 
Jihtfn  should  be  his,"  and  that  the  half  pari;  thus 
divided  by  the  Jihiin  should  be  settled  upon  Abii- 
AH,  and  ,that  .both  of  them  should  agree  upon  a 
mutual  alliance  and  assistance.  With  this  proposal 
he  was  dazzled  and  became  more  confirmed  in  his 
desire  to  possess  the  kingdom,  and  he  therefore 
entertained  a  design  of  blockading  Bukh^rd  with  a 
considerable  army.     Thus  it  happened  according 
to  the  saying,  "For  Muhammld  they  drew  the 
swords  of  Muhammdd,  and  struck  down  with  them 
the   chiefs   of  Muhammdd."*      Yet   AM-Ali,   in 

*  i.  e.  Co-religionists  engaged  in  civil  war. 


118  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn. 

appearance,  still  supported  the  pretensions  of  Niih, 
and,  in  his  province,  introduced  the  title  of  that 
Prince  into  the  public  prayers,  and  struck  money 
in  his  name,  but,  notwithstanding,  he  began  to 
turn  aside  towards  the  path  of  perfidy  and 
falsehood,  and  to  incline  towards  the  direction  of 
faulty  and  blameable  conduct.  And  when  the 
beginning  of  this  misfortune  became  apparent,  all 
the  nobles  of  Miwarannahr  became  inclined  to  the 
sweetness  of  novelty  and  change,  and  expressed 
their  weariness  of  the  long  duration  of  the  dynasty 
of  the  family  of  Samin,  and  ceased  to  regard 
themselves  as  bound  to  be  attached  to  those 
princes.  Thus  the  Amirs  rose  up  in  disaffection 
and  employed  all  their  efforts  to  influence  his 
opinion,  and  stimulate  his  determination,  that  so  he 
might  cut  off  in  plunder  the  borders  of  that 
kingdom,  and  might  behold  the  success  of  his  wish 
and  the  attainment  of  his  object.  Thus  resolved 
upon  his  secret  business  he  arrived  at  the  clouds 
(of  ambition).  And  Niih  sent,  to  encounter  him, 
his  Chamberlain  Ibikh,  with  a  distinguished  army 
and  officers.  A  severe  struggle  ensued,  so  that 
the  brilliancy  of  day  became  darkened,  and  from 
the  darkness  of  the  day  the  stars  emerged  from 
the  curtain  of  calamity,  and  the  field  of  battle 
became  a  well-furnished  table  for  beasts  and  birds. 
And  Ibikh,  who  was  the  pillar  of  the  kingdom  and 
the  column  of  the  State,  was  taken  prisoner,  with 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGllf.  119 

many  of  the  officers  and  chiefs  of  the  army.  Thus 
the  covetousness  of  the  Khin,  for  the  kingdom  of 
Khurasin  and  the  throne  of  the  fanaily  of  Samdn 
became  confirmed,  and  his  eagerness  to  obtain  the 
free  enjoyment  of  his  wishes  and  the  complete 
possession  of  that  province  became  augmented. 


AcOOriTT  OF  rilK  AND  HIS  HI8TOBY,  AFTEB  THE  EtENTS 
■WHICH  HAVE  BEEN  EEOOEBED. 

Faik,  after  his  defeat  by  Abii-Ali,  retreated  to 
Marurud  and  there  took  up  his  abode,  and  occupied 
himself  there  in  arranging  his  aifairs  and  in  obvi- 
ating  difficulties,  and    preparing   provisions  and 
necessaries  for  the  army.     And  when  his  afiairs 
began  to  arrive  at  some  order  and  to  be  settled  he. 
set    forward   towards   Bukhirfi,   without    having 
obtained    permission    from    His    Highness,    and 
invited  him  to  enter  into  consultation  with  him. 
And  Niih,    from   that   circumstance,   conjectured 
something  wrong,  and  came  forth  from  Bukhdr^, 
and  sent  out  his  chief  officers  of  the  army,  with  his 
special  officers  of  State  to  fight  against  him.    And 
they  defeated  him  and  they  slew  and  destroyed,  in 
various  ways,  his  officers  and  chief  men  ;  and  Fdlk, 
when  he  came  to  the  bank  of  the  Jihiin,  found  no 
boat,  but  escaped  from  the  talons  of  death  by  his 
own  skill,  and  passed  over  the  water,  and  came 
unto  the  side  near  Balkh  ;  and,  after  some  days,  he 


120  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIk. 

arrived  at  Termad,  and  wrote  a  letter  to  the 
Khdn,*  and  told  the  whole  story  respecting  his 
opposition  to  and  his  making  war  against  Nuh. 
And  Nuh  sent  a  royal  order  to  the  prince  of 
Jurjdn,  Abu-Al-Hareth-Farigiini,  that  he  should 
assist  in  repulsing  that  enemy.  And  Abii-Al- 
Hareth  collected  together  a  considerable  army  and 
made  war  against  him,  and  Fdlk  sent  back,  to 
oppose  him,  ArsMn,  known  by  the  name  of  Akhir- 
SdMr  (Lieutenant-General)  with  five  hundred 
chosen  cavalry  together  with  Turkish  and  Arab 
soldiers,  and  they  fell  like  a  wolf  upon  the  flock, 
and  they  utterly  destroyed  the  army,  and  took 
possession  of  their  property,  and  their  arms,  and 
their  horses,  and  returned  with  ample  booty  to 
Balkh. 

And,  at  this  conjuncture,  Zahir-'bn-Al-Fadhl 
had  taken  forcible  possession  of  the  coast  of 
Saganyan,  from  Abu-Al-Muzaffar-Ibn-Ahmad, 
a,nd,  by  force  of  arms,  had  taken  up  his  abode  in 
his  territory.  And  Abu-Al-MuzafTar,  when  he 
had  thus  been  driven  out  from  his  land,  betook 
himself  to  the  protection  of  Fdik,  and  requested 
assistance  from  him,  and  Fdik  felt  strongly  inclined 
to  grant  all  that  was  necessary,  considering  that 
his  truth  and  his  excellence,  and  the  greatness  of 
his  kindred,  and  the  splendour  of  his  rank,  and  the 

*  i.  e.  Of  the  Turks,  Ilek  'bn  Ilek  Khan. 


MEMOIRS  OP  SABAKTAGlNr  121 

illustrious  records  of  history,  relating  to  his  faraily, 
were  remarkable,  and,  moreover,  that  with  regard 
to  him,  he  had  been  specially  connected  with  the 
Amirs  of  Khurasan,  by  race  and  by  benefits ; 
therefore  he  sent  his  army  to  his  service.  And 
Zahir,  hearing  of  the  slender  resources  of  Fdik,  of 
the  small  number  of  chiefs  who  were  attached  to 
him,  and  of  the  deserted  state  of  the  whole  plain 
of  Balkh,  began  earnestly  to  covet  the  possession 
of  Balkh,  and  came,  with  all  his  forces,  into  the 
citadel ;  and  the  people  of  the  city  came  from 
Balkh,  and  began  to  fight  against  him  ;  and  one 
of  the  Arab  troops  knew  Zahir,  and,  by  casting  a 
javelin  at  him,  threw  him  from  his  elephant,  and, 
coming  down,  took  his  head. 

And  when  the  army  heard  the  news  of  this 
event  they  were  thrown  into  confusion,  and  every 
one  of  them  went  to  his  own  province  and  became 
entirely  dispirited. 

And  when  the  affairs  of  Ibekh*  came  to  such 
an  extreme  point  of  necessity  as  has  been  described, 
and  they  carried  him  prisoner  to  Turkestdn,  the 
kingdom  of  Bukhdrd  became  disordered,  and  its 
odious  corruption  became  evident,  and  the  back  of 
the  chiefs  of  the  State  became  broken,  and  neither 
regard  nor  veneration  for  the  throne  of  that  royal 
house  remained.     And,  in  the  midst  of  this  coufu- 

*  Ibekh,  or  Ibekh  Hajit,  or  Hajib,  General  of  the  Forces 
of  Nuh,  King  of  Bukhara.     Hajib  signifies  Chamberlam. 


122  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAqIn. 

sion,  he  began  to  incline  to  F41k  and  called  him  to 
the  service  of  the  throne,  and  to  the  support  of 
His  Highness  ;  and,  when  he  came  to  Court,  His 
Highness  conferred  upon  him  increased  gifts  and 
favours,  and  sent  him  to  Samarkand,  with  all 
needful  supplies  and  provisions,  in  order  that  he 
might  exert  himself  in  guarding  the  precious 
deposit  of  the  State,  and  in  preserving  the  passes 
of  the  kingdom.  And  when  he  arrived  at  these 
boundaries  Baghrakhdn*  attacked  him,  and  Fdik, 
being  without  perseverance  or  sufficient  knowledge 
of  affairs,  came  to  Bukhdrd,  routed  and  in  confu- 
sion, and  he  left  his  comrades  and  the  chief  officers 
of  the  Sultan  to  the  pleasure  of  the  sword,  and 
placed  them  beneath  the  dragon's  tail  (Verse) 

"  He  left  his  best  friends  to  the  enemy,  to  slaughter  them, 
and  saved  himself  by  his  good  horse  and  his  bridle." 

And  it  seemed  very  likely  to  every  one  that 
his  flight  from  Samarkand  had  been  determined 
beforehand,  and  that  he  was  induced  to  commit 
this  treachery  through  his  odious  disposition  and 
corrupt  meanness,  and  his  ingratitude  to  the 
author  of  his  prosperity,  which  was  the  cause  that 
the  vigour  of  the  State  was  exhausted  and  this 
ancient  royal  house  given  to  the  winds.  And 
Niih,  hearing  the  news  of  this  unfortunate  affair, 

*  Baghrakhan  is  the  same  personage  as  Harua-'bn-Ilek- 
Khan,  the  Turkish  chief  mentioned  above.  . 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABjJ.KTAq1n.  ]  23 

and  of  this  great  event,  became  alarmed  and  eon- 
fused,  and  deserted  his  capital,  and  settled  in  some 
retired  spot.     Truly  God  is  omniscient ! 


ACCOTJNT     OF   THE   AeEITAL    OF   BaQHEAKHAN   AT    BrKHAsA, 

AND  THE  Plight  of  Eidha  feom  that  place,  and  his 
Eetfen,  a  Second  Time,  to  BitkhaeA,  aftee  his 
Eemotal,  and  the  Mxgeation  of  Bagheakhan. 

Baghrakhdn  came  to  Bukhird  and  Fdik 
returned  to  meet  him,  and  became  enrolled  in  the 
number  of  his  special  officers,  and  showed  himself 
active  in  increasing  his  troops  and  followers,  and 
vied  with  him  (in  activity)  and  for  several  years 
there  existed  much  assured  friendship  and  sincerity 
between  them.  And  when  Bagrakhan  became 
settled  upon  the  throne  F^ik  requested  permission 
to  go  to  Balkh,  in  order  that  he  might  collect  the 
taxes  of  those  provinces  and  discover  the  means  of 
supply  for  the  Treasury,  and  that  he  might  cause 
his*  name  to  be  inserted  in  the  public  prayers,  and 
strike  coin  in  his  name,  as  a  sign  of  his  sovereignty 
over  those  provinces.  And,  with  this  excuse,  he 
procured  leave  of  absence,  and  came  towards 
Balkh.  And  Nilh,  having  ascertained  his 
strength,,  came  out,  and,  passing  the  Jihiin,  arrived 
at  Amul-Shatt  (i.  e.,  the  hanks  of  the  river).  And 
many  of  the  slaves  and  servants  of  the  opposite 

*  His,  i.  e.,  Biighrakhau'a. 


124  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAQIn. 

party  fell  over  to  him  there,  and  the  others  became 
confused  and  dispirited.  And  when  they  received 
intelligence  of  his  arrival  they  became  glad  and 
joyful,  and  it  seemed  to  them  that  fresh  life  and 
new  happiness  would  result  to  them  from  his  resi- 
dence, and,  having  separated  themselves  from  the 
neighbourhood  of  the  army,  attached  themselves 
to  him,  until  (at  length)  the  whole  of  the  army 
concurred,  and  Niih  conferred  the  office  of  Vizir 
upon  Abii-All-Balami,  and  committed  unto  him 
the  administration  of  his  sovereignty  in  those  pos- 
sessions. But  he,  in  the  regulation  and  the 
arrangement  of  this  matter,  displayed  much  confu- 
sion and  want  of  sense,  and  was  unequal  to  the 
task  of  guiding  and  ordering  this  business,  at  a 
time  when  the  whole  country  was  in  the  grasp  of 
the  enemy,  and  a  great  army  had  assembled,  and 
he  had  not  the  means  either  of  resisting  them  or 
coming  to  an  agreement  with  them.  Niih 
therefore  summoned  Abd-Allah-Ibn-Aziz  from 
Khwarazm  again,  and  placed  him  upon  the  chief 
seat  of  office  in  the  kingdom,  but,  through  the 
renewed  rising  of  the  constellations  of  contention 
and  the  commencement  of  the  season  of  strife, 
Niih  wrote  letters  to  Abu-Ali-Simjiir,  at  Mdwar- 
annahr,  and  entreated  his  assistance  and  the  fulfil- 
ment of  the  duty  of  generosity,  and  implored  his 
aid,  in  averting  the  peril  of  the  jewel  of  the  State. 
But  he,  in  this  matter,  completely  deceived  Niih, 


MEMOIRS  or  sabaktagIn.  125 

by  his  lying  words  and  his  treacherous  ways,  and, 
under  pretence  of  increasing  the  army  and  aug- 
menting his  forces,  he  suffered  the  opportunity  to 
pass  away.  Then  he  went  from  Nishapiir  to 
Sarakhs,  and  from  that  place,  after  a  long  stay,  he 
went  to  Meni,  to  await  the  arrival  of  Baghrakhan, 
and  expecting  the  fulfilment  of  that  stipulation 
which  existed  between  them,  with  respect  to  the 
division  of  the  kingdom  of  Niih.  And  all  this 
officers  of  Abii-Ali  employed  their  Utmost  exer- 
tions in  settling  this  plan  and  in  accomplishing 
this  thought,  and  in  arranging  this  proposal,  and 
they  appeared  to  incline  to  this  opinion— that  the 
royal  house  of  Sdmdn  had  changed,  and  that  the 
days  of  its  prosperity  and  the  period'  of  its  reign 
had  passed  away,  and  that  the  prevalence  of  its 
decline  and  the  proofs  of  its  weakness  appeared  at 
every  glance  of  the  eye,  and  that  at  every  look 
new  dissensions  and  fresh  weaknesses  appeared. 
And  the  wise  have  said,  of  old,  "  To  abet  the  weak 
is  to  weaken  yourself."^^  Since  the  period  of 
prosperity  has  passed  away  and  the  turn  of  adver- 
sity had  arrived,  to  help  and  to  associate  with  Niih 
would  be  the  cause  of  humiliation  and  the  fruitful 
origin  of  misfortune.  And  when  Nilh  came  to 
Amul  Shatt  he  sent  a  person  to  Abd-Ali,  and  said, 

*  De  Sacy  translates  this  proverb  "  Le  salut  du  foible  est 
dans  le  mepris  qu'il  inspire,"  but  the  above  version  seems  to 
be  more  in  accordance  with  the  context. 


126  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn. 

"  Our  expectation  hath  exceeded  aJl  bounds,  and 
the  matter  hath  reached   its  utmost   point,   the 
enemy  hath  become  victorious,  and  the  house  hath 
passed  away  from  our  hands.    It  is  time  that  thou 
shouldst  display  some  zeal  in  the  duty  of  preserv- 
ing it,  and  in  ftilfiUing  the  obligations  which  you 
owe ;  and  there  are  no  means  of  preserving  our 
empire,  and  maintaining  the  rights  of  our  fore- 
fathers and  predecessors,  except  by  thy  aid  and 
-assistance."     And  out  of  all  the  letters  which  were 
upon  this  subject,   from  His  Highness  Niih   to 
Abil-All,  there  is  one  passage  which  was  composed 
by   Abu-Ali-Damaghani,   as  follows :    "  Since  the 
State  hath  great  need  of  support,  when  it  is  evi- 
dent that  sotae  persons  are  designing  to  disturb 
the   foundations   of  its  buttresses,  therefore   the 
State  hath  recourse  to  thy  power  for  help,  in  the 
name  of  Heaven."      But  Abil-All,  according  to 
his  usual   vile   habits  and  worthless  disposition, 
persisted  in  his  hardness  of  heart,  and,  throwing 
away  all  thought  of  future  consequences,  cast  aside 
all  self-respect  and  shame,  and  exhibited  nothing 
but    impudence    and   wickedness,   and    preferred 
requests  most  unusual,  and  claims  most  uncom- 
mendable,  and  requested  that  his  titles,  as  men- 
tioned in  the  public  prayers  (Khutbah)  should  be 
higher  than  those   of  the  predecessors   of    His 
Highness  Niih,   and  requested  that  they  should 
introduce  the  prayer  at  the  beginning  of  his  pecu- 


MEMOIRS  OP  SABAKTAGIn.  127 

liar  titles,  between  his  name  and  his  surname,  and 
that  they  should  describe  him  as  deputy  of  the 
Commander  of  the  Faithful,  which  title  is  the 
peculiar  designation  of  the  family  of  S^mdn,  and 
is  one  by  which  no  other  of  the  kings  of  the  earth 
have  been  described.  And  the  Prince  Niih 
received  aU  these  pretensions  with  favourable 
replies.  And  one  of  thp  servants  of  Niih,  a  man  an 
Aristotle  in  mind,  had  come  to  Abii-All,  on  a 
message.  He  heard  this  kind  of  demand,  and  saw 
his  iniiquity  and  obstinacy  in  these  discussions,  and 
he  said,  "  This  King,  Niih,  is  at  present  so  con- 
fused by  distress,  that  if  thou  should'st  demand  of 
him  that  he  should  acknowledge  thee  as  sovereign 
he  would  not  care.  However  after  to-day  there  is 
to-morrow,  the  afiairs  of  fortune  are  ever  changing. 
Do  thou,  therefore,  so  be  and  so  speak  that  the 
people  of  the  earth  may  be  pleased  with  thee,  and 
may  speak  well  of  thy  name."  The  eyes  of  those 
who  were  present  at  this, interview  were  filled  with 
tears,  at  the  utterance  of  this  speech  and  at  the 
severe  fortune  of  the  Prince,  and  their  hearts  were 
roasted  in  the  fire  of  this  calamity.  But  Abii-All 
was  stiU  bent  upon  and  carried  away  by  that 
blindness  and  folly,  and  doubtless  it  was  God 
alone  who,  without  favour  from  man,  satisfactorily 
settled  the  affairs  of  Prince  Niih,  and  rendered  his 
opponents  hated  and  despised,  and  replaced  him 
upon  a  settled  throne,  and  in  the  royal  dignity. 


128  MEMOIRS  OP  SABAKTAQIN. 

and  made  the  envy  and  malice  of  his  enemies  to 
be  the  cause  of  their  own  humihation  and  disgrace. 
Thus,  when  anything  is  difficult,  God  knows  how 
to  set  it  right. 


Account   or   the    Eetuen   of   the    Peince   Eidha*   to 

BtTKHAEi,  AETEE  THE  DePAETUEE  OF  BaGHBXkHAN    FEOM 

THENCE. 

Baghrakhan  was  injured  by  the  air  of  Bukhdrd, 
although  he  had  a  great  desire  and  base  longing  to 
injure  the  ancient  lords  and  the  noble  family. 
And  on  account  of  the  severity  of  his  disease,  they 
knew  no  meSins  of  curing  him,  except  by  returning 
to  the  air  of  Turkistdn.  Wherefore  they  carried 
him  in  a  litter  to  the  borders  Of  Turkistdn ;  and 
the  people  stretched  the  hand  of  vengeance  upon 
the  rear  of  his  army,  and  they  killed  many  of  the 
people.  And  the  road  of  his  retreat  was  by  the 
territory  of  the  Gozz  Turks,  and  these  Gozz  tribes 
went  several  marches  behind  him,  and  killed  the 
stragglers  of  his  army,  and  plundered  their 
baggage  and  their  provisions.  And  Baghrakhd,n, 
in  one  of  these  journeys,  resigned  his  soul.  And 
when  this  news  came  to  the  Prince  Niih  he  deter- 
mined to  re-establish  his  authority,  and  the  people 
of  Bukhdra  made  rejoicings  at  his  arrival,  and  the 
wise  and  great  men  of  the  city  came  forth  to  meet 

*  Eidha,  that  is,  Nuh,  of  Bukhdrd. 


MEMOIRS  OP  sabaktaqIn.  129 

his  stirrup,  and  they  were  as  charmed  with  his 
fortunate  arrival  as  the  day-watchman  at  the  rising 
of  the  full  moon,  or  the  thirsty  traveller  at  the 
sight  of  the  pure  brook.  And  the  princes  of  Buk- 
hdr^  and  Samarkand,  and  their  allies,  came  to 
settle  the  Treasury  affairs  of  the  Prince  Niih,  and 
they  placed  his  commands  and  his  prohibitions 
upon  their  usual  footing  and  upon  their  former 
authority.  And  thus  all  the  causes  of  contention 
were  cut  off.  And  when  Abii-All-Simjiir  saw 
that  the  affairs  of  the  kingdom  of  Niih  were  in 
course  of  settlement,  and  that  the  affairs  of  his  own 
province  approached  to  a  blameable  condition,  and 
his  wishes,  through  the  confused  times  and  through 
the  troubled  period,  had  produced  no  fruit,  since 
his  desire  was  broken  and  despised,  and  that  the 
hne  of  his  desire  upon  the  dice  of  fortune  had 
become  crooked  (and  askew),  and,  moreover,  that 
the  settlements  which  he  held  from  Baghrakhkn, 
respecting  the  completion  of  the  conventions, 
and  the  fulfilment  of  the  verbal  treaties  which 
had  been  agreed  upon  between  them,  respecting 
the  division  of  the  province  of  Khurasan  and  of 
Mdwarannahr,  and  also  the  settlement  concerning 
its  equal  partition  between  them,  had  not  been 
carried  into  effect,  (for  Baghrakhan,  when  he 
took  the  throne  of  Bukhdra,  inserted  the  name  of 
Abd-All-Simjur  in  the  public  prayers  in  the  same 
list  with  the  other  generals  of  the  army,  and  made 

K 


130  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn. 

no  alteration  with  respect  to  him  in  the  usual  state 
of  things);  then  Abii-Ali  began  to  gnaw  the 
fingers  of  vexation  and  repentance,  and  the  bril- 
liant light  of  his  flag  was  destroyed  in  the  darkness 
of  his  calamity,  and  the  garden  of  his  enjoyment 
withered  in  the  cold  wind  of  this  event;  whereupon 
he  assembled  the  nobles  of  the  state,  and  the 
counsellors  of  his  court ;  and,  in  order  to  obtain 
their  advice,  asked  them  to  enter  upon  the  consi- 
deration of  some  remedy  of  this  afiair,  and  some 
means  of  escape  from  this  misfortune.  They  all 
said,  "  The  clay  of  which  the  royal  house  of  Sdmin 
was  formed  is  made  up  with  the  water  of  gene- 
rosity, and  of  a  kind  and  forgiving  temper ;  but 
the  dissensions  and  the  depressions  of  the  princes 
of  this  family,  through  the  errors  of  their  servants 
and  the  blunders  of  their  dependants,  have  become 
notorious  every  day.  This  is  the  only  way  of  pro- 
ceeding, that  thou  shouldest  request  this  healing 
plaster  of  pardon  from  them,  and  shouldest  request 
acceptance  of  thy  excuses  from  their  court.  For, 
indeed,  in  this  life-risking  whirlpool,  there  is  no 
possibility  of  arriving  at  the  shore  of  safety,  except 
in  the  boat  of  the  assistance  of  Niih,  and  this 
inundation  of  disaster  will  never  assuage,  except 
by  means  of  the  fortunate  empire  of  Nuh,  and  it 
will  be  necessary  to  go  under  his  protection,  with 
sword  and  with  shroud  *  and  to  cast  yourselves 
*  i.  e.  Devoting  sword  and  life  to  his  service. 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn.  131 

upon  his  generosity  and  his  pity,  and  thus  to  draw 
out  the  thorn,  which-  has  (unfortunately)  lodged 
and  broken  in  his  breast,  by  the  beak  of  humility 
and  submission ;  and  to  remore  the  dust  which 
unluckily  had  become  attached  to  the  border  of  the 
garment  of  his  mind^  by:  blowing  the  breath  of 
kindness  and  union ;  and,  since  affairs  have  arrived 
at  this  extremity  of  inefficiency,  it  will  be  neces- 
sary to  deserve  approbation  by  their  services,  and 
to  take  hold  of  the  course  of  service,  and  the  rules 
of  obedience ;  since  there  can  be  no  better  remedy 
for  a  broken  head  than  the  lint,  or  for  sinners  than 
an  agreeable  refuge ;  nor  will  he  restrain  from  you 
the  face  of  apology,  acceptance,  and  pardon." 

Abii-Ali  found  this  discourse  to- possess  a  just 
weight  in  the  scale  of  good  sense,  and  that  it  would 
comprehend  the  circle  of  his  conveniences.  He, 
therefore,  collected  together  of  his  various  posses- 
sions many  presents  and  packets  of  precious  stones, 
in  order  that  he  might  send  them  by  the  hand  of 
an  ambassador  who  had  an  oily  tongue  unto  Prince 
Niih,  so  that  by  this  trick  the  perception  of  his 
base  plan  might  escape  the  enlightened  mind,  and 
by  the  softness  of  craftiness  the  bird  of  kindness 
might  raise  up  his  wing,  which  had  been  wetted  in 
the  mist  of  dislike.  But  he  again  thought  of 
the  decreed  word,  "  Resolution  is  equal  to  fore- 
thought." He  therefore  tried  another  expedient, 
and  said,  "  There  is  an  old  warning  spoken  (by  the 

k2 


132  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn. 

wise),  '  He  that  soweth  thorns  will  never  obtain 
grapes  therefrom.'  If  I  have  sown  a  piece  of 
ground  quite  full  of  the  seeds  of  wrong,  how  shall 
I  measure  it  out  in  autumn  full  of  the  harvest  of 
gratitude ;  and  if  I  plant  in  my  enclosure  the 
young  tree  of  opposition,  how  can  I  expect  the 
fruit  of  concord ;  since  to  put  a  wounded  snake  into 
one's  bosom,  or  to  taste  the  poison  which  is  upon 
the  bow,  is  not  the  action  of  a  wise  man ;  for  the 
intelligent  have  said,  '  Kings  have  teeth  in  their 
bellies,  like  the  crocodile,'  and  they  are  like  the 
sea,  which  although  it  be  the  source  of  the  fountain 
of  life,  and  although  it  contain  all  kinds  of  jewels 
and  valuable  things,  nevertheless  is  sometimes  like 
a  whirlpool,  which,  in  the  twinkhng  of  an  eye,  can 
destroy  the  world,  and  carry  away  mankind ;  and 
that '  A  king  is  a  sea,  in  which  we  may  be  drowned 
even  when  it  is  at  rest  over  its  pearls,  and  when  it 
swells  we  should  beware.'" 

And  Fd,ik  also,  when  he  saw  that  the  boat  of 
Niih  had  arrived  in  safety,  and  at  settled  prospe- 
rity, lost  all  firmness  of  heart  and-  quietness  of 
spirit,  and  sought  some  safe  refuge  from  the  evil  of 
this  storm.  At  last  he  determined  upon  this  weak 
plan,  and  this  crude  object,  and  this  excess  of 
impudence,  that  he  should  put  a  bold  face  upon 
the  affair ;  and  set  off  towards  Bukhdrd,  in  order 
that  he  might  recover  Niih  to  his  interest,  by 
means  of  contention  and  violence.     But  to  be  ob- 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGiN.  183 

structed  in  our  end  is  odious  to  all.  The  Prince 
Niih  sent  on  before  him  the  best  portions  of  his 
private  guards  and  chamberlains,  and  between  the 
two  armies  various  battles  and  horrible  slaughters 
took  place,  and  many  were  killed  on  both  sides ; 
and  the  birds  and  lions,  and  eagles  and  hyaenas 
obtained  from  those  who  were  slain  in  this  assembly 
of  sorrow,  and  from  those  who  were  found  in  this 
meat-distributing  place,  a  merry  feast  and  a  table 
of  delicacies.  And  Fdlk,  when  he  escaped  with 
but  a  small  part  of  his  army  from  the  sword  of  the 
people  of  Bukhara,  and  had  saved  himself  from  the 
talons  of  fate,  took  to  flight,  and  since  he  knew 
no  refuge  except  the  court  of  Abii  All,  or  any 
place  to  fly  to,  went  to  Men!  ;  and  Abil  All  was 
rejoiced  at  his  arrival,  and  considered  the  contrac- 
tion of  an  alliance  with  him  would  be  an  afiair  of 
importance,  based  upon  sound  judgment,  he  there- 
fore embraced  his  ofier  of  help  and  support,  and 
considered  that  his  presence  would  enable  him  to 
dispense  with  the  favour  of  Ridha-Niih-Ibn  Man- 
shir,  he  therefore  sent  Fdik  the  money  which  he 
had  prepared  for  the  tribute  due  to  Bukh^rd,  and 
there  was  confirmed  between  them  a  complete 
unity,  and  a  mutual  association,  and  sincere  affec- 
tion, and  an  agreement  to  oppose  all  one-anothers' 
enemies  and  adversaries.  And  they  came  together 
to  Nishapiir,  and  occupied  themselves  in  the  pre- 
paration of  arms,  and  in  the  arrangement  of  the 
means  of  service  in  the  field,  and  in  organizing 


134  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn. 

matters  for  the  day  of  battle.  And  the  Prince 
Niih  when  he  heard  of  their  agreement  to  ruin  and 
injure  him,  and  when  their  combination  to  do  him 
wrong  became  apparent,  applied  all  his  thoughts 
to  consider  by  what  forbearing  skill  he  might 
compel  these  two  young  colts  to  become  obedient 
to  the  burden,  and  by  what  power  he  might  catch 
these  two  savage  crocodiles  in  the  snare  of  punish- 
ment, and  by  the  assistance  of  what  lion  he  might 
most  completely  seize  in  his  claws  these  two  crafty 
wolves.  And  after  consideration  the  lot  of  his 
election  fell  upon  Nasir-Addin-Sabaktagin,*  since 
he  was  well  known,  and  of  established  reputation 
amongst  the  nobles  of  those  provinces  for  his  pre- 
eminence in  all  good  ways,  and  his  firmness  in 
that  which  is  right,  and  his  careful  regard  for  the 
happiness  of  the  people,  and  for  his  support  of 
religion,  and  his  aid  given  to  God.  He  therefore 
sent  Abii-Nasr-Farsi  to  him,  and  signified  the  evil 
deeds,  and  the  disgraceful  actions  of  Abii-All  and 
F4ik,  and  requested  from  his  repelling  arm,  and 
his  expansive  benevolence,  the  remedy  for  this 
disease,  and  the  means  of  mollifying  this  fury ; 
and  offered  a  request  to  him  respecting  the  remo- 
val of  this  anxiety,  and  the  taking  away  of  this 
treachery,  and  said,  "  The  way  of  hope  from  all 
other  quarters   of   the  kingdom,    and    from     all 

*  Utbi  has  here  conducted  his  digression  upon  the  affairs 
of  Bukhara,  to  the  point  when  Sabaktagin  became  involved 
with  them,  through  the  application  of  Nuh  for  his  aid. 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn.  135 

other  resources  of  the  state,  hath  been  stopped 
up,  and  there  is  no  probability  of  meeting  with 
any  help,  nor  any  hope  of  repelling  these  evils, 
unless  by  the  powerful  force  and  vigorous  bridle  of 
Nasir-Addoulat-Abii-Mansdr,  and  in  the  breast 
of  thought  there  can  be  entertained  no  idea 
respecting  the  conferring  this  favour  and  the 
accomplishing  this  service  from  any  other  than 
from  him."  And  Nasiir  Addin  was  refreshed  in 
heart,  and  his  bosom  was  gladdened  that  he  was 
entrusted  to  expedite,  and  purify,  and  arrange 
in  this  matter  of  the  wounded  (state),  and  was 
jealously  (indignant)  on  account  of  this  attenuating 
consumption  of  the  family  of  Saman,  and  abhorred 
the  crimes  and  baseness  of  Abii  All,  and  the 
meanness  and  low  manners  of  F^tk.  He  therefore 
girded  up  his  loins  to  transfer  the  empire  from 
them,  and  to  respond  to  the  demand  of  the  Prince. 
He  speedily  marched,  and  with  eagerness  to  fulfil 
his  duty,  and  in  the  ardour  of  his  faithful  disposi- 
tion arrived  at  Mdwardnnahr.  The  Prince  Niih 
rose  up,  and  went  to  the  borders  of  Kash,  to  wit- 
ness his  arrival.  Here  they  met  with  the  greatest 
friendliness  ;  but  before  the  meeting  Nasdr  Addin 
had  requested  to  be  excused  the  trouble  of  dis- 
mounting, and  the  felicity  of  kissing  the  ground  of 
obedience,  on  account  of  the  weakness  of  old  age 
and  the  burden  of  advanced  years,  and  the  Prince 
Niih  for  that  reason  accepted  his  excuse  ;  but  when 


136  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGlN. 

the  eyes  of  Nasir  Addin  fell  upon  the  external 
appearance  of  the  prince,  his  veneration  for  his 
king  and  emperor  wrested  the  rein  from  his  hand, 
and  he  alighted  and  kissed  the  stirrup  of  Ntih. 
And  N^  sent  to  meet  him  some  agreeable  pre- 
sents, and  attracted  him  by  extreme  honour  and 
entire  respect,  and  from  the  meeting  of  these  two 
great  men,  and  the  association  of  these  two  kings., 
joy  came  to  all  hearts;  and  the  rose  of  delight 
unfolded  its  flowers  amongst  high  and  low,  and 
became  so  universally  diffiised  that  such  a  state  of 
affairs  has  never  been  recorded  or  described  in 
history.  And  the  prince  Niih  opened  the  hand  of 
kindness  and  generosity,  and  much  gratified  him- 
self and  his  followers  with  various  gifts  and 
dignities ;  and  in  the  end  it  appeared  how  the  sin- 
cerity of  his  advances  was  worthy  of  his  greatness, 
when  during  several  days  he  sought  his  counsel, 
respecting  the  injury  and  damage  of  those  two 
benefit-beliers,  he  exhibited  perfect  confidence, 
Nasir  AddIn  was  delighted,  and  offered  his  zealous 
service,  and  engaged  himself  to  sincere  obedience 
and  allegiance,  and  requested  a  delay  of  some  days 
that  he  might  go  to  Ghazna,  and  make  arrange- 
ments respecting  the  assembling  an  army,  and  the 
preparation  of  military  necessaries  ;  and  with  per- 
fect zeal  might  betake  himself  to  the  sacred  war 
against  the  wicked.  The  prince  consented,  and 
presented  him  with  splendid  robes  of  honour,  and 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAqIn.  137 

royal  gifts  and  unlimited  presents  of  various  kinds 
of  valuable  articles,  and  both  of  them  went  to  their 
own  abode,  and  used  their  utmost  industry  in 
settling  their  affairs,  and  assembling  soldiers,  and 
in  arranging  arms,  and  in  providing  necessaries 
and  horses  for  the  expedition. 

And  Abii-AH,  when  he  received  information  of 
these  things,  became  confounded  and  confused, 
and  the  sun  of  his  judgment  tended  towards 
declension,  and  the  culmination  of  his  star  (of 
good  fortune)  proceeded  towards  an  eclipse,  and 
his  contemptible  disposition  lost  the  right  road  in 
the  brightness  of  the  intellect  of  th&  King.  And 
this  question  was  proposed  to. the  council  of  his 
officers  and  favourites,  and  he  endeavoured  to 
increase  his  fire  from  the  breath  of  every  one,  and 
having  considered  the  means  of  getting  out  of  the 
difficulty,  the  most  excellent  advice  and  the  most 
approved  opinion  of  aU  was  this,  that  he  ought  to 
propose  friendship  and  fraternity  with  Fakhr- 
Addoulat,  and  that  his  love  would  be  an  important 
handle  (by  which  to  obtain  his  objects)  and  his 
friendship  an  efficient  supporter  of  his  views.  For 
he  thought  that  it  would  be  expedient  to  obtain 
the  advantage  of  his  alliance,  before  any  alteration 
in  his  fortunes,  "  so  that  if  (he  said)  we  should 
happen  to  find  difficulty  in  retaining  the  province 
of  Khurasan,  we  might  have  in  readiness  an  excel- 
lent resource  and  an  eminent  place  of  refuge."  And 


"138  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn. 

the  volume  of  their  wise  counsels  was  arranged 
and  sealed  upon  these  conditions.  And  Abii-All 
proceeded  according  to  this  plan,  and  he  appointed 
Abii-Jafar-Zulkarnain  for  this  expedition,  and  sent 
for  Fakhr-Addoulat,  by  his  hand,  some  packages 
full  of  the  fine  productions  of  Khurasan,  and  of  the 
export  goods  of  Turkistan.  And,  in  like  manner, 
he  entered  into  arrangements  with  respect  to 
Sahlb-Kati,  and  he  felt  assured  that,  by  his  means 
and  his  guidance,  he  should  succeed. 

And  Abu-Jafar  brought  back  the  following 
account,  namely  :  "  When  I  presented  these  gifts 
before  the  S4hib,  and,  using  the  words  of  Abii- All, 
apologized  for  them,  and  when,  in  my  speech,  this 
expression  occurred,  namely,  '  I  seem  to  myself,  in 
bringing  the  tribute  of  this  trifling  amount  of 
capital  stock  to  the  presence  of  the  sufficient  one 
of  sufficient  ones,  like  one  who  should  bring  dates 
as  a  present  to  Hajar  ;'* — 

"He  gave  this  answer  :  '  Yes,  they  do  bring 
dates  to  Hajar,  from  Medina,  by  way  of  bless- 
ing, not  by  reason  of  need.'  "  Then  S4hib  Kafi, 
for  the  purpose  of  settlmg  the  foundations  of  affec- 
tion, and  establishing  the  principles  of  friendship 
between  the  two  powers,  used  his  utmost  exertions, 
in  order  that  the  foundations  of  sincere  regard  and 
prosperity  should  become  established,  and  that  the 

*  Hajar,  a  town  in  Arabia,  therefore  tiie  native  country  of 
dates. 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn.  139 

way  of  intercourse,  by  means  of  letters  and  mes- 
sages, should  become  trodden.  And  this  affection 
and  regard  was  settled. 

Now  Mamiin-Ibn-Muhammad,  who  was  Prince 
of  Jurj  an,  and  Abd- Abdullah ,  King  of  Khwdrlzm,  a+ 
the  time  of  the  dissensions  at  Bukharfi,,  and  during 
the  days  of  misfortune,  had  offered  to  him  (Nilh) 
marks  of  kindness,  and  had  zealously  proffered 
their  services,  and  had  assisted  him  with  money 
and  property,  and  the  Prince  Niih,  at  the  time 
when  he  again  attained  to  the  possession  of  his 
principality,  in  order  to  reward  their  fidelity,  and 
by  way  of  recompense  to  them,  had  settled  the 
city  named  Nisa  upon  Mamiln,  and  augmented 
the  territory  of  Khwdrizm,  by  the  city  of  Abi- 
ward,  and  sent  to  each  a  royal  letter,  together 
with  a  sword  and  sash,  with  the  royal  certificate, 
and  each  of  them  sent  succours  from  their  respec- 
tive ^provinces.  And  Abii-Ali  relinquished  Nisa 
to  Mamiin ;  but  to  the  King  of  Khwarlzm  he 
returned  an  answer,  and  said :  "  The  city*  Abi- 
ward,  is  beloved  and  specially  inscribed  amongst 
my  brother's  provinces,  and,  unless  some  compen- 
sation be  assigned  by  the  Divdn,  Abiward  shall 
not  be  surrendered."  And  he  commanded  that 
some  (troops)  should  expel  the  King  of  Khwdrizm 
from  his  rightful  possession  ;  and  the  King  of 
Khwarizm  bore  this  as  a  grudge  in  his  hearty  until 
he  could  find  an  opportunity  of  revenge  ;  but  the 


140  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKT\.GiN. 

explication  of  all  these  matters  shall  be  commemo- 
rated in  its  proper  place,  please  God. 

And,  in  the  midst  of  all  these  transactions,  the 
troops  of  Nasir-Addln-Sabaktagin,  having  arrived 
at  a  lucky  moment,  came  up,  with  numerous 
troops,  and  a  brave  army,  and  a  complete  array, 
and  with  every  supply,  and  in  the  front  of  his 
army  there  were  nearly  two  hundred  pairs  of  ele- 
phants, which  he  had  found  as  plunder  in  India, 
all  adorned  with  splendid  trappings  and  incompar- 
able housings,  and  after  them  the  regiments  of 
troops,  and  after  them  the  Prince  Niih  came  in 
from  Bukhara ;  and,  at  Jurj^n,  Abii-Al-Hareth- 
Fareganl,  and  the  Sh^r,^^  and  other  chiefs  of  the 
cities,  joined  him,  and  Nasir-Addin-Sabaktdglu 
joined  him,  and  the  army  was  all  assembled,  like 
locusts  or  ants  innumerable,  and  as  immeasurable 
as  the  sand  of  the  desert,  and  Abvl-AH  and  Pdik 
departed  from  Nishapiir,  and  came  to  Her^t,  in 
order  that  they  might  guard  that  frontier  from  the 
attack  of  the  enemy,  and  they  took  the  troops  of 
those  provinces  with  them,  and  the  Prince  Niih 
and  the  Amir  Sabaktagin.f  . 
And  he  said,  "The  relations  of  friendship  were 
well  established  between  thee  and  my  father,  and 

,    *  The  peculiar  title  of  the  princes  of  Georgia, 
t  Several  lines  are  here  wanting  in  the  MS.     It  recom- 
mences with  a  speech  of  Abu-Ali  to  Sabaktagin,  requesting  the 
intercession  of  the  latter  with  Ntih. 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn.  141 

the  wise  have  said,  '  the  love  of  fathers  should  be 
the  alliance  of  sons,'  and  when  the  succession  to 
the  Nawwdb  authority  of  Khurasdn  came  to  me  I 
proceeded  in  the  path  of  my  father,  and  in  the  ful- 
filment of  respect  and  the  performance  of  the 
duties  of  service  neglected  not  the  smallest  parti- 
cular. Let,  then,  these  forms  and  bygone  connec- 
tions so  far  prevail  as  to  induce  thee  to  use  thy 
exertions  for  the  settlement  of  this  affair,  and  for 
the  extinction  of  the  materials  of  strife,  and  that 
thou  mayest  become  the  mediator  of  justice  and 
the  umpire  of  compassion  between  me  and  the 
Prince ;  and  if,  through  my  error,  any  action  has 
been  willingly  perpetrated  which  is  not  becoming 
or  consonant  to  faithful  service,  mayest  thou  ask 
pardon  and  allay  the  fire  of  anger,  and  remove  the 
dust  of  hatred,  and  I  will  cease  from  my  perverse 
conduct  with  regard  to  woman,  which  is  the  vice 
to  which  I  have  been  addicted,  and  I  will  earnestly 
engage  myself  in  doing  my  duty,  and  after  this 
how  shall  I  be  unable  to  withdraw  from  enchant- 
ment." The  Amir-Sabaktagin  accepted  this  com- 
mission, and  was  content  to  go  about  others'  con- 
tentment, and  had  several  communications  with 
the  Prince,  both  when  absent  and  present,  both 
by  personal  interviews  and  by  letters  brought 
forward  on  this  subject,  until  his  interces- 
sion became  successful,  and  the  Prince  Niih 
ceased  to  retain  such  hatred.     And  Xasir-Addin 


142  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn. 

wrote  this  good  news  to  Abil-Ali,  announcing  that 
his  wishes  were  fulfilled,  and  that  the  Prince  had 
issued  his  pardon,  and  had  passed  over  all  that  he 
had  said  and  done,  upon  condition  that  he  should 
pay  fifteen  packets,  each  containing  one  million  of 
dirhems,  by  way  of  fine  and  compensation  for  the 
injury  which  had  resulted  to  the  Treasury,  and 
that  he  should  henceforth,  in  the  strictest  manner, 
express  and  preserve  his  Service  to  the  throne,  and 
the  duties  of  a  subject  to  His  Highness,  as  estab- 
lished during  the  time  of  his  ancestors,  upon  a  gua- 
ranteed basis.  And  the  friends  of  Abu- AH  began  a 
consultation  with  one  another,  upon  the  subject, 
and  they  regarded  the  discharge  of  this  ransom  to 
be  a  great  advantage,  in  comparison  with  the 
obtaining  peace  and  the  abatement  of  the  fire  of 
strife,  and  they  were  all  content  with  this  proposal. 
But  the  body  of  the  troops,  through  the  heat 
of  youth  and  -the  want  of  experience,  and  their 
indifference  to  the  consequences  of  their  conduct, 
became  obstinate,  and  disregarded  this  settlement, 
and  they  ran  to  the  camp  of  Nasir-Addin  and 
plundered  the  soldier  who  was  stationed  in  front 
of  the  yokes  of  elephants  and  killed  him,  with 
some  others  whom  they  found  off  their  guard. 
And  a  messenger  of  Nasir-Addln,  when  he 
returned,  passed  by  those  troops,  who  were  the 
advanced  guard  of  Abii-Ali,  who  used  to  him 
words  of  scoffing  and  said,  "  Let  your  master  exert 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIN.  143 

himself  within  the  palace  and  there  speak  his  vain 
words.  It  is  not  possible  that,  whilst  we  can  hold 
these  swords  in  our  hands,  we  should  give  up  our 
bodies  to  such  disgrace,  or  be  content  with  the 
stigma  of  this  servitude  (Verse) 

"  '  As  to  the  house  of  Grod  (Jerusalem)  he  shall  not  take  it 
in  battle  whilst  we  can  hold  a  sword.'  " 

When  the  news  of  this  event  was  brought  to 
Ndsir-Addin  he  became  angry  and  expressed 
wonder  at  the  conduct  of  the  army,  and  sent  word 
to  Abii-Ali,  to  this  effect,  "  Prepare  to  fight  and 
come  to  battle,  for  this  quarrel  will  not  be  con- 
cluded except  by  the  decision  of  the  sword,  and 
this  contest  cannot  be  cut  off,  unless  by  the 
meeting  of  warriors  on  the  battle-field.  If  thou 
art  beguiled  by  the  queen  of  thy  chess-board — the 
alliance  which  thou  hast  made  with  Falk,  come 
.  to-morrow  into  the  plain,  that  you  may  see  my 
elephant  playing  upon  the  board  of  the  valiant, 
and  if,  through  thy  forces  of  horse  and  foot  (pawns 
and  knights)  the  castle  has  been  burnt,  now  throw 
thy  horses  with  us  into  the  arena,  that  thou 
mayest  witness  the  '  horsemanship  of  skilled 
masters."  Then,  having  departed  from  his  en- 
campments, he  conducted  the  army  to  a  plain,  the 
widest  in  his  possession,  and  there  he  arrayed  his 
forces  against  him,  and  arranged  his  right,  and  left, 
and  placed  in  front  a  gigantic   body  of  war-ele- 


144  MEMoms  OF  sabaktagIn. 

phants,  and  he  himself,  with  the  Prince  Niih  and 
the  Amir  Mahmiid,  stood  in  the  centre  ;  and  all 
their  men  in  the  battle  inscribed  their  names  in 
the  book  of  death,  and  in  the  contest  tooth  was 
lost  for  tooth  (Verse) 

"  Of  all  terrors  most  terrible  is  (the  terror)  of  death. 
"  Where  neither  weakness  or  excuses  can  be  exerted. 
"  "When  blows  in  anger  meet  with  difficulty  in  opposing 
spears,  in  the  congregation  of  the  rebellious."* 

And  Abil-Ah  arranged  his  army  in  the  proper 
method  and  put  his  regiments  in  order,  and  he 
sent  Fdik  to  the  right  hand  and  kept  his  brother, 
Abil-Al-Kasim-Simjiir,  at  his  left  hand,  and  he 
himself  took  up  his  position  in  the  centre.  And 
when  the  two  armies  engaged  Fdlk  on  the  right, 
defeated  the  enemy  on  the  left,  and  Abii-AK- 
Kdsim,  on  the  left,  broke  through  the  right,  and 
Sabaktagin  was  very  near  losing  the  whole  affair 
out  of  his  hand,  and  he  became  very  weak  and 
powerless.  However,  Dird-'bn-Shams-Almudli- 
Kabiis-'bn-Washamgert  made  a  charge  from  the 
centre  of  Abii- All's  army,  and,  when  he  arrived  at 
the  middle  of  the  two  troops,  he  drew  his  shield 
over  his  back,  and  went  in  front  of  Prince  Nilh, 
and  offered  his  respects,  and  betook  himself  to 
slaughter  the  army  of  Abii-AH.     And  the  army 

r     *  The  translator  doubts  the  correctness  of  the  MS.  of  these 
verses,  and  can  only  give  an  approximate  and  free  version, 
t  Or  Washamgir. 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn.  145 

of  Abii-Ali,  when  they  saw  the  treachery  of  Ddrd, 
'  became  distrustful,  and  thought  that  his  treachery 
could  not  be  without  common  consent,  and  for  this 
reason  they  became  disheartened.  And  Nasir- 
Addin,  with  his  cavalry,  made  a  charge,  and 
portions  of  the  earth  became  convulsed,  from  the 
motion  of  the  troops  ;  and  the  army  of  Abii-AH, 
from  their  terror  at  that  untoward  accident,  and 
their  alarm  at  that  onset,  betook  themselves'  to 
flight  and  was  broken  up,  and  none  of  them  found 
any  power  of  rallying,  and  Amlr-Mahmiid  pursued 
behind  them,  and  put  to  death  every  one  with 
whom  he  came  up,  or  took  them  prisoners  ;  and 
these  troops  threw  away  so  much  treasure  and 
valuables,  and  stores,  and  armour,  that  if  the  tithe 
of  it  had  been  presented  (to  the  Prince  Ntlh)  and 
had  been  given  to  him,  by  way  of  ransom,  their 
honour  would  have  remained  uninjured,  nor  would 
they  have  been  scattered  unto  various  provinces  of 
the  earth,  in  the  robe  of  shame  and  the  dress  of 
ruin. 

And  Abii-AK  retreated  to  Nishapiir,  and  there 
occupied  himself  in  arranging  his  affairs  and  in 
attending  to  the  wounds  of  his  army,  and  in  pre- 
paring military  stores,  in  order  that,  before  the 
army  arrived,  he  might  consider  the  remedy  for 
his  defeat,  and  the  means  of  providing  for  the 
object  of  his  wishes.  And  the  Prince  Niih  and 
the  chiefs  of  Sabaktagln  and  Mahmiid  halted  two 


146  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIN. 

or  three  days,  on  account  of  the  heat*  which  the 
camels  and  horses  had  suffered,  and  for  the 
purpose  of  dividing  the  booty  and  the  treasure ; 
and  the  Prince  Nuh  gave  to  the  Amir  Sabaktagin 
the  surname  of  Ndsir-Addln,  and  honoured  his  son 
and  heir,  Mahmiid,  with  the  surname  Saif-Ad- 
doillat.  And  he  presented  him  with  the  general- 
ship of  the  troops,  which  had  been  the  office  of 
Abii-Ali,  and  he  proceeded  to  Nishapilr,  with 
great  splendour  and  a  well-appointed  army,  and 
abundants  of  troops,  and  a  great  staff  of  officers. 

And  Abul-Fath-Basti  says,  in  describing  him, 
as  follows  (Verse) 

"AH  affairs  are  arranged  (or  collected)  by  Saif-Addoulat, 
we  have  seen  them  all  arranged  in  proper  order.  The  sons  of 
renown  and  honour  are  named  and  honoured,  but  none  of  the 
renowned  and  honoured  are  equal  to  him." 

And  they  designated  him,  in  the  order  of 
words,  by  the  surname  of  Saif-Addoulat,  until 
God  raised  him  to  the  pinnacle  of  greatness,  and 
granted  him  the  kingly  office,  and  (then)  he  was 
known  and  celebrated  throughout  all  the  regions 
of  the  earth,  by  the  name  of  SuMn  Yamin-Ad- 
doulat-wa- Amin- Almuslimah  .f 

And  when  Abii-AH  received  intelligence  of  his 
expected  arrival,  he  set  off  to  Jurjdn,  in  the  hope 

*  Or  in  order  to  ascertain  or  compute  (the  number)  of  the 
camels  and  horses. 

t  This  is  evidently  an  error,  it  should  be  Al  Millat. 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn.  147 

of  settling  the  treaty  which  had  been  arranged 
between  him  and  Fakhr-Addoulat,  respecting  mu- 
tual assistance  and  protection,  and  support ;  and 
he  sent  one  of  his  privy  chamber  gentlemen,  named 
Abii-Nasr,  on  a  mission  to  him,  and  represented 
the  event  which  had  taken  place.  And  he  wrote 
a  letter  to  S4hib-Kdfi,  inviting  him  to  extend  the 
aid  which  his  position  enabled  him  to  do,  (and  in 
his  letter  he  assured  him)  that  he  regarded  him 
as  the  support  of  his  life,  and  the  pillar  of  his 
prosperity,  and  that  he  esteemed  his  previous 
generosity  and  favour,  as  a  treasure  of  precious 
things.  And  he  said,  "The  faces  of  people  of 
intelligence  are  guiding  bridles.  Friends  ought 
to  come  to  one's  assistance  in  time  of  misfortune, 
and  they  ought  to  profit  their  connections  when 
days  of  sorrow  come.  Unto  us  powerful  enemies 
and  vahant  foes  have  appeared,  and  our  inherited 
abode  and  ancient  rank  hath  passed  from  our 
hands.  And  where  shall  we  find  a  comrade  like 
thee  whom  we  may  produce  as  our  supreme  oracle  ? 
or  where  shall  we  find  one  as  efficient  as  thee,  who 
can  afford  a  remedy  for  our  troubles,  and  become 
a  refuge  from  our  ills  ?  the  fame  of  whose  autho- 
rity and  gravity,  like  the  sun,  shines  forth  over 
every  corner  and  region  of  the  earth  ;  and  accord- 
ing to  the  proverb,  'He  that  is  neighbour  to 
Al-Azad  is  not  far  off  An-Niijiim,'*  it  is  neces- 
*  Azad  and  Nfijtiin,  two  Arabian  tribes. 

l2 


148  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIN. 

sary  that  you  should  not  object  to  enter  upon 
some  salutary  counsels  upon  our  affairs,  with  his 
Highness  Fakhr-Addoulat,  by  way  of  the  expres- 
sion of  opinions,  so  that  through  thy  beneficial 
energy  this  grief  and  unpleasantness  may  not  be 
over  the  neck  of  one's  thoughts." 

S4bib-Kafi  regarded  this  opportunity  as  a  per- 
fect gain,  and  employed  the  most  urgent  expres- 
sions before  Fakhr-Addoulat,  and  said,  "  The  son 
of  Simjiir  is  not  a  bird  that  falls  into  the  snare 
every  minute,  nor  is  he  so  straitened  for  hospi- 
tality, that  the  door  of  honour  and  respect  should 
pass  from  his  grasp ;  and  since  he  has  taken  refuge 
in  this  state,  and  come  to  the  door  of  this  sove- 
reign, let  the  princes  of  the  earth  keep  their  eyes 
upon  him,  that  his  proper  right  of  (kindness)  may 
be  maintained,  and  let  them  provide  for  the  resto- 
ration of  his  rank,  and  for  the  extolling  his  dignity 
to  the  utmost,  and  for  enquiring  into  the  means  of 
establishing  his  name  and  renown." 

Upon  this  Fakhr-Addoulat  commanded  that 
they  should  appoint  him  a  fixed  allowance  out  of 
the  revenues  of  the  treasury  of  Jurgdn,  and  that 
they  should  give  in  settled  portions  to  the  officers 
a  thousand  bags,  each  containing  a  thousand  royal 
dirhems,  out  of  the  taxes  of  that  province,  in  order 
that  the  expenses  of  the  army  should  be  paid  pro- 
perly. And  Abu- All  and  Fdlk  remained  in  the 
same  place  during    the   winter,   until   the  spring 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn.  149 

began  to  appear,  and  the  meadows  to  bloom  with 
flowers,  and  the  season  for  setting  the  army  in 
motion  arrived. 

Now  whilst  their  Highnesses  Naslr-Addin- 
Sabaktagin  and  Siif-Addoulat-Mahmiid  were  at 
Nishapiir,  at  the  source  of  events,  their  opinion 
respecting  the  merit  of  Abdullah- Azir  had  become 
changed,  and  they  began  to  suspect  that  he  was 
disturbing  their  relations  with  Prince  Nilh,  and 
that  he  was  endeavouring  to  encroach  upon  their 
country  and  provinces.  And  the  Prince  Niih,  on 
account  of  the  awe  which  he  entertained  for  his 
Vizir,  and  his  dread  of  him,  and  his  fear  on  account 
of  injury  which  might  happen  to  him  from  that 
quarter,  removed,  and  went  to  the  neighbourhood 
of  Tils,  And  when  Saif-Addoulat  became  aware 
of  this  state  of  things,  he  went  after  him  ;  and  in 
order  to  conciliate  his  Excellency,  and  to  obtain  a 
propitious  decree  from  the  Royal  Court,  and  to 
prove  the  fidelity  of  his  intentions,  he  used  his 
utmost  endeavours  in  his  professions  of  friendship 
and  obedience ;  and  the  Prince  Niih  was  much 
gratified  with  his  arrival,  and  expressed  great 
affection  for  him.  Thus  the  immediate  pressure  of 
that  untoward  affair  was  removed,  and  Abd-Allah- 
Ibn-Azlz,  dreading  this  alliance,  retired-  and  went 
to  Merd,  and  the  Prince  Niih,  after  this  event  of 
the  reconciliation  of  the  two  powers,  and  after  the 
occurrence  of  their  sincere  friendship,  went  in  the 


150  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn. 

footsteps  of  the  Vizir  as  far  as  Merd,  and  from 
thence  proceeded  to  Bukh&rd,  and  established  him- 
self upon  the  throne  of  his  kingdom,  with  con- 
fidence and  prosperity.  And  the  two  Amirs 
Naslr-Addin  and  Saif-Addoulat  spread  forth  at 
Nishapur  the  carpet  of  justice,  and  of  mercy,  and 
of  equity,  and  entirely  abolished  the  system  of 
innovations,  and  of  blameable  novelties,  and  the 
rules  of  tyranny.  And  all  the  subjects  of  the 
province  and  the  people,  were  placed  by  them 
under  the  canopy  of  peace  and  tranquillity.  And 
the  principles  of  tyranny,  and  injustice,  and  vio- 
lence, and  court-favour,  which  in  weak  times,  and 
in  the  reign  of  the  family  of  Simjiir,  had  been  in- 
troduced, were  abolished  by  them  throughout  the 
whole  country  of  Khurasan,  and  such  things  were 
entirely  removed,  so  that  the  confidence  of  the 
people  revived,  and  the  provinces  became  well 
inhabited  again  ;  and  the  caravans  of  the  mer- 
chants, and  the  dealers  in  merchandize,  began  to 
attend  to  their  affairs,  and,  in  the  room  of  misfor- 
tune and  alarm,  found  the  road  of  security,  and 
prosperity  and  abundance  appeared  plentifully  to 
the  view. 

And  the  Amlr-Naslr-Addln  took  it  into  his 
head  to  go  for  a  short  time  to  Herdt,  and  to  renew 
the  treaty  respecting  his  stores,  and  possessions, 
domestics,  and  provinces.  He  proceeded  to  that 
district,   and    Amir-Saif-Addoulat-MahmTid    was 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAOiw.  151 

established  at  Nishapdr  upon  the  throne  of  govern- 
ment, and  in  the  heutenancy  of  the  army. 

Then  Abd-All  and  F^Ik  wrote  a  despatch  to 
Fakhr-Addoulat,  and  represented  that  he  should 
send  supplies  from  Ray,  in  order  that  they  might 
defray  their  expenses  incurred  in  the  maintenance 
of  their  officers  ;  and  they  pointed  out  that  the 
revenues  of  Jurjan,  of  which  they  had  obtained 
possession,  for  the  support  of  their  rank,  were 
insufficient  for  their  dignity.  Abu-Nasr,  the 
Chamberlain,  wrote  a  letter,  in  reply,  thus  :  "  I 
have  submitted  the  writing  which  arrived  to  the 
consideration  of  Fakhr-Addoulat.  He  commands 
me  to  reply,  that  the  treasuries  of  kings  are  like 
migbty  rivers,  whose  overpowering  torrents  and 
abundant  waters  impress  the  eyes  and  astonish 
men  ;  but  a  real  body  (of  waters)  and  great  pros- 
perity is  denied  them.  Let  them  be  careless  in 
apportioning  them,  and  they  wUl  know  that  they 
may  be  expended  by  means  of  many  (small) 
streams,  and  that  their  currents  may  be  swallowed 
up  by  people  of  necessity  and  persons  of  distJress. 
Although  we  possess  a  wealthy  province  yet  an 
amount  equal  to  double  its  revenue  stands  against 
it,  by  reason  of  the  support  of  the  army,  of  various 
kinds  of  expenditures  and  different  kinds  of  de- 
fences. If  you  would  relinquish  to  us  your  ample 
resources  and  the  outgoings  (caused  by'  the  army 
of  Khurasan  we  would  accept  that  revenue  to  put 


152  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn. 

in  order  our  finance,  and  you  can  refer  yourselves 
to  your  other  possessions,  whereby  you  may  have 
strength  equal  to  your  circumstances.  We  have 
gone  to  the  utmost.  If  further  apology  be 
(needed)  on  this  point,  let  our  apology  appear  on 
this  ground." 

Abii-Ali  and  Fdlk  were  struck  and  quite  con- 
founded at  this  reply,  and  assembled  their  distin- 
guished officers,  and,  unfolding  the  circumstances, 
consulted  them  respecting  the  fit  manner  of  acting 
in  that  contingency,  and  of  arranging  that  affair. 
Every  one  gave  a  varying  opinion  :  some  said  it 
would  be  necessaiy  to  take  possession  of  Jurjdn, 
for  the  expenses,  and  to  proclaim  the  title  of  the 
Prince  Ntih  in  that  province,  and  for  this  service 
to  request  admission  into  his  presence,  and  to  send 
an  envoy  to  express  obedience  and  devotion,  and 
to  ask  aid  from  his  victorious  Highness,  and  to 
represent  that  the  preceding  princes  of  the  royal 
house  of  S^mdn  have  been  for  long  ages  desirous 
to  obtain  these  provinces,  and  for  that  object  have 
expended  immeasurably,  and  have  sent  numerous 
armies,  in  the  hope  of  recovering  this  province  by 
the  sacrifice  of  hves  and  the  risking  of  heads,  and 
with  all  this  they  have  not  attained  their  desire  ; 
but  through  us  this  can  be  attained  and  be  pro- 
cured, without  trouble,  vexation,  or  annoyance ; 
and  we  know  that  it  is  very  far  from  the  act  of  a 
wise  man  to  give  ready  money  for  credit,  or  to  sell 


MEMOIRS  OP  SABAKTAGIn.  153 

that  which  is  present  for  that  which  is  non-appa- 
rent. Faik  drew  back  his  head/'  and  said,  "This 
is  our  position,  that  Sabaktagin  hath  departed 
from  Nishapiir,  and  Mahnnid  has  not  the  power  of 
resistance.  He  is  a  foreigner  at  Khurasdn,  and 
the  army  of  an  alien  is  like  a  torrent,f  which, 
although  it  may  appear  terrible,  yet  the  stream 
passes  away,  and  from  its  precipitancy  becomes 
reduced  to  nothing  (Verse) 

" '  A  sword  of  mist  is  soon  dispersed.' 

"  I  must  go  to  Nishapiir,  and  expel  Mahmiid 
from  that  province,  and  take  possession  thereof, 
and  so  sit  down  at  rest  and  quietness,  awaiting 
what  the  mercy  of  God  may  bring  forth  from  the 
curtain  of  mystery  and  the  day-book  of  occur- 
rences (Verse) 

" '  Between  the  gradual  rising  of  the  irrigation  and  the 
necessity  of  bewaring  of  it, 

"  '  There  may  he  the  manumission  of  a  slave,  there  may  be 
the  reparation  of  the  broken.' 

"  And  at  this  time  it  is  the  summer  season,  and 
the  air  of  Jurjdn  is  infectious  and  unhealthy,  and 
our  army  will  be  injured  by  the  unwholesomeness 
of  that  air,  and  if  they  should  meet  with  the  enemy, 

*  *.  e.  Dissented. 

t  Or  the  army  of  one  who  is  isolated,  unsupparted,  &c. 


154  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn. 

it  might  become  weak.  When  the  bad  air  is  dis- 
persed and  the  autumnal  season  has  arrived, 
Karkan  is  in  our  hands." 

The  majority  of  the  army  concurred  with  this 
opinion,  and  the  love  of  home  and  their  affection 
for  their  families  and  abodes  prevailed,  and  they 
agreed  to  this  resolution.  And  Abii-AH  was 
compelled  to  conform,  of  necessity,  and  to  concur 
with  their  will.  And,  in  the  midst  of  these  trans- 
actions, news  arrived  that  Sahib-Kdfi,  who  was  the 
lamp  to  illuminate  the  darkness  of  these  matters, 
and  the  physician  to  heal  this  disease,  had  drawn 
near  to  the  Giver  of  Mercy,  and  had  approached 
the  dominion  of  death.  And  Abii-Ali,  for  that 
reason,  lost  his  wish  to  jreside  at  Jurjan,  since  his 
hope  of  support  depended  upon  Sahib-Kafi,  who 
had  directed  his  chief  attention  to  the  well-doing 
and  guidance  of  His  Excellency,  and  had  stirred 
up  Fakhr-Addoulat,  by  his  zeal  and  attention  in 
regulating  affairs,  and  his  skill  in  procuring  the 
accomplishment  of  his  wishes,  in  the  way  of  retali- 
ation upon  his  enemies.  And  when  Sahib-Kafi 
died,  the  poets  of  that  time  made  many  verses  in 
his  praise.  Abu-Mahmild-Khazin  thus  says 
(Verse) 

"  Oh  K^fi,  the  Prince  !  I  am  not  sufficient  to  commend  thee, 
according  to  thy  due.  Eyen  if  my  power  of  commending  or  of 
vituperating  were  lengthened  I  could  not  express,  in  detail, 
each  one  of  the  qualities  which  we  weep  for  in  thee.      Com- 


MEMOIRS  OF  BABAKTAGIn.  155 

mendation  would  be  blame  for  one  who  looks  with  moist  eye 
upon  the  extremity  of  thy  incomparable  brUlianey  !"  &c. 


And  Abii-All  went  from  Jurjdn,  by  way  of 
Juin,  and  sent  to  Fiik,  to  meet  him,  by  the  way 
of  Isfarain ;  and  they  met  on  the  confines  of 
Nishapiir,  and  directed  their  course  towards  Nish- 
apiir.  And  when  Saif-Addoulat  received  intelli- 
gence of  this  event,  he  caused  messengers  to  run 
hastily  to  his  father,  and  informed  him  of  their 
arrival  :  and  he  came  forth  from  the  city  with  a 
squadron  of  troops  which  had  remained  with  him, 
and  pitched  his  camp  outside  the  city,  in  order,  to 
observe  (the  movements)  of  the  enemy's  army. 
And  Abii-All  and  Fdlk  hastened  forward,  in  order 
that  they  might  engage  him  before  news  of  their 
arrival  had  reached  him.  But  Saif-Addoulat  stood 
up  against  them  with  the  troops  which  he  had,  and 
offered  them  battle ;  and  he  put  numbers  to  the 
sword,  and  cast  many  under  the  feet  of  the  ele- 
phants, and  he  very  nearly  won  the  victory. 
However  Abii-Ali  and  Fiik  made  a  circular 
movement,  and  divine  destiny  seconded  their 
wishes.  And  Saif-Addoulat  thought  it  not  fit  to 
make  any  longer  delay,  and  saw  that  it  would  be 
useful  and  proper  to  proceed  towards  His  High- 
ness, his  father,  trusting  that  by  the  magnifying 
glory  and  might  of  his  star  and  happy  fortune, 
victory  would  in  the  issue  compensate  him,  and 


156  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAQIn. 

that  in    the   end   victory   and  prosperity   would 
arrive,  to  establish,  his  days  (in  glory)  (Yersej 

"  Surely  I  know  that  I  alone  can  slaughter  them  ;  I  will 
slaughter  them,  and  the  enemy  shall  not  escape  martyrdom  ;  I 
will  stop  up  from  them  (the  road  of  escape)  and  the  most 
beloved  of  them  shall  be  food  for  ravens,  on  the  day  of  cutting 
off  the  extension  of  life." 

And  the  light  and  heavy-armed  troops  which 
remained  away  frora  Saif-Addoulat,  and  some 
yokes  of  elephants  and  some  of  th.e  Indian  troops, 
remained  in  the  power  of  Abil-Ali.  With  these 
he  was  reinforced,  and  thus  refitted*  the  breakings 
which  had  occurred  to  him  in  equipments  and 
baggage.  But  another  fire  of  tumult  blazed  forth, 
and  his  desire  of  exalting  his  condition  and  happily 
arranging  his  affair  was  restrained.  For  many  of 
his  chief  officers  and  sections  of  his  troops  thought 
it  expedient  to  follow  the  Amirs  in  the  rear,  and, 
before  they  could  re-assemble  their  forces  or 
compose  their  affairs,  bring  to  perfection  the  dis- 
aster which  had  occurred,  and  to  harass  them  from 
the  province  of  Khurasdn ;  but  his  scant  fortune, 
his  weak  zeal,  and  his  flattered  power  made  him 
slothful  in  listening  to  these  words  or  following 
this  advice,  so  that  he  took  up  his  abode  at  Nish- 
apiir,  and  then  he  applied  himself  to  smooth  over 
his  past  misfortunes,  and  betook  himself  to  write 
letters  to  Bukh^rd,  and  to  seek  the  favour  of  the 

*  lAteraWj  jalcmed,  cut,  as  in  joiner's  work. 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAqIn.  157 

Prince  Niih,  and  to  ask  impossibilities,  until  the 
torrent  of  misfortune  came  over  his  head,  and  he 
was  caught  in  the  snare  of  sorrow ;  and,  in  like 
manner,  he  sent  a  letter  to  the  Amir  Ndsir-Addin, 
and  knocked  at  the  door  of  excuse,  and  took  to 
display  his  ingenuous  conduct,  and  perfectly  trans- 
ferred the  blame  of  that  proceeding  and  the  crime 
of  that  eflFort  from  himself  to  a  long-backed  pack- 
ass,  and  he  threw  the  burden  of  this  error  upon 
Fdlk  and  the  other  chiefs,  and  he  said,  "  If  the 
reins  of  choice  had  been  in  my  hand,  and  the  other 
chiefs  had  not  displayed  so  much  zeal  in  seducing 
and  beguiling  the  people,  I  should  never  have  left 
Jurjdn  and  I  should  never  have  tampered  with  the 
province  of  Khurasin,  and  I  never  should  have 
breathed  one  breath  in  opposition  to  the  pleasure 
of  His  Highness  N^sir-Addln,  and  I  never  should 
have  put  one  foot  forward  in  the  matter." 

In  this  way  did  he  offer  to  make  amends,  and 
requested  terms  of  accommodation,  and  employed 
the  most  coloured  (feigned)  proceedings  in  the  way 
of  asking  pardon  and  indulgence,  and  intreating  to 
be  received  into  confidence.  But  by  these  lying 
excuses  and  disagreeable  words  he  made  the  im- 
pression respecting  himself  and  his  followers  more 
confirmed.  And  the  Amir  Nasir-Addin  sent  let- 
ters to  (all)  quarters,  and  summoned  the  army  back 
again ;  and  he  took  with  him,  as  speedily  as 
possible,  all  the  officers  who  had  obtained  leave  of 


158  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn. 

absence.  And  he  sent  Abu  Nasr-Abl-Zaid  to 
Sistan,  to  summon  Khalaf-'bn-AJimad,  and  he 
called  Abub-Hareth-Fareghiini  from  Jurjan  ;  and 
he  caused  one  to  run  to  Prince  Ndh,  in  order  that 
he  might  aid  the  matter,  and  expedite  the  proceed- 
ings. And  they  assembled  an  army  so  great  that, 
from  the  trouble  of  the  thick  trees  of  their  stan- 
dards, a  bird  could  not  fly  into  the  field  of  the 
atmosphere,  and  the  means  of  fighting,  or  of  flpng 
into  the  glens  and  drinking-places*  of  the  earth 
were  intercepted  from  the  wild  beasts  and  Uons 
(Verse) 

"  Through  their  number  the  loftiest  hills  were  oversha- 
dowed, also  the  most  inaccessible  peaks,  and  the  most  cele- 
brated range  of  mountains." 

Now,  after. the  event  at  Nishapiir,  Fdlk  went 

to  Tils,    and    began  freely  and   unreservedly  to 

confer  with  the  Amir  Nd,sir-Addln,  and  having 

represented  the  inclination  he  felt  for  the  service, 

and  the  rights  of  his  Highness,  he  began  to  let 

down   the   thread  of  obedience  and  duty.     And 

.Nasir-Addin  wrote  an  answer,  which  flattered  his 

hypocrisy,  his  falsehood,    and  his  deceit,  and  he 

measured  out  to  him  some  coins  (of  compliment) 

in  the  same  measure  (Verse) 

"  Let  him  praise  me  and  I  will  praise  him.  Every  one 
makes  sport  for  his  master."t 

*  G-lens  and  drinking-places,  or  dens  and  places  of 
concourse  ;  wild  beasts  assemble  at  rivers,  &c. 

t  Or,  Every  one  may  play  the  buffoon  for  his  master. 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn.  159 

And  the  petty  chieftan  of  Tiis,  in  like  manner, 
began  to  decline  from  Abii-All,  and  took  his  stand 
between  hypocrisy  and  sincerity,  and  began  to 
withdraw  his  side  from  his  alliance,  and  to  be 
undecided  respecting  his  acquaintance  and  associa- 
tion; but  Abd-All  sent  Abiil-Kasim,  the  priest, 
who  was  one  of  his  privy  counsellors,  to  them,  and 
warned  them  of  the  consequences  of  dissension, 
and  said,  "  At  the  present  time  there  is  no  remedy 
against  the  force  and  insolence  of  your  enemies, 
and  against  the  disturbance  of  the  times,  and  the 
confusion  of  aU  things,  except  in  mutual  alliance, 
and  mutual  efforts,  and  mutual  support.  And 
above  all  things,  we  should  never  break  the  chain 
of  friendship,  until  we  have  found  some  means  of 
getting  out  of  present  circumstances."  And  Abii- 
Kdsim,  the  priest,  went  and  addressed  himself  to 
them,  and  urged  upon  them  alliance  and  confidence. 
And  he  wrote  to  Abii-All  thus  :  "  It  is  necessary 
that,  whatever  happens,  you  should  march  and  join 
yourselves  to  them."  Upon  this  Abii-Ali  marched 
to  the  province  of  Tds,  and  F4ik  and  the  Amir 
joined  him,  and  entered  into  a  sincere  and  friendly 
alliance,  and  they  chose  a  wide  plain  at  Anderah, 
and  halted  at  that  place. 

And  Abii-Kdsim-'bn-Simjiir  opposed  Abii-Ali, 
and  remained  inactive  at  Nishapiir,  on  account  of 
the  grudge  which  had  arisen  between  them*  on 
*  Or  on  account  of  that  which  had  occurred  previously. 


160  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn, 

account  of  the  slaughter  which  had  occurred  when 
Abii-Ali  had  taken  from  him  the  province  of  Herdt, 
and  had  given  it  to  his  servant  Ilmangii,  and  Abii- 
AH  for  some  time  remained  heart-broken,  on  ac- 
count of  the  oppression  of  his  brother,  and  the 
cessation  of  his  support  and  power ;  and  he  per- 
ceived that  his  power  was  humiliated  and  ruined. 

And  Ndsir-Addin*  made  a  movement  towards 
overpowering  their  forces,  and  conquering  their 
troops,  and  he  came  to  Tils,  and  the  regions  of 
the  earth  were  agitated  by  the  march  of  his  army 
(Verse) 

"  "When  we   travel  between   the   east  and  the  west  the 
wakeful  earth  is  moved  and  its  elements." 

And  the  young  men  on  both  sides,  and  the 
youths  of  both  parties,  were  engaged  from  day  to 
night  in  battle  and  combats.  They  began  therefore 
to  consult  how  to  contrive  a  snare  for  him,  and 
how  to  find  a  remedy  for  these  circumstances. 
And  the  Amir  of  Tils,  and  several  who  were  emi- 
nently judicious,  and  had  experienced  the  vicissi- 
tudes of  fortune,  said  "The  following  plan  is  the 
best ;  that  we  should  take  refuge  in  the  great 
mountains,  and  should  seek  for  help  in  the  fort- 
resses and  castles  of  those  provinces.  And  we  will 
excite  the  men  of  Tils  against  them,  that  they  may 

*  Sabaktagin,  in  consequence  of  the  summons  of  his  son 
Mahmud. 


MEMOIRS  OP  SABAKTAgIn.  161 

make  night  attacks  upon  the  skirt  of  the  army,  arid 
plunder  their  baggage  and  their  horses,  and  make 
booty  of  their  heavy  baggage.  And  in  this  we 
will  consume  some  time,  until  they  begin  to  fear, 
and  considerable  bodies  of  their  outermost  troops 
are  cut  oflF;  then  we  will  draw  up  our  ranks  against 
them,  with  clearsightedness  and  effectual  arrange- 
ment ;  we  will  engage  them,  and  we  will  execute 
the  business  completely."  But  the  lower  order  of 
the  soldiers,  and  the  inferior  ranks  of  the  people, 
felt  averse  to  this  proposal,  and  said,  "  This  would 
be  a  mark  of  weakness,  and  an  evidence  of  insuffi- 
cient power  and  strength,  and  we  wiU  not  give  up 
our  bodies  to  this  imbecility,  nor  will  concur  in 
this  humiliation  (Verse) 

" '  A  generous  man  will  venerate  youtb.'  "* 

And  when  the  hand  of  the  sword  of  the  breeze 
of  morning  was  drawn  from  the  sheath  of  the 
horizon,  the  men  of  both  armies  and  the  warriors 
of  both  countries  drew  out  mutually  the  sharp 
sword ;  and  when  the  engagement  came  to  its 
height  and  the  flame  of  war  arrived  at  its  utmost 
point,  then,  at  night,  on  the  left  of  Abil-All,  a 
great  dust  arose,  and  the  Amir  Saif-Addoulat 
came  up  with  many  troops  and  with  innumerable 
soldiers,  on  that  side,  and  Abii-Ali  remained  bold 

*  i.  e.  Make  allowances  for,  respect  their  feelings. 

M 


162  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn. 

but  perplexed  between  those  two  armies,  and  con- 
sidered that  it  would  be  a  remedy  for  the  difficulty 
if  he  took  both  his  wings  above  his  centre,*  and 
charged  in  one  body  upon  the  centre  of  Nasir- Ad- 
din,  so  that  he  should  not  be  able  to  escape  from 
that  difficulty,  even  by  a  small  space.  Nasir- 
Addin  repulsed  that  attack  with  great  steadiness 
and  firmness,  and  Saif-Addoulat  came  up,  and 
they  attacked  the  army  of  Abii-Ali  in  the  middle, 
and  drops  of  blood  flowed  upon  the  field  of  battle, 
and  the  war-elephants  seized  the  horsemen  with 
their  trunks,  and  broke  their  backs  beneath  their 
feet,  until  countless  multitudes  and  innumerable 
people  perished  upon  that  plain.  And  Abii-Ali- 
'bn-Millz,  the  Chamberlain,  and  Yaktegin-Fara- 
giin,  and  ArsMn-Beg,  and  Abil-AlI-'bn-Nawishgin, 
and  the  army  of  f Ibn-Abi-Jafar-Addilami  were 
taken  prisoners,  with  several  other  eminent  officers 
of  the  army  of  Abii-AlI,  having  obtained  conditions 
of  surrender,  and  the  rest  having  acquired  some 
support  and  protection,  through  the  darkness  of 
the  night,  gained  an  opportunity  of  escape  from 
the  disaster  of  that  battle.  And  Saif  Addoulat 
went  after  them,  and,  by  means  of  the  cutting 
arguments  of  the  sword,  obtained  retribution  and 

*  i.  e.  So  as  to  add  his  wings  to  his  centre  and  form  one 
heavy  body,  whereby  to  break  through  the  army  of  Sabaktagin, 
before  the  troops  of  Mahmud  should  arrive, 
t  The  prsenomen  here  illegible. 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTA^GiN.  163 

satisfaction  from  them,  and,  putting  them  to  death, 
made  a  free  gift  of  them  to  the  beasts  and  birds 
(Verse) 

"  So  they  turned  their  back,  to  those  who  were  cutting  them 
down.  Very  soon  was  their  boasted  eminence  reduced  to  small 
particles." 

And  that  day  Saif-Addoulat-Mahmiid  exhi- 
bited the  manifest  signs  of  manliness^  and  the 
opening  of  the  gates  of  bravery  and  valour,  so  that 
the  record  thereof  remains  in  the  volume  of  time, 
and  in  the  books  of  nations ;  and  if  Rustain  and 
Isfandiyar  had  been  witnesses  of  his  deeds,  they 
would  have  desired  to  be  imitators  of  his  way  of 
handling  the  sword  and  the  spear,  and  would  have 
cried  out  "  Wonderful,"  at  the  sight  of  the  exploits 
of  his  hand  and  of  his  arm,  and  would  have  clapped 
their  hands  when  beholding  his  strength  and  his 
heroism. 

And  Abii-AH  and  Fdlk  went  from  that  route  to 
the  fortress  Kaldt,*  and  this  fortress  is  a  fortress 
which  is  joined  to  the  girdle  of  the  sky,  and  is  so 
lofty  that  no  bird  would  be  able  by  flight  to  take 
refuge  in  this  heavenly  eminence,  from  the  vicissi- 
tudes of  fortune,  and  so  high  that  the  fancy  could 
never  reach  the  sublimity  of  its  threshold.f 

*  A  strong  fortress  near  Tus. 

t  Four  lines  of  verse  upon   the  height   of   this  fortress 
omitted. 

M  2 


164  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn. 

And  the  Amir  of  Ttis  hospitably  entertained 
them  some  days,  until  they  became  acquainted 
with  the  exact  state  of  the  army,  and  the  number 
of  those  who  were  living  or  dead,  and  the  remnant 
which  had  escaped  in  safety  from  that  massacre 
joined  them.  And  AbTi-Ali  had  consigned  to  the 
Amir  of  Tiis  some  elephants  which  had  been  taken 
at  the  battle  of  Nishaptir,  and  he  possessed  them. 
And  Abu-Al-'bn-Bagrar  and  other  chieffcans,  who 
had  been  imprisoned  by  Nasir-Addln,  wrote  a 
letter  to  the  Amir  and  represented  as  follows : 
"  Naslr-Addln  hath  admitted  us  to  pay  our  respects 
to  him,  and  hath  caressed  us,  and  given  us  some 
sure  hope  that  he  would  release  us  all,  on  condition 
that  thou-  wouldst  restore  unto  his  service  some 
elephants  which  are  in  thy  possession."  They 
therefore  supplicated  that,  he  would  return  a 
favourable  answer  to  their  request,  and  by  means 
of  this  gratification  procure  their  release.  And 
Abii-Ali  earnestly  exerted  himself  to  offer  this  gate 
of  reconciliation,  and  to  procure  the  accomplish- 
ment of  this  request.  And  he  and  Fdlk  marched 
forward  on  the  road  to  Abiward,  and  quickly 
changed  their  position  from  those  narrow  passes 
unto  the  open  space  of  the  desert.  And  the  Amir 
sent  those  elephants  to  Naslr-Addin,  and  for  that 
service  requested  him  to  be  propitious,  and  suc- 
ceeded so  well,  that  by  means  of  so  novel  a  service, 
and  so  remarkable  an  offering,  he  was  favourably 


MEMOIRS  OP  sabaktagIn.  165 

accepted  by  Naslr-Addin,  and  his  dignity  for  this 
reason  was  confirmed.  And  Abiil-Fath-Basti,  in 
commemorating  this,  says  thus  (Verse) 

"  Behold  what  Abu-Ali  hath  come  unto  !  Thou  didst  see 
one  who  has  the  heart  of  Kais.  He  rebelled  against  the 
Sultan,  and  there  hurried  against  him  men  who  could  expel 
Abfi  Kabis.  He  arose  in  the  morning  Tus  the  wise,  he  became 
X&s  at  noon,  and  little  Tils*  in  the  eyening." 

And  when  Abd-Ali  and  Fdlk  arrived  at  Abi- 
ward,  Fdlk  marched  away  by  the  way  of  Sirkhas, 
without  the  advice  and  without  the  knowledge  of 
Abii- Ali,  and  Abii-Ali  sent,  and  said  "  Even  if  you 
have  become  weary  of  my  society  I  will  by  no 
means  separate  from  you,  and  I  wiU  continue  my 
friendship  with  you,  with  my  usual  liberality,  zeal, 
and  generosity  ;  so  that  every  measure  which  takes 
place  may  conduce  to  the  concord  of  both  parties, 
and  to  the  satisfaction  of  one  and  the  other ;  and 
if  you  think  it  proper,  or  regard  it  as  convenient, 
I  will  be  a  follower  of  your  standard,  and  a  com- 
rade of  your  army ;  and  I  will  obtain  the  Hght  of 
knowledge  from  your  brilliant  guidance  and  direc- 
tion ;  and  behold  !  I  am  proceeding  in  thy  rear." 
And  Fd,lk  halted  until  Abii-AH  came  up  to  him, 
and  they  proceeded  to  Sirkhas,t  and  from  that 
time  set  forward  to  Meru. 

And  when   Nasir-Addln   heard  the  news  of 

*  Probably  alluding  to  the  petty  chieftain  of  Tlis. 
t  Or  Sirakhs. 


166  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn. 

them  he  dismissed  the  Amlr-Salf-Addoulat  to 
go  to  Nishapiir,  and  took  upon  himself  the 
charge  of  settling  their  affairs  and  healing  their 
differences.*  And  he  went  in  their  track,  and  they 
took  the  way  of  the  desert  unto  Amil-Shatt,t  in 
the  confident  expectation  that  Naslr-Addln,  on 
account  of  the  number  of  his  troops  and  the  super- 
abundance of  his  army,  would  not  be  able  to  pass 
over  Tallies  which  were  without  any  fruits,  and 
would  find  no  possible  means  of  transporting  his 
troops  through  a  place  where  neither  water  or 
fodder  were  to  be  obtained.  And  when  they  arri- 
ved at  Amil-Shatt  they  took  the  method  of  apo- 
logy, and  of  humility,  and  of  supplication,  before 
his  Highness  M^Hk-Niih,  and  Abii-AH  named 
Abul-Hazin-Kasir  for  this  journey,  and  Faik 
named  the  priest  Abd-Arrahmdn,  and  both  went, 
and  earnestly  exerted  themselves  to  avoid  the 
blame,  and  to  obtain  the  approbation  of  the  prince, 
and  they  said,  "  No  amiable  person  can  ever  com- 
pare any  excellence  with  the  peculiar  generosity 
and  beneficence  of  the  Eling ;  and  the  King,  with 
respect  to  the  brilliancy  of  his  kindness,  imitates 
God  himself,  who  through  the  perfection  of  his 
greatness,  and  power,  and  majesty  lets  fall  the  veil 
of  concealment  over  the  faults  of  his  disobedient 
servants,  and  with   respect  to  their  punishment 

*  Ironically. 

t  Amol  Shatt,  or  Amil  Shatt,  Amol  on  the  river-bank. 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn.  167 

deals  gently  and  mildly,  until  they  perceive  what 
is  the  right  way,  and  become  convinced  of  the 
hatefulness  of  their  deeds  and  their  actions  ;  and 
when  they  enter  into  the  gate  of  repentance,  and 
religion,  and  stand  on  the  foot  of  acknowledge 
ment  and  confession,  He  accepts  their  repentance, 
and  looks  upon  their  deeds  and  their  words  with 
an  eye  of  compassion  and  forgiveness ;  and,  accord- 
ing to  that  text  (of  the  Koran),  '  He  who  among 
you  commits  folly,  and  then  repents,  and  does  well, 
will  be  pardoned,  for  God  is  for^ving  and  merci- 
ful.' Let  him  (the  Prince)  give  unto  them  the 
royal  sash  and  diploma  of  God's  forgiveness  for  all 
that  has  passed.  And  it  is  not  concealed  that 
Abil-AH  and  Fd,lk  are  two  Servants  of  his  High- 
ness, and  although  they  may  have  the  stigma  of 
rebellion,  and  have  acted  treacherously  in  belying 
former  favours,  yet  the  enlightened  mind  of  the 
Prince  hath  seen  their  distressed  condition,  and 
hath  found  means  fitly  to  requite,  and  to  punish 
them,  so  that  they  now  know  the  value  of  the 
favour  of  the  good-wiU  of  his  Highness.  And  old 
servants  and  hereditary  attendants  are  like'  tame 
pigeons,  which,  although  they  may  fly  into  the 
distant  atmosphere,  and  make  the  circuit  of  the 
world,  end  their  flight  by  returning  to  their  accus- 
tomed home,  and  place  their  heads  upon  their  own 
nests.  And  thus  these  men  have  placed  their  hope 
of  hopes  upon  the  generosity  and  the  compassion 


168  MBMOIBS  OF  SABAKTAGIn. 

of  his  Highness,  and  through  death  and  the  sword 
have  learned  caution,  and  now  say,  '  Although  our 
offence  is  great,  the  generosity  of  our  Prince  is 
greater  ;  and  although  the  field  of  our  apology  is 
narrow,  the  plain  of  his  Majesty's  beneficence  and 
kindness  is  extensive  ;  so  that  he  will  act  in  this 
respect  according  to  his  extreme  generosity  and 
liberal  disposition,  and  will  pardon  with  a  munifi- 
cence (which  can  only  be  described  in  the  words  of 
the  text),  '  There  shall  be  no  deficiency  or  want 
amongst  you  now.'  (And  we  trust)  that  if  he  will 
turn  away  his  head  from  our  errors  and  misdeeds, 
and  turn  upon  us  the  head  of  reconciliation  and 
mercy,  that  his  slaves  wUl,  on  their  part,  take  hold 
of  the  thread  of  duty  again,  and  their  deficiencies 
being  forgiven,  will  fulfil  the  usual  course  of  ser- 
vice.' " 

When  this  letter  arrived  they  seized  the  courier 
of  Fdik,  and  detained  him  in  a  dungeon,  and  they 
greatly  caressed  the  messenger  of  Abu-All,  and 
protracted  his  stay  by  every  fair  means ;  and  they 
commanded  that  for  the  present  he  should  proceed 
to  the  country  about  Jurjan,  and  in  that  place  take 
up  his  residence,  until  the  illustrious  decision,  and 
the  settlement  .of  his  allowances  should  be  com- 
pleted. And  they  wrote  a  letter  to  Mamur-Ibn- 
Mahmiid,  and  to  the  governor  of  Jurj^,  that  he 
should  grant  him  a  generous  rank;  and  should 
settle  upon  a  firm  foundation  his  needful  allow- 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAqIn.  169 

ances  and  payments,  until  the  arrangements 
should  be  settled  respecting  his  attendants  and 
troops. 

Fdlk,  upon  receiving  the  news  of  the  rejection 
of  his  apology  and  of  the  conduct  exhibited  towards 
his  messenger,  was  in  a  rage,  and  he  placed  his 
heart  upon  this  proceeding,  namely,  that  he  should 
pass  over  the  Jihiin,  and  take  refuge  with  Ihk- 
Kh^n,  and  should  be  protected  by  the  number  of 
his  troops  and  his  servants.  And  he  said  to  Abii- 
Ali,  "The  object  of  that  message  to  thee  from 
Jurj^n,  and  of  the  kindness  displayed  to  you,  was 
to  infuse  hesitation  into  the  distinguished  nature, 
and  to  remove  the  links  of  our  unity  and  friendship. 
And  if  you  make  but  a  single  glance  of  your  eye 
upon  the  deceptions  which  we  have  committed  in 
this  kingdom,  and  the  crimes  which  in  former  days 
we  have  excited,  it  can  never  be  concealed  from 
your  discernment  that  to  desire  safety,  or  to  seek 
for  pardon,  or  connivance,  is  to  hammer  cold  iron, 
and  to  cast  yourself  through  the  blandishments  of 
art  into  the  snare  of  ruin.  I  am  convinced  that  it 
would  be  better  for  thee  not  to  relinquish  your 
connexion  with  me,  and  not  to  bring  yourself  into 
a  serious  contingency,  or  to  turn  your  head  from 
the  strait  path  of  good  counsel  and  firmness,  and 
be  thus  beguiled  by  a  crafty  truce,  and  incline  to 
the  flattery  and  blandishment  of  the  enemy,  (con- 
trarv  to  that  verse  of  the  Kordn),  'Let  not  that 


l70  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGiN. 

which  thou  seest  in  the  face  deceive  thee,  the  real 
truth  hes  beneath  the  ribs.' " 

The  Lord,  however,  bound  up  the  sight  of  the 
eyes  of  Abii-AJi,  and  made  his  ears  deaf  and 
incapable  of  hearing  good  counsel  and  advice,  so 
that  he  neglected  Folk's  proposal  of  mutual  assist- 
ance, and  determined  upon  the  plan  of  separating 
himself  from  him,  and,  like  a  person  who  causes 
his  own  death,  threw  himself,  by  his  own  means, 
into  the  trap  of  misfortune  (Verse) 

"  There  are  no  means  whereby  a  man  may  remove  that  event 
which  Grod  appointeth,  and  there  are  no  means  of  repelling  that 
which  God  willa. 

"  When  fortune  becomes  black  to  a  man  whatever  he  may 
do  he  will  never  escape  it." 

From  that  residence,  then,  they  separated  from 
each  other,  and  F41k  passed  the  Jihiln,  with  a 
design  of  gaining  Ilik-Khdn.  Then  they  sent 
forward  the  Chamberlain  Yaktuziin,"^^  from  Buk- 
hdrS.,  to  follow  him,  and  they  encountered,  near 
Nasafjf  but  each  evaded  one  another,  without 
engaging  or  attacking.  And  F4Ik  met  with  a 
most  favourable  reception  from  Ilik-Kh4n,  and  he 
was  kindly  looked  upon,  receiving  honourable  rank 
and  distinguished  station  ;  and  the  Kh4n  caressed 
him  with  various  distinctions  and  marks  of  gene- 
rosity, and  was  highly  satisfied  and  contented  with 

*  Or  Baktuzun.  t  Nakhshib. 


MEMOIRS  OP  SABAKTAGIn.  171 

his  arrangement  of  affairs,  and  Ms  settlement  of 
business. 

Thus  Abu- All  lost  the  right  road  and  remained 
excluded  from  the  aid  of  grace,  and  fate  sewed  up 
his  eyesight,  so  that  he  remained  careless  with 
regard  to  the  weighty  affairs  and  the  unfortunate 
businesses  (which  demanded  his  attention)  and,  in 
escaping  from  the  burning  forge  of  fortune,  cast 
himself  into  the  burning  forge  of  injustice  and 
sorrow.  And  these  verses  aptly  describe  his  con- 
dition (Verse) 

"  "When  God  willetli  to  fulfil  his  pleasure  upon  a  man,  even 
although  he  he  possessed  of  good  judgment,  and  acuteness,  and 
clearsightedness,  and  skill,  whereby  to  transact  any  affairs 
which  occur  to  him,  yet,  when  the  effects  of  destiny  oppose 
him,  G-od  anoints  him  with  folly  and  blinds  his  eyes,  and 
understanding  wastes  away  from  his  intellect ;  but,  when  God 
hath  fully  accomplished  his  will  with  regard  to  him,  he  re- 
storeth  to  him  his  understanding,  that  he  may  take  example 
from  what  has  happened." 

And  Abii-Ali,  when  -he  had  gone  a  thousand 
marches,  on  the  road  to  Juijdn,  came  to  Saf,  which 
is  a  village  near  Khwarizm,  on  the  western  side. 
Upon  his  arrival  Abu-Abd-AUah,  King  of  Khwa- 
rizm, sent  messengers,  and  begged  to  be  excused  for 
his  remissness  in  not  dispatching  an  Istakbdl,  and 
promised  thuti,  namely,  "  To-morrow  I  will  myself 
personally  present  my  respects,  and  offer  my  apo- 
logy, and  will  be  forward  in  the  fulfilment  of  my 


172  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTA-GIn. 

duty."  And  when  the  night  came  on  he  sent  two 
thousand  cavalry  and  infantry,  that  they,  coming 
upon  the  army  whilst  encamped,  in  the  darkest 
hour  of  the  night,  might  attack  them  and  might 
clear  the  face  of  the  earth  from  his  filthiness.  And 
Abii-All  Khali,  who  was  one  of  the  officers  of 
Abu-Ali-Simjur,  tells  this  story:  "At  the  time 
when  T  went  with  a  letter  to  the  King  of  Khwa- 
rizm,  before  the  dispute  which  took  place  between 
them,  Abu-Abd-AHah,  amongst  other  good  advice 
which  he  had  sent  to  Abil-Ali,  said,  '  Convey  to 
him  this  verse,  which  is  one  of  the  verses  of  Ibn- 
Almiliz,  in  order  that  it  may  be  the  model  of  his 
affairs  and  the  tendency  of  his  actions  (Verse) 

"  '  If  thou  canst  manage  to  obtain  an  opportunity  against 
thy  enemy  arrange  not  thy  exertions  except  thereto.  For,  if 
thou  dost  not  quickly  occupy  that  gate,  by  that  gate  thy  enemy 
will  come  to  thee,  with  blood  afterwards,  and  the  turn  wiU  be 
to  the  other  way.' 

"  And  Abii-Ali  received  favourably  that  advice 
from  him,  and  accepted  the  proposition  contained 
in  his  question,  but  forgot  the  time  of  the  descent 
of  misfortune  and  of  the  occurrence  of  distress,  and 
did  not  consider  that  we  ought  not  to  support 
ourselves  upon  a  wall  whose  foundation  has  been 
injured,  and  we  ought  to  avoid  the  friendship  of 
one  who  has  a  scar  from  a  wound  given  by  thee. 

"And,  through  the  heavenly  decree,  these  verses 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn.  173 

were  effaced  from  his  mind,  so  that  he  went  to  the 
abode  of  lions  and  to  the  haunts  of  hyaenas,  in  the 
sleep  of  carelessness,  and  relinquished  all  marks  of 
self-possession  and  perseverance,  so  that  when  the 
grey  streaks  of  dawn  were  drawn  over  the  night, 
a  rattling  from  the  sound  of  fifes  and  drums  fell 
like  an  earthquake  upon  the  picket-guards  of  Abii- 
Ali,  and  they  seized  the  outer  rampart  of  the 
castle,  which  was  his  private  residence.*  And  he, 
with  certain  of  his  domestic  slaves,  came  forth  to 
repulse  that  body  of  men,  and  he  asked  one  of  the 
party  what  was  the  cause  of  that  violence  and 
onset.  And  he  said,  '  The  King  of  Khuwarizm 
hath  given  a  royal  order  to  capture  you.  Now  if 
you  send  a  reply,  with  a  friendly  submission  and 
mild  obedience,  he  will  be  the  better  inclined  and 
you  wiU  be  able  to  extinguish  the  fury  which  you 
have  lighted  up  within  him,  and  to  put  an  end  to 
the  sorrow  which  has  disappointed  your  wishes, 
and  then  you  will  be  nearer  to  the  hope  of  safety 
and  to  the  means  of  security  ;  but,  if  not,  we  shall 
take  you  and  your  companions  in  the  snare  of 
violence,  and  will  drag  you  disgracefully  before  the 
King  of  Khwarizm.'  Abii-Ali,  in  the  extremity  of 
his  distress,  drew  the  blanket  of  this  disgrace  over 
his  head,  and  became  obedient  to  this  decision  and 
submitted.     And  one  of  the  captains  and  generals 

*  Literally  his  sleeping  apartment. 


174  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn. 

of  that  troop  took  him  upon  the  crupper,  and  con- 
veyed him  into  the  presence  of  the  King  of 
Khwarizm,  on  the  morning  of  Sunday,  the  first 
day  of  the  full  moon,  in  the  month  of  Ramadhan, 
in  the  year  386.  And  the  King  commanded  that 
he  should  be  imprisoned  in  one  of  his  fortresses, 
and  he  seized  the  chief  men  of  his  army,  and  the 
most  eminent  of  his  followers,  and  put  them  all  in 
chains  and  placed  fetters  upon  them,  and  sent  a 
crier  into  the  city,  to  proclaim  thus,  '  As  to  every 
one  of  the  followers  of  Abii-All  abiding  in  that 
place  we  have  given  you  permission  to  shed  their 
blood,  and  we  command  you  not  to  leave  one 
alive.'  Thus,  as  if  they  were  victims  and  devoted 
sacrifices,  they  killed  them  separately  from  each 
other,  like  the  letters  of  the  alphabet,  but  some 
became  dispersed,  like  fugitives,  upon  the  hills  and 
the  plains  and  the  mountains,  and  the  Chamberlain 
Ilmangii  escaped,  with  certain  others,  and  came  to 
the  country  of  Jurjd,n.  And  when  Mamiin- 
Mahmiid,  Viceroy  of  JuijS,n,  became  aware  of  this 
state  of  things  the  fire  of  jealousy  struck  a  spark 
in  his  mind,  and  confusion  and  vacillation  of 
purpose  obtained  the  mastery  over  him.  But  he 
assembled  the  regiments  of  the  army  and  the  bat- 
talions of  his  troops,  and  with  great  joy  sent  them, 
as  well  as  a  body  of  the  residue  of  the  servants  of 
Abil-Ali,  who  had  arranged  themselves  under  the 
bridle  of  the  obedience  of  Ilmangii,  to  the  frontiers 


MEMOIRS  OP  SABAKTAGIW.  175 

of  Khwdrismshdh,  in  order  that  they  might  be  like 
a  necklace  around  the  city  of  K^t,  which  is  the 
jewel*  of  Khwfi.rism8h4h,  and  enclose  the  army  as 
it  were  in  a  snare,  on  every  side.  And  they  cut 
off  the  rear,  and  the  soldiers  and  the  followers  of 
the  King  of  Khwarizm,  with  the  sword  of  punish- 
ment, and  they  killed  some  and  compelled  the 
others  to  disperse ;  and  they  took  the  King  of 
Khwarizm  prisoner,  and  they  put  the  fetters  which 
were  upon  the  foot  of  Abii-Ali  upon  his  heels,  and, 
in  a  twinkling  of  an  eye,  the  condition  of  these 
two  individuals  became  mutually  changed,  the 
Amir  became  prisoner  and  the  prisoner  became 
Amir,  according  to  the  text,  '  With  God  it  is 
easy.' 

"  And  they  conveyed'  Abii-All  with  great  re- 
spect and  veneration  to  Jurjdn,  and  they  placed  the 
King  of  Khwarizm,  arrayed  in  the  dress  of  humi- 
hation  and  in  the  robe  of  misfortune,  upon  a  horse, 
and  proceeded  to  Jurjan,  and  Mamiln  set  forth  to 
meet  Abii-Ali,  and  with  great  honour  and  venera- 
tion, and  every  mark  of  respect  he  came  from 
Bost,  and  they  offered  to  him  magnificent  gifts  and 
much  honour,  and  many  presents,  so  that  his  con- 
dition and  that  of  the  remnant  of  his  people 
became  secure,  and  all  that  is  unpleasant  was 
withdrawn.    And  they  made  for  him  an  entertain- 

*  Capital. 


1 76  MEMOIKS  OF  SABAKTAGIN. 

ment  and  a  feast,  such  as  was  not  usual  in  that  or 
any  other  age ;  and  they  produced  wine,  and  by 
wine  all  the  causes  of  sorrow,  and  the  effects  of 
strife,  were  removed.  And  when  Mamiin  arrived, 
and  began  to  exhibit  friendship  and  attachment  by 
the  service  of  the  knee,  and  when  some  time  had 
elapsed,*  and  the  strength  of  the  wine  made 
some  impression,  they  introduced  the  King  of 
Khwarizm,  upon  the  back  of  a  slave,  and  addressed 
some  words  to  him,  and  began  to  blame  him 
extremely ;  he  did  not  answer  a  word,  but  held  down 
his  head  in  confusion,  and  at  last  they  cut  off  his 
head  in  the  midst  of  the  assembly,  with  one  stroke 
of  the  scimitar,  and  made  his  white  head,  together 
with  all  his  attendants,  deeply  black.  Thus  was 
accomplished  the  text,  '  God  doeth  all  that  he 
willeth  and  executeth  all  that  he  designeth.' 

"And  Khwarazm  was  quietly  yielded  up  to 
Mamiin,  and  was  added  to  the  roll-account  of  his 
divan,  and  annexed  to  his  other  provinces  and 
countries.  And  he  began  to  open  the  gate  of 
intercession  on  behalf  of  Abii^All,  with  His  High- 
ness of  Bukhara,  and  earnestly  requested  the 
acceptance  of  his  repentance  and  conversion,  and 
his  relinquishment  of  his  former  bad  conduct. 
/  "  And  the  Prince  Niih,  in  order  fully  to  accom- 
plish his  wish,  and  to  fulfil  his  object,  and  to  for- 

*  Or  when  some  rounds  of  wine  had  passed. 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIN.     .  177 

ward  his  supplication  to  heaven,  issued  a  royal 
letter,  similar  to  the  volume  of  prayers  addressed 
to  the  Supreme  Court  (of  Heaven).  And  he  sum- 
moned Abii-AK  before  him,  and  painted  the  secret 
determinations  of  the  tablet  of  his  mind,  with 
various  kinds  Of  deceitful  assurances  of  security, 
and  made  the  volume  of  his  brain  a  ground  for 
imposing  the  colours  of  deceit  and  fiction,  until  like 
the  moth  he  became  destroyed  by  approaching  the 
fire,  and  laid  his  face  on  the  bed  of  his  own  ruin, 
and  the  wonderful  text,  '  In  the  going  forth  to 
battle  of  those  whose  slaughter  is  written,  even 
upon  their  couch,'  became  accomplished  in  his 
affairs ;  for  when  he  arrived  at  Bukh^rd,  the  Vizir 
Abdallah-'bn-Aziz,  and  the  various  ranks  of  his 
chief  ofiicers  and  chamberlains  came  forth  to  meet 
him,  with  the  usual  congratulations,  and  when  he 
arrived  at  the  court  before  the  palace,  he  descended 
and  kissed  the  ground,  the  chief  officers  being  be- 
hind him,  and  through  conscious  shame,  and  the 
knowledge  that  he  had  been  ungrateful  for  the 
favours  he  had  received,  he  held  down  his  head  ; 
and  Ilmangd,  and  the  other  generals,  and  his  bro- 
thers and  chiefs,  brought  him  down  and  conveyed 
him  to  pay  his  respects  to  the  throne ;  and  the 
King*  ordered  that  they  should  take  them  aU,  and 
bind  them  in  chains  as  prisoners,  and  should  lay 

*  Or  Amir — the  sovereign  of  Bukhara  still  prefers  the  title 
of  Amir  to  that  of  King." — BuaNE's  Travels  in  BuMidrd. 

N 


178  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIN. 

the  hand  of  plunder  and  rapine  upon  his  followers 
and  servants ;  and  they  plundered  all  their  baggage, 
and  their  arms,  and  their  cattle.  And  in  this  way- 
was  the  volume  of  the  life  of  Abii-Ali  finally  sealed, 
and  his  royal  ambition,  which  had  attempted  to  fly 
into  the  atmosphere  of  greatness,  fell  into  the  snare 
of  misfortune  and  disgrace,  and  his  wild-horse  dis- 
position, which  had  twisted  out  its  neck  from  the 
collar  of  good  sense,  became  bound  by  the  skilful- 
ness  of  the  wise  ;  and  the  tiger  of  pride  who  had 
challenged  the  lion  of  the  sky,  was  taken  prisoner 
by  the  hand  of  the  fox  of  deceit,  and  by  the  fraud 
of  fortune,  and  the  eagle  of  the  standard  of  his 
prosperity,  which  had  boasted  itself  with  the  celes- 
tial eagle  in  the  highest  zenith,  became  turned 
through  grief  at  the  day  of  reverses  towards  the 
Nadir  of  misfortune,  '  But  God  is  merciful  who 
hath  spoken,  and  his  word  is  truly  most  excellent' 
(Verse) 

"  '  If  man  be  not  content  with  that  which  God  enables  him 
to  possess,  and  if  he  does  not  come  to  the  command  which  is 
shown  him  ;  if  he  wonders  at  wonderful  (great)  things  and 
geeks  advantage  therefrom,  and  pride  folds  around  him,  and  he 
seeks  benefit  thereby  :  then  it  solicits  him,  and  his  conversation 
becomes  evil ;  then  he  may  laugh  a  day,  but  he  will  weep  a 
year.' 

"  And  at  this  time  Nasir-Addin  was  posted  at 
Menl,  and  when  the  news  of  that  which  had  be- 
fallen Abii-All  came  to  him  he  went  to  Balk,  and 
a  letter  came  to  him  from  the  Prince  Nilh,  telling 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn.  179 

him  that  '  Ilek-khan  had  come  upon  the  frontiers 
of  his  territory,  and  designed  to  conquer  it ;  and  he 
had  pressed  the  collectors  of  the  revenue  to  give  up 
to  him  the  revenues  received.  It  would  therefore  be 
consonant  with  thy  kindness  and  virtue  that  thou 
shouldest  bring  to  perfection  that  good  conduct 
which  thou  hast  hitherto  displayed,  and  that  thou 
shouldest  embroider  with  a  border  of  pearls  that 
robe  of  zeal  which  thou  hast  so  firmly  held  in 
arrainging  the  affairs  of  our  province,  by  fulfilling 
this  enterprise ;  and  that  thou  shouldest  once  more 
display  thy  army  in  repulsing  this  khdn ;  and  that 
by  the  hand  of  thy  good  counsel  and  kindness  thou 
shouldest  roll  back  this  ball  of  anxiety.' 

"  (Hereupon)  Naslr-Addin  assembled  his  chief 
officers,  and  the  experienced  and  ingenious  men  of 
his  Court,  and  requested  them  to  explain  whether 
this  proposal  was  wrong,  or  honourabloj  or  right ; 
but  upon  this  point  their  notions  were  different, 
and  their  thoughts  were  various.  He  therefore  set 
them  all  on  one  side>  and  took  counsel  from  God's 
blessing  alonOj  and  the  rain  of  his  jealousy  rushed 
down,  and  the  force  of  veneration  and  regard  be- 
came excited  within  him,  and  he  demanded  that 
the  affair  whose  foot  by  reason  of  weakness  had 
stumbled  should  stand  firmly,  and  that  the  build- 
ing which  had  been  erected  for  the  support  of  the 
kingdom  (and  which  had  become  diminished  by 
negligence)  should  be  restored. 

N  2 


180  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn. 

"  And  he  summoned  the  secretary,  and  he  dis- 
patched a  royal  order  for  collecting  an  army  from 
all  quarters  of  the  provinces  of  Khurasan  and 
Ghuzna,*  and  Zabulistan,  and  commanded  them  to 
march  forth  and  set  forward.  And  he  marched  to 
the  villages  which  are  called  the  private  villages, 
between  Kash  and  Nasaf,  in  order  that  the  armies 
of  Jurjin,  and  Khatal,  and  Saganyan,  and  other 
parts  might  join  him  ;  and  Saif-Addoulat-Mahmiid 
proceeded  from  Nishaptir  with  an  army  arrayed  in 
order  and  a  large  number  of  attendants. 

"  And  when  Ilek  received  information  of  their 
number  he  sent  to  Naslr-Addin  several  of  his 
senators  and  eminent  officers,  and  gave  them  a 
letter  which  they  were  to  convey,  and  they  said, 
'  Ilek-Khan  says  thus — between  us  there  ought  to 
be  a  brotherhood  for  the  faith,  and  since  our  days 
and  our  hours  pass  away,  they  should  be  occupied 
in  the  sacred  warfare  against  those  infidel  Turks 
and  Hindds,  and  in  illustrating  the  rights  of  the 
faith,  and  in  procuring  victory  to  religion,  and  in 
prostrating  the  idolators  and  the  malicious,  and-  in 
displaying  our  hatred  by  war  with  the  wicked  and 
the  evil  doers.  Now  Niih  hath  seated  himself  in 
the  midst  of  a  peaceful  state,  and  is  squandering 

*  Is  it  probable  that  the  word  Qhazna  may  have  been 
derived  from  the  ancient  Oahaza,  the  h  passing  into  v  and  w, 
and  then  dropping,  and  the  affix  na  being  added,  e.  g.,  Qdbaza, 
Gawaia,  Gaza,  Ghazna? 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn.  181 

tKe  revenues  of  Khurasdn  upon  his  amusements 
and  dissipations ;  and  gives  not  any  protection  to 
Islam,  nor  any  preservation  or  defence  to  the  fron- 
tiers, it  would  therefore  be  more  convenient  that 
we  shoxxld  make  this  country  free  from  him,  and 
that  we  should  convert  the  sources  of  wealth  to  the 
service  of  the  faith  and  the  aid  of  Isld,m,  and  its 
supremacy ;  and  that  we  should  turn  aside  (divert 
to  other  objects)  those  firm  ranks  (of  yours)  which 
have  been  arrayed  to  attack  our  troops,  and  that 
we  should  enter  into  a  treaty  for  the  mutual  sup- 
port of  each  other,  and  that  we  should  found  a 
bulwark  against  our  adversaries.  And  to  bring 
our  followers  into  serious  contingencies,  the  hard- 
ship of  which  results  to  us,  and  the  advantage  to 
others,  is  far  removed  from  the  judgment  of  good 
sense,  and  the  high-road  of  justice.  And  I  myself 
will  never  free  myself  from  the  obligations  of  reli- 
gion, since  during  my  whole  life  I  have  drawn  the 
sword  in  the  sacred  warfare,  and  in  the  countries 
of  the  infidels  have  on  this  path  sought  to  reckon 
up  renown.  Let  me  draw  it  before  the  face  of 
•IsMm,  for  safety  and  fortune  in  the  other  world  are 
due  only  to  the  cutting  off  of  iniquity,  and  the  re- 
jection of  evil,  for  therein  the  indulgent  Verse  wiU 
be  fulfilled  :  '  Though  thou  hast  extended  thy  hand 
upon  me,  in  order  to  kill  me ;  I  will  not  extend 
my  hand  against  thee  to  kill  thee ;  since  I  fear 
God,  the  ruler  of  both  worlds.' 


182  MBMOIES  OF  SABAKTAgIn. 

"  Naslr-Addln  made  answer  as  follows,  *  Prince 
Niih.  has  a  great  kingdom,  and  Ms  ancestors  have 
always  possessed  established  rights  over  the  Maho- 
metan people.  And  the  Princes  of  Khurasfi,n  and 
of  the  neighbouring  provinces  have  ever  been 
subject  to  those  ancient  Lords,  and  to  that  noble 
family.  And  when  his  allies  and  his  servants 
rebelled  against  him,  and  betook  themselves  tO  the 
way  of  perverseness,  he  relied  upon  my  support 
and  depended  upon  my  assistance,  and  I  gave  my 
time  to  the  service  and  to  the  protection  of  his 
government,  and  to  the  strengthening  the  frontiers 
of  his  province.  And  I  became  firmly  attached  to 
him,  and  if  he  had  wished  that  my  life,  and  fortune, 
and  army  should  have  been  thrown  away  to  the 
winds,  for  the  purpose  of  protecting  his  safety, 
and  strengthening  his  kingdom,  and  assisting  his 
friends,  and  appeasing  his  enemies,  I  should  not 
have  declined  the  fulfilment  of  his  views.  And  I 
never  gave  place  unto  the  Kings  of  his  province, 
but  entirely  according  to  the  rules  of  the  Divine 
law,  and  according  to  the  directions  of  sacred  de- 
crees, my  mind  is  of  necessity  devoted  to  his  ser- 
vice in  repulsing  his  ill-wishers  and  enemies.  And 
to  repulse  also  thy  rebellion  and  disobedience  from 
the  area  of  his  kingdom,  and  from  the  circumference 
of  his  possessions,  my  pledged  mind  regards  as  a 
duty,  according  to  the  declaration  of  the  glorious 
Koran,  "  If  one  of  the  two  rebel  against  the  other 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn.  183 

then  fight  ye  him  who  rebels  until  he  die,  accord- 
ing to  God's  word." ' 

"  When  Ilek-Khan  heard  this  answer  he  began 
to  make  preparation  for  the  aiFair,  and  he  sent 
heralds  to  all  parts  of  the  provinces,  and  to  all  the 
Turkish  tribes,  and  collected  an  army  so  great  that 
on  account  of  its  number  neither  the  mountains  or 
the  plains  could  be  warmed  by  the  sun,  so  as  to; 
produce  fruit,  and  the  expanse  of  the  earth  became 
narrow,  through  their  greatness  and  their  bulk 
(Verse) 

"  '  The  torrent  displaced  the  marble  stones  in  the  halls. 
" '  One  sees  them  prostrating  themselves  humbly  at  your 
feet.' 

"And  Naslr-Addin  caused  swift  couriers  to 
hasten  unto  Prince  Niih,  and  said,  '  It  is  necessary 
(for  you)  to  assemble  the  troops,  and  to  march  on 
the  road  of  celerity,  in  order  to  stand  up  firmly,  in 
answer  to  the  disaffected,  which  will  cause  a  double 
adyantage  to  the  standard  of  his  Highness ;  one, 
that  through  the  noble  presence,  strength  of  heart, 
and  alacrity  in  movement^  and  avidity  to  resist, 
may  be  increased  unto  the;  nobles  of  the  state  ;  and, 
the  second,  that  through  the  princely  splendour 
and  royal  magnificence,  and  the  good  fortune  of 
the  happy  umbrella,  confusion  and  weakness  may 
be  caused  unto  the  enemy.' 

:;    "The  Prince  Niih   consulted  the  Vizir  Abd- 
Allah-'bn-Azlz,    and    since,    on   account    of   his 


184  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIk, 

memory  of  past  events,  ttis  Vizir  was  suspicious 
and  timid,  he  said  to  the  King,  '  Naslr-Addln 
possesses  an  innumerable  army,  with  a  staff,  arms, 
abundant  splendour,  perfect  decorations,  a  company 
of  fine  men,  and  a  concourse  of  lieutenants,  whilst 
his  Highness  has  no  suitable  equipment.  It 
would  be  a  perfect  misery  to  be  in  the  society  or 
the  neighbourhood  of  one,  who  in  imposing  appear- 
ance, and  in  number,  so  royally  outstrips,  both  in 
quantity  and  quality,  the  Prince.  The  way  is  this  : 
Let  a  number  of  the  Princes  and  Lords,  and  dis- 
tinguished chiefs  of  the  Court,  and  also  a  number  of 
the  common  soldiers,  attach  themselves  to  his  ser- 
vice, and  let  his  Highness  give  orders  that  they  all 
should  become  obedient  followers  of  his  standard  ; 
and  let  the  Prince  employ  apologies,  and  use  the 
means  of  making  excuses  accepted,  and  ask  pardon 
of  their  Highnesses.'  *  Thus  did  the  Vizir  exer- 
cise all  his  judgment  in  managing  and  dealing  with 
his  master.  The  Prince  N\ih  was  purchased  by  his 
cajolery,  and  became  cheated  by  his  hypocrisy  and 
enchantments,  and  he  accordingly  wrote  a  letter  to 
Nasir-Addln,  and  sent  the  army  for  his  service. 
Naslr-Addin  was  satisfied  that  the  cause  of  this 
refusal  and  opposition  was  the  treachery  and  the 
powerful  influence,  and  management  of  the  Vizir, 
and  his  object  and  design  was  to  the  following 
effect :  that  the  exertions  which  N^sir-Addln  had 
*  i.  e.  Sabaktagin  and  his  son  Mahmud. 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn.  185 

made  in  collecting  an  army,  and  in  completing  their 
equipment,  and  arranging  their  march,  and  promo- 
ting their  honour,  might  be  wasted,  he  provided 
therefore  Saif-Addoulat-Mahmiid  with  twenty- 
thousand  cavalry,  and  sent  him  to  Bukh^r^,  in 
order  that  he  might  bring  Niih  to  co-operate  in  his 
measures,  whether  willing  or  unwilling,  and  subject 
him  to  his  own  will.  And  he  nominated  Abii- 
Nasr-'bn-Abi-Zaid  to  be  Vizir,  and  he  sent  an 
army  with  him  to  Bukhara.*  And  Abd- Allah- Aziz 
when  he  received  intelligence  of  these  affairs  felt 
that  the  world  had  become  unpropitious  to  him, 
and  sought  some  place  to  which  he  might  escape, 
and  took  refuge  in  flight,  and  remained  in  conceal- 
ment. And  Abu-Nasr-'bn-Abi-Zaid  came  to  his 
Highness,  and  the  PHnce  Niih,  in  deference  to  the 
judgment  of  Nasir-Addln  greatly  honoured  him, 
and  confirmed  the  appointment  of  Vizir  to  him  ; 
and  he  displayed  both  efficiency  and  skill  in  the 
arrangement  of  those  affairs,  and  added  splendour 
to  the  office  of  Vizir,  and  entered  upon  his  office 
with  firmness,  and  succeeded  in  the  best  manner 
in  repairing  and  settling  those  evils  which  had 
emerged  under  the  administration  of  'bn-Aziz. 
And  Abul-Fath-Basti  in  describing  this  event  says 
as  follows  (Verse) 

*  This  proceeding  of  Sabaktagin  virtually  deposed  Niih  and 
ultimately  secured  the  throne  of  Bukhara  to  the  family  of 
Ghazna. 


186  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn. 

'"  I  could  have  sacrificed  myself  for  the  venerable  Abu-Nasir. 
" '  He  who,  in  giving  joy  to  all,  dispersed  the  darkness  of 
sorrow. 

"  '  The  sharpness  of  his  pen  was  never  blunted. 

"  '  Although,  in  war,  the  sword  blunts, 

"  '  He  could  be  concise  but  not  bare  ; 

" '  He  could  be  sublime  but  not  wearying,'  &c. 

"And  in  like  manner  he  wrote  these  lines  at 
the  time  when  the  office  of  V^izir  was  confirmed  to 
him  (Yerse) 

"  '  Carry  out  my  word  (I  say)  to  every  one  who  seeks  for 
patronage, 

"  '  And  to  every  one  who  hopes  not  to  fail'  in  his  object, 

"  '  Approach  the  glorious  venerable  Shaikh, 

" '  The  Vizir  of  Vizirs,  Ahmad-'bn-Muhammad,'  &c. 

"  And  Nasir-Addin  wrote  a  detailed  account  to 
Prince  Niih,  and  made  him  believe  the  certainty  of 
the  deceitfulness  of  'bn-Aziz,  and  his  inclination  to 
the  party  of  Abii-AJij  and  his  decleinsion  from  their 
alliance  and  from  the  treaty  of  mutual  assistance, 
and  requested  that  he  would  deliver  him  again  into 
his  hands.  And  this  request  met  with  a  favourable 
reply,  and  before  the  arrival  of  Saif-Addoulat  he 
gave  up  'bn-AzIz,  apd  he  sent  Ilmang^,  Chamber- 
lain of  Abii-Ali  to  him,  and  he  sent  'bn-Aziz  to 
the  castle  of  Jardin,  and  detained  him  in  prison, 
in  a  place  the  horror  of  which  if  he  beheld  even  in 
a  dream,  life  would  have  become  wretched,  and  the 
world  to  his  eyes  dark  and  miserable. 

"  And,  in  the  midst  of  these  events,  Ilek-Khan 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn.  JSf 

arrived,  with  the  tribes  and  cavalry  of  Turkistdn, 
together  with  his  followers,  over  against  Mawaral- 
nahar,  and  sent  a  messenger  to  Naslr-Addln,  and 
proposed  to  him  words  of  peace  and  the  offer  of  a 
truce ;  and  he,  on  account  of  the  inertness  and 
indecision  of  Nilh,  gave  in  to  peace.  And  a  con- 
vention was  concluded  between  them,  to  the  effect 
that  Kiitiim  should  be  the  actual  frontier  and 
repelling  boundary  of  the  two  kingdoms,  and  that 
neither  power  should  seek  to  augment  his  territory 
beyond  that  settled  point,  and  neither  should 
oppose  this  condition  or  infringe  this  treaty. 

"  And,  with  respect  to  the  city  of  Samarkand, 
they,  through  the  intercession  of  Ilek-Khan,  and 
in  order  to  supply  the  claims  of  his  old  service, 
confirmed  it  to  Fdlk.  And,  by  way  of  confirma- 
tion of  this,  he  received  a  written  document,  wit- 
nessed by  the  Imdms  and  senators  of  Mawaral- 
nahar. 

"  And  the  two  (princes)  turned  their  face  from 
each  other,  and  each  went  unto  his  own  province, 
and  Nasir-Addin*  came  unto  Balkh,  and  Saif- 
Addoulatf  to  Nishapiir,  and  the  Prince  Niih 
became  happily  freed  from  the  contentions  of  the 
army  of  the  Turks,  and  from  the  anxiety  of  heart 
caused  by  them. 

"And  Abu-Nasr-'bn-Abi-Zaid  became  occupied 

*  Sabaktagfn.  t  Mahmfid. 


188  MEMOIRS  OP  SabaktagIn. 

in  the  arrangement  of  the  affairs  of  the  Vizd,rat,  and, 
on  account  of  the  deUverance  and  freedom  of  the 
provinces,  and  the  return  of  the  sources  of  revenue, 
and  the  (change  in  the  former)  weakness  and 
ruined  state  of  the  revenue  collections,  applied 
himself  to  strengthen  and  to  confirm  and  settle  the 
means  of  tribute.  And  his  time  passed  away  in 
expediencies  and  contrivances,  and  he  washed 
away  blood  with  blood.*  And  when  fifty  months 
had  elapsed  from  the  time  of  his  investiture  with 
the  ofiice  of  Vizir  certain  of  his  young  guards  laid 
hands  upon  him  and  killed  him.  And  Prince  Nuh 
Was  extremely  confounded  and  disheartened  at  this 
event,  and,  on  account  of  the  (consequent)  ill-will 
of  Nasir-Addln,  and  the  probability  that  he  might 
be  suspected  of  this  assassination,  and  that  the 
imputation  of  being  gratified  with  this  deed  might 
fall  upon  him.  He  sought  some  means  of  escape, 
and  displayed  every  mark  of  sympathy  and  sorrow, 
and  came  forth  from  the  royal  palace,  and  offered 
prayers  for  his  soul,  and  arrested  those  young  men, 
and  put  them  all  to  death  with  the  utmost  severity. 
And  amongst  various  poems  in  commemoration  of 
this  Vizir  that  by  Abii-Nasr  says  thus  (Verse) 

"  '  The  hearts  of  men  are  sick  with  grief,  and  the  soul  of 
glory  and  piety  is  afflicted  with  disease. 
"  '  "Why  does  the  world  grieve  for  thee  ? 

*  Eepaired  exaction  with  exaction. 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn.  189 

"  But   that  by  losing  thee  thou  hast  left  the   world  an 
orphan.' " 


AccorNT  or  ABrL-KAsiM  SimjIje,  Bbothee  or  Abu-Al!,  and 
his  clectimstanoes,  aetee  his  secession  teom  his 
Beothee. 

Abul-Kasim,  after  his  separation  from  Abil- 
All,  remained  retired  in  a  corner,  until  the  flag  of 
Nasir-Addin  reached  Khurasan.  Then  he  betook 
himself  to  his  service  and  requested  to  be  allowed 
the  happiness  of  following  his  standard.  His  pro- 
posal met  with  the  most  favourable  reception  pos- 
sible from  Naslr-Addln,  and  he  fully  supplied  him 
with  those  marks  of  generosity  and  of  respect 
which  were  due  to  his  efficiency.  And  he  wrote  a 
despatch  to  the  Prince,  and  enlarged  upon  his 
worth,  and  requested  for  him  the  gift  of  the 
province  of  Kohistan,  which  had  been  an  ancient 
part  of  the  territories  of  the  family  of  Simjiir. 
And  the  Prince  fuUy  complied  with  this  request, 
and  he  sent  to  him  an  ornamented  royal  dispatch, 
containing  the  grant  of  the  province  of  Kohistan, 
adding  various  honourable  titles  and  valuable 
dresses  of  honour,  and  he  accepted  his  services  and 
his  obedience  with  an  eye  of  favour  and  with 
expressions  of  praise.  And  he  took  up  his  resi- 
dence in  his  province  with  comfort  of  mind  and 
quietness  of  heart,  until  the  time  when  Naslr- 
Addin  called  upon  him  to  repress  the  assemblage 


190  MEMOIRS^OF  SABAKTAGIn. 

and  to  humble  the  numbers,  and  to  conquer  the 
pretensions  and  the  excesses  of  the  enemies  of  the 
State  ;  but  he,  through  suspicion,  and  fear,  and 
alarm  at  consequences,  and  on  account  of  his  con- 
nexion, as  a  kinsman,  with  the  affairs  of  his 
brother,  excused  himself,  and  sought  for  pretexts 
for  holding  back,  and  exhibited  repugnance  from 
complying  with  that  request.  But,  although  he 
knew  that  an  opposition  to  the  judgment  and  a 
hesitation  in  coalescing  with  the  majority  would 
be  attended  with  a  noxious  issue  and  an  evil  result, 
he  engaged  with  the  rebels,  and,  because  he  found 
the  plain  of  Khurasan  empty,  he  proceeded  to 
Nishapur.  Here  AbTi-lSTasr-'bn-Mahmiid,  the 
Chamberlain,  joined  him,  and  both  of  them 
together  betook  themselves  to  crimes  and  malice, 
and  to  seek  for  money,  and  to  annoy  the  tax-col- 
lectors, and  to  knead  the  provinces  (in  exactions) 
and  to  torment  the  subjects.  And  when  Naslr- 
Addln  received  intelligence  of  these  proceedings 
he  wrote  to  Saif-Addoulat  that  he  should  set 
forward  to  Nishapiir,  and  he  sent  his  brother  with 
suitable  forces  to  his  assistance,  in  order  that  they 
might  examine  into  the  state  of  affairs,  and,  before 
their  wickedness  became  of  serious  consequence, 
and  before  the  fire  which  they  lighted  should  burst 
into  a  flame,  might  effectually  put  a  stop  to  that 
cause  of  anxiety.  He  was  not  content  with  setting 
them  in  motion  and  sending  them,  but  he  himself 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAGIn.  191 

marched  fortli  from  BaUfh  and  went  in  their  rear. 
Saif-Addoulat  dispatched  Begrajak-Beg*  to  run 
after  them,  and  Abul-Kasim,  from  dread  of  those 
forces,  and  alarm  at  that  army,  and  fear  at  those 
two  warriors,  drew  over  his  back  the  shield  of 
flight,  and  took  the  road  of  retreat,  and  came  to 
the  confines  of  Jurj^n.  And  Saif-Addoulat, 
having  completely  recovered  himself  from  this  dif- 
ficulty, respecting  Abul-Kasim  and  his  companion, 
and  having  enabled  Khurasd,n  to  become  quite  free 
from  the  effects  of  their  malice,  came  with  Beg- 
rajak  to  the  Court  of  Naslr-Addin,  and  they 
devoted  themselves  anew  to  his  service. 

And  at  the  time  of  the  stay  of  Nasfr- Addin  at 
Balkh  there  arrived  messengers,  on  the  part  of 
Fakhr-Addoulat,  who  thus  entered  upon  the  com- 
mencement of  writing  correspondence,  and  sought 
a  favourable  reception,  by  means  of  many  gifts  and 
presents,  and  various  kinds  of  the  commodities  of 
Irdk,  and  exhibited  an  earnest  zfeal  for  affection, 
sincerity,  and  kindness.  And,  the  Amir  Naslr- 
Addln,  in  order  to  requite  these  benefits,  doubly 
performed  various  acts  of  kindness,  and  sent  Abd- 
Allah,  the  scribe,  on  a  journey  to  Fakhr-Addoulat, 
and  conveyed  unto  him  large  packages  of  the 
valuable  goods  of  Khurasdn,  with  six  elephants  of 
a  perfect  shape.     But  some  intimated  unto  Fakhr- 

*  Brother  of  Sabaktagin. 


192  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn. 

Addoulat,  by  way  of  exciting  his  suspicion,  that 
Abd- Allah,  the  scribe,  was  occupied  in  the  Court 
in  spying  into  affairs  and  in  making  himself 
acquainted  with  proceedings,  and  in  stirring  up 
strife  with  the  chiefs  of  the  army,  and  he  thus 
incurred  an  unfavourable  opinion,  and  he  wrote  an 
uncivil  reply  to  Nasir-Addin,  and  said,  "  A  mes- 
senger ought  to  be  the  interpreter  of  thy  mind  and 
of  thy  royal  Court,  but  the  messenger  whom  thou 
has  sent  hither  appears  to  be  a  speaker  of  hypo- 
crisy and  an  agent  in  discord,  and,  just  like  a 
serpent,  he  has  shown  himself  to  be  a  most  conspi- 
cuous perpetrator  of  malice,  and  his  craftiness  in 
drinking  up  benefits,  and  his  readiness  both  to 
speak  and  to  act  wickedness  in  a  corner,  hath 
become  notorious  in  the  palace."  And  these 
words  were  undoubtedly  written  in  reference  to  his 
disposition,  namely,  "  He  is  one  who  wishes  not 
to  recognize  that  a  royal  throne  is  not  maintained 
in  the  secrecies  of  earth,  but  by  using  force  against 
force,  and  power  against  power." 

And  JSTdsir-Addln  was  vexed  with  these  words, 
and  the  novelty  of  this  state  of  affairs  began  to 
fade,  and  the  foundations  of  that  affection  which 
they  had  began  to  rear  up  became  broken. 

But,  afterwards  there  arrived  another  messen- 
ger, on  the  part  of  Fakhr-Addoulat  who  brought 
certain  writings,  containing  propositions  for  the 
commencement  of  friendship,  and  for  the  extension 


MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn.  193 

of  the  principles  of  concord,  saying  thus  :  "  The 
Prince  Niih,  with  regard  to  us,  holds  generously 
open  the  gates  of  regard,  and  the  ways  of  bounty 
and  he  exhibits  great  zeal  for  an  alliance,  and  for 
ties  of  affinity  with  his  Highness.  And  we  desire 
that  the  arrangement  of  this  friendship,  and  the 
settlement  of  this  alliance  may  be  effected  with  the 
concurrence  and  consent  of  Ndsir-Addin,  and  that 
on  both  sides  the  paths  of  friendship  and  the  high- 
road of  deliverance  from  the  vicissitudes  of  time 
and  confusion  of  change  may  exist,  since  on  our 
part  we  should  regret  nothing  which  we  could  do 
that  might  be  possible  and  effectual  for  the  preser- 
vation of  the  welfare  and  for  the  settlement  of  the 
prosperity  of  his  Highness.  And  on  account  of  the 
clear  intellect,  and  the  solid  understanding,  and  the 
pure  mind,  and  the  unbounded  generosity  of  Ndsir- 
Addin  we  feel  confident  that  the  families  may  be- 
come one,  and  the  way  of  intercourse  may  be 
placed  on  unity,  and  that  both  our  faults  and  our 
merits  may  be  treated  with  sincere  love  and  true 
affection,  in  order  that  we  may  become  fixed  and 
settled  in  friendship,  and  that  the  foundations  of 
kindred  and  affection  may  cohere  in  duty  and 
right."  And  Nisir-Addln  heard  these  excellent 
professions  with  pleasure,  and  drew  the  mirror  of 
sincerity  over  the  face  of  the  petitioner ;  and  in  the 
weakness  of  his  sincerity  he  returned  this  regard 
and   kindness   doubly,   and   their  relations,  fixed 


194  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn. 

upon  the  foundation  of  the  building  of  regard,  and 
upon  the  well-arranged  pillars  of  kindred,  became 
free  from  and  divested  of  doubt  and  offence. 

And  when  Abiil-Kasim-Ibn-Simjur,  in  his  dis- 
tress, fled  to  the  compassion  of  Fakhr-Addoulat, 
and  took  refuge  in  his  dominions,  and  withdrew 
his  tooth  from  the  confines  of  Khurasin,  he  sum- 
moned him  to  the  borders  of  Damg-han  and 
Koms,  and  Jurj^n,  and  gave  unto  him  the  revenues 
of  those  provinces  for  wages  and  maintenance  for 
himself  and  his  army;  but  the  conclusion  of  all  his 
transactions,  and  his  wealth,  and  his  condition  shall 
be  unfolded  in  its  proper  place,  please  God. 

And  after  the  affair  of  Nasr-Ibn-Zaid  the  Prince 
Niih  sent  a  servant  unto  the  court  of  Ndsir-Addin, 
and  consulted  him  upon  conferring  the  ofiice  of 
Vlzlr  upon  some  efficient  person  of  the  province, 
who  should  possess  a  persevering  mind,  addicted  to 
the  regulation  of  affairs.  N4sir-Addin  presented 
the  right  of  making  the  selection  to  the  (common) 
judgment  of  the  kingdom  ;  and  making  use  of  the 
services  of  every  one  of  the  Vizirs  attached  to  his 
Court,  whose  judgment  might  make  the  election, 
the  choice  fell  upon  Abul-Muzaffar-Bargashi,  and 
he  was  accordingly  honoured  by  his  Highness  with 
the  robe  which  was  fit  for  that  good  fortune,  and 
suitablb  to  his  efficiency,  and  he,  in  the  dress  of 
that  office,  displayed  the  marks  of  fortitude  and 
the  evidences  of  good  sense,  and  established  good 


MEMOIRS  OP  SABAKTAgIn,  195 

regulations,  and  was  the  happy  occupant  of  that 
employment,  until  the  close  of  the  life  of  the  Prince 
Niih.    And  the  Amir  Nasir-Addin  came  to  Balkh, 
and  the  Amir  Saif-Addoulat  went  to  NishapUr; 
and    Abul-Hasan-'bn-Abi-Ali-'bn    Simjiir,    esta- 
blished himself  in  the  coasts  of  Kdin,  and  when 
intelligence  of  the  flight  of  his  father  to  T\is  came 
to  him  he  went  to  Ray,  and  had  recourse  unto  the 
care  of  Fakhr- Addoulat ;  and  Fakhr-Addoulat  in 
his   behalf  was   forward  in  opening  the  gates  of 
kindness  and  favour,  and  every  month  he  paid  in 
his  name  fifty  thousand  dirhems,  by  way  of  monthly 
(pay),  and  he  continually  maintained  him  with  in- 
creased marks  of  generosity  and  honour,  and  acts 
of  favour,  and  deeds  of  kindness.     And  he  paid 
continual  attention  to  him,  partly  in  order  to  honour 
his  noble  descent,  and  partly  in  order  to  show  forth 
that  such  a  personage  as  the  son  of.  Simjiir  was  in 
his  service ;  and  he  passed  a  long  time  before  him 
upon  the  carpet  of  prosperity  and  the  abode  of 
comfort,  until,  the  star  of  misfortune  arose,  and  the 
miseries  of  evil  luck  cast  him  down  from  the  canopy 
of  safety  and  the  roof  of  peace  into  the  pit  of 
grief  and  the  noose  of  perplexity ;  for,  on  account 
of  the  inclination  which  he  felt  for  the  object  in 
view*  he. went  to  Nishaprir,  and  he  attached  him- 
self to  the  imagination  that  he  might  be-  able  to 

*  Doubtless  to  raise  a  rebeUion  against  Nuh. 

o  2 


196  MEMOIRS  OF  SABAKTAgIn. 

proceed  by  gentle  degrees  to  his  object,  under  the 
curtain  of  concealment  and  under  the  speech  of 
secrecy  ;  but  they  quickly  stripped  off  from  him 
the  skirt  of  concealment/ and  drew  him  forth  infa- 
mous and  mortified,  and  sent  him  to  Bukhird. 
And  thus  the  decree  of  God  reached  its  full  accom- 
plishment with  respect  to  him,  and  thus  his  condi- 
tion came  to  its  end,  by  reason  of  the  reputation  of 
his  father,  and  Um-Salmah,  in  his  poem,  writes 
these  two  verses,  with  veritable  judgment  (Verse) 

"  Thougli  one  may  abstain  from  sin, 

"  Thougb  he  be  an  Ayesha  in  constancy  before  men, 

"  God  removes  their  understandings  from  the  people, 

"  When  he  would  accomplish  his  decrees  upon  their  chief." 

And  the  petty  Amir  of  Tils  remained  in  his 
rank  amongst  the  body  of  the  soldiers  of  Saif- 
Addoulat  until  he  had  fulfilled  his  designs  respect- 
ing Mdwaralnahr,  and  until  the  Turkish  affair  was 
effectually  settled ;  and,  in  the  midst  of  this  affair, 
he  (Saif-Addoulat)  was  so  involved  in  alarm  and 
terror  from  a  dream,  that  he  seized  him  (of  Tiis), 
and  the  end  of  his  history  partook  of  the  nature  of 
the  question  of  Abii-Ali  and  his  other  colleagues.* 

And  when  Nasir-Addin  returned  from  the 
affair  of  Tiis,  and  had  taken  up  his  residence  tran- 
quilly at  Balkh,  he  there  received  intelligence  of 
the  affairs  of  Abii-All  and   his  comrades.     And 

*  i.  e.  He  was  possibly  put  to  death. 


MEMOIES  OP  SABAKTAGiN.  197 

immediately  after  this  news  an  assemblage  of  mis- 
fortunes amongst  the  Princes  and  great  men  of 
Irak  and  Khurasan  rapidly  followed  and  succeeded 
one  another  on  every  side  (Verse) 

"  Mansions  flow  upon  the  site  of  mansions,*  as  if  they  had 
all  arrived  at  the  time  of  paying  the  last  debt." 

The  meaning  of  this  expression  is  as  follows  : 
namely,  that  Mamiln-Ibn-Muhammad,  whilst  at  an 
entertainment  given  by  the  general  of  his  troops, 
was  killed  by  the  hand  of  his  guards.  And  on  the 
thirteenth  day  of  the  month  Rajab,  in  the  year 
387,  A.H.,  the  Prince  Niih,  after  an  illness  of  two 
or  three  days,  went  to  God,  and  in  the  flower  of 
his  youth  departed  unto  the  residence  of  the  grave. 
And  they  gave  this  Prince  the  surname  of  Amir- 
Riza,  (or  Ridha),   (^.  e,).  Lord  of  Kindness. 

And  a  great  man  of  the  nobles  of  Naslr- 
Addin,  who  was  the  brother  of  his  soul,  together 
with  several  of  his  infant  children,  and  servants 
and  slaves  removed  to  the  mansion  of  eternity. 
And  at  last  the,  Amir  became  veryiU  and  confined 
to  his  bed.  He  entertained  the  hope  of  convales- 
cence and  restoration,  and  became  earnestly 
desirous  of  the  water  and  the  air  of  Ghazna,  and 
sought  healing  and  refreshment  from  the  breezes 
of  that  region,  but  the  decree  of  fate  and  the  ordi- 

*  Or  (great)  families  pass  away  upon  (great)  families. 


198  DEATH  OF  SABAKTAGIn. 

nation  of  God  did  not  permit  that,  and  his  desire 
never  received  its  fulfilment,  and  he  resigned  his 
soul  to  Paradise  in  one  of  the  resting-houses  on 
his  road. 

They  transported  his  remains,  in  a  litter,  to 
Ghazna.  And, -amongst  the  peculiar  occurrences 
and  wonderful  incidents  relating  to  him,  Utbi,  in 
his  book,  cites  the  following  :  "  I  was  in  attendance 
upon  the  Amir  Nasir-Addin  before  the  occurrence 
of  his  illness,  and  he,  in  the  course  of  conversation 
with  the  Shaikh  Abul-Fath-Busti  said,  'We,  in 
treating  the  diseases  which  occur  to  us  and  in  esti- 
mating the  maladies  which  happen  to  us,  are  like 
sheep — the  first  time  that  the  sheep-shearer,  in 
order  to  free  them  from  their  dirty  wool,  firmly 
binds  their  four  feet,  they  see  an  action  to  which 
they  have  not  been  accustomed  and  are  in  a  con- 
dition contrary  to  their  usual  wont,  and  they, 
therefore,  in  great  trouble  and  in  their  extreme 
terror,  cast  themselves  upon  the  ground  and  they 
are  almost  in  despair  of  their  life,  and  give 
themselves  up  for  dead,  until  the  shearer  has  com- 
pleted his  business  and  released  them  :  then  repose 
finds  its  way  into  them  and  they  feel  rejoiced  at 
the  breath  of  life,  and  at  the  restoration  of  safety. 
But  the  second  time  that  they  fall  into  the  hand 
of  the  shearer  their  condition  is  one  between  fear 
and  hope,  and  as  soon  as  they  are  released  they 
forget  that  condition,  and  on  that  account  their 


DEATH  OF  SABAKTAgIn.  199 

apprehension  becomes  less ;  so  that  at  the  third 
time  they  regard  it  as  a  usual  established  custom, 
and  are  perfectly  quiet.  Ahd  thus  when  the 
butcher  takes  hold  of  them,  and  binds  them  they 
by  no  means  feel  any  terror  or  dread,  but  they 
remain  in  the  weakest  security,  and  in  the  most 
quiet  and  contented  state,  whilst  he  cuts  through, 
their  neck-viens  witb  the  sv^ord  of  violence,  and 
casts  their  gweet  life  to  the  winds.  We  in  our 
various  maladies,  vicissitudes  of  sicknesses,  and 
attacks  of  disease,  are  deceived  and  gladdened  with 
the  hope  of  restoration  and  recovery,  and  we  be- 
come deaf  and  careless  to  the  summons  of  death, 
until  the  noose  of  fate  falls  upon  the  neck,  and  the 
chain  of  destiny  becomes  firmly  fastened  upon  us.' 
And  between  the  utterance  of  this  similitude,  and 
the  completion  of  the  days  of  his  life  there  did  not 
intervene  a  space  of  forty  days,  and  all  men  won- 
dered at  the  occurrence  of  this  event,  and  at  the 
surprising  and  unexpected  verification  of  this 
sapng,  that  the  decree  of  the  Almighty  should  be 
so  thoroughly  accomphshed  in  this  speech  of  his, 
and  that  this  enlightened  mind,  which  was  Hie 
mirror  of  the  secrets  of  mystery,  and  that  blessed 
tongue  which  was  the  interpreter  of  the  events  of 
fortune,  should  so  clearly  express  the  appointments 
of  destiny,  and  the  certainty  of  the  last  hour,  before 
the  approach  of  his  departure,  or  the  time  of  his 
resting  from  the  journey  of  life." 


200  DEATH  OF  SABAKTAgIN. 

And  in  the  subsequent  period,  and  in  future 
times,  a  palace  was  built  at  the  place  where  he 
died,  and  named  Sahal-Abad,*  and  considerable 
sums  were  settled  as  an  endowment  for  its  support, 
and  an  entire  acre  of  the  plain  was  set  out  for 
the  beautifying  and  adornment  of  the  foundation, 
and  for  the  columns  to  support  that  rare  fabric  and 
admirable  structure  ;  but  on  account  of  the  troubled 
state  of  the  times  it  never  was  completed,  and  his 
sons  declined  to  undertake  its  accomplishment,  and 
thus  it  happened  that  it  fell  to  ruin,  and  the  pains 
which  had  been  devoted  to  its  foundation  and  sup- 
port were  wasted.  And  a  certain  learned  man 
passed  by  this  palace,  and  made  the  following 
verses  upon  its  appearance  (Verse) 

"  Heaven  bless  thee  in  this  desert  mansion.  Thou  hast 
lighted  up  in  me  my  old  regret,t  and  thou  knowest  that  I  pro- 
mised thee,  a  month  since,  a  new  (mansion)  and  it  is  not 
accomplished ;  for  changes  of  inclination  have  worn  out  thy 
dwelling  in  a  month." 

And  thus  this  unfortunate  building,  through 
the  instability  of  earthly  things  and  of  deceitful 
fortune,  became  useless ;  like  a  child-devouring 
crocodile,  and  hke  the  fox  of  fraud,  and  like  the 
wolf  of  howling,  and  like' the  shifting  shadow,  and 
like  the  unprofitable  desert-mist  (Verse) 

*  Sahal  Abad,  Mansion   of  the   Mild  (?)— Sabattagin  is 
represented  as  a  Prince  of  an  amiable  and  humane  disposition, 
t  i.  e.  Obviam  factus  sum  (subito)  desiderio  meo. 


DEATH  OF  FAKHR-ADDOULAT.  ^01 

"  The  world  is  a  decaying  embankment,  by  a  passing 
torrent. 

"  Think  not  that  you  can  construct  a  stable  building  with 
one  handful  of  clay." 

And  the  Shaik  Abul-Falk-Basti,  in  his  poem 
commending  Ndsir-Addfn,  says  thus  (Verse) 

"  I  said,  when  JN'asir-Addin-wa-Addoulah  died, '  His  life  was 
a  multitude  of  glories.  The  agglomeration  of  his  virtues  con- 
tended with  each  one  separately  in  excellence ;  as  this  man  will 
rise  with  this  confusedly  on  the  last  day.'  " 

And  immediately  after  this  event  there  arrived 
the  news  of  the  death  of  Fakhr-Addoulat-Ali- 
Biigali,  and  thus  both  were  buried  in  the  month 
Shabin,  in  the  year  387.  And  the  cause  of  the 
death  of  Fakhr-Addoulat  (besides  the  decree  of 
the  Lord)  was  this ;  he  was  building  the  fortress 
of  Tabarak,  and  when  he  had  finished  it  he  went 
into  the  fortress  with  some  wine-bibbing  comrades, 
and  occupied  himself  in  merriment,  and  he  felt  a 
wish  for  some  roasted  kababs  of  beef,  and  they 
brought  an  ox  before  him,  and  killed  it,  and  made 
kababs  of  its  flesh,  and  he  exceeded  very  much  in 
eating  these  ;  and  he  afterwards  again  drank  some 
heavy  cups  of  wine,  and  his  bowels  twisted,  and  a 
severe  illness  began,  through  which  he  resigned  his 
life,  and  Abul-Faraj-Sawa,  in  his  poem  thus  says 
(Verse) 

"  Ah  !  the  world  is  saying  to  him  who  is  filled  therewith ! 


202  SUCCESSION  OP  ISMAIL. 

'  Beware,  beware  of  my  sudden  violence  or  secret  onset.  Let 
not  my  prolonged  smile  deceive  thee.  My  words  may  make 
thee  laugh,  my  deeds  will  make  thee  weep.'  " 

And  their  subsequent  condition,  after  the 
occurrence  of  these  misfortunes,  and  the  falling  out 
of  these  sorrows,  was  this,  that  AH,  the  son  of 
Mahmiid,  took  his  father's  place,  and  the  army  in- 
augurated him,  and  his  authority  extended  beyond 
his  own  territory  to  Jurjdn  and  Khwarazm,  and 
recovered  its  former  stability.  And  the  hereditary 
kingdom  of  Riza-Niih-'bn-Mansiir  devolved  upon 
his  next  heir,  Abul-Harith-Mansiir-Ibn-Niih,  and 
the  oaths  of  the  regiments  of  the  army  were  taken 
to  him  as  General  and  Sultdn.*  And  he  distri- 
buted amongst  the  body  of  the  army  his  inherited 
money,  and  his  stored-up  valuables ;  and  the  senti- 
ments of  all  were  unanimously  favourable  to  under- 
take bis  service,  and  his  obedience.  And  the  Vizir 
Abul-Muzaffar-Baragshi  became  settled  and  con- 
firmed upon  the  cushion  of  ofiice. 

Now  Ndsir-Addln  in  his  lifetime,  had  nomi- 
nated his  son  Ismail  as  his  heir,  and  his  will  con- 
fided his  children  and  his  family  to  his  care.  And 
when  the  will  of  God  brought  it  to  pass  (that  he 

*  Abul  Harith  is  here  styled  Sultan,  but  more  commonly 
Amir  or  Malik.  Sultan  appears  to  denote  a  sovereign  who 
wins  his  power  by  force  {Tvpawo^)  Amir,  the  Lieutenant  of  the 
ecclesiastical  sovereign,  and  Malik,  one  who  peacefully  and 
regularly  acquires  or  enjoys  a  kingdom  (BairiXeOs). 


SUCCESSION  TO  DILAM.  203 

died),  the  whole  assembly  of  the  chiefs  and  of  the 
people  hastened  to  engage  in  his  service,  and  be- 
came submissive  unto  the  guiding  string  of  obe- 
dience, and  devotion  unto  him  and  the  will  of  the 
late  Amir  respecting  obedience  to  his  authority  was 
effectually  performed,  and  the  assembled  council  of 
the  officers  of  State  agreed  respecting  the  means  of 
supplying  maintenance  to  the  various  ranks  of  his 
Court. 

And  with  regard  to  Fakhr-Addoulat  the  whole 
country  of  DiMm  after  his  decease  unanimously 
joined  his  son  Majd-Addoulat-Abu-Talib-Rustdm, 
and  placed  him  upon  the  throne,  and,  by  the 
authority  of  the  Khalif,  gave  him  the  surname 
of  Majd-Addoulat-wa-Kahf-Almillat*  And  the 
complete  history  of  both  these  personages  shall  be 
given  in  its  proper  place,  please  God.  And  the 
poet  Thadlabi,  in  his  account  of  these  affairs  and  the 
wonders  of  this  year,  and  the  distresses  of  these 
times,  has  written  a  descriptive  poem,  and  in  truth 
that  which  Abu-Mansur-Thad,labi  hath  written  is 
an  enchanting  production  (Verse) 

"  'Dost  thou  not  see  what  for  two  years  has  been  succes- 
sively the  cry  ? 

"  There  has  been  a  cry  to  death  and  murder, 
"  Ndh,  the  son  of  Mansur !  the  striking  hand  hath  seized 
him  on  those  protected  parts  which  the  ribs  are  pledged  to 
guard"  the  hearty?) 

*  Glory  of  the  Empire  and  Asylum  of  the  Eeligious. 


204  AFFAIRS  OF  BUKHa'ra'. 

"  Oh  the  calamity  of  Mansur !   in  the  day  of  odds  and 
evens"- — chance  (?) 

"  The  kingdom  was  wrested  from  him  and  he  perishes,"  &c. 

And  when  Abul-Harith-Mansur-'bn-Niih  be- 
came adorned  with  his  brilliant  kingdom,  and 
received  this  his  extreme  power,  he  was  in  the  first 
dawn  of  life,  and  the  first  days  of  youth,  and  in  the 
morning  of  perception.  And  the  lights  of  gene- 
rosity, and  good-fellowship  were  evident  upon  his 
joyous  face,  and  the  marks  of  good  fortune  and 
prosperity  were  apparent  in  the  firmness  of  his 
movements  and  carriage.  The  office  of  Vizir  was 
confirmed  to  Abul-Mazaft'ar-Baragshi,  and  the  reins 
of  affairs  and  the  general  superintendence  of  all 
matters  was  conferred  upon  Fdlk.  And  Nasir- 
Addln  had  obtained  the  release  of  AbduUah-'bn- 
Aziz  from  prison,  and  he  had  gone  to  the  higher 
provinces  of  Mawaralnahr,  when  intelligence  of 
the  decease  of  the  Prince  Niih  reached  him  ;  he 
thereupon  incited  Abu-Nasir-Ispahani  to  covet  the 
administration  of  the  army  of  Khurasan,  and  he 
advised  him  to  obtain  the  aid  of  Ilek-Khdn  in  this 
matter,  and  to  ask  men  from  him,  and  that  he 
would  conquer  Khurasan  for  him.  Both  of  them 
accordingly  proceeded  to  Ilek-Kh4n  for  the  settle- 
m.ent  and  the  arrangement  of  this  proposition ;  and 
Abil-Mansiir,  with  a  body  of  chamberlains  and 
their  comrades,  was  then  with  Ilek-Khdn,  who  had 
received   them   as   guests,   and  their  troops   and 


AFFAIRS  OF  BUKHARA.  205 

attendants  were  occupied  in  arranging  their  en- 
campment, and  pitching  their   tents.     Ilek-Kh4n 
then  seized  Ispahani*  and  Ibn-Aziz,  and  put  both 
in  fetters,  and  sent  a  message  to  Fiik,  and  sum- 
moned him  to  his  Court ;  and  when  he  was  coming 
to  his  presence  he  exhibited  the  greatest  confidence 
in  him,  and  received  him  with  the  utmost  venera- 
tion and  honour,  and  assigned  him  three  thousand 
cavalry  to  form  his  escort,  and  sent  him  forward  to 
the  province  of  Bukh4ra.    And  when  Abiil-Harith 
received  an  intimation  of  these  occurrences  he  be- 
came confused,  and  his  mind,  from  a  condition  of 
steadiness  and  security,  fell  into  a  state  of  weak- 
ness, and  he  thought  that  it  would  be  best  for  him  to 
collect  all  his  followers  and  to  pass  over  the  Jihdn, 
and  to  leave  his  estate  and  his  abode.     And  when 
Fdlk  came  to  Bukhdrd  he  went  before  the  throne, 
and  kissed  the  ground,  and  stood  in  the  place  of 
the  chamberlains,  and  testified  much  regret,  and 
uttered  lamentations  at  the  removal  of  Abiil-Harith 
from  the  throne  of  royalty,  and  the  dwelling  of  his 
kindred,  and  the  residence  of  his  ancestors,  and  he 
sent  the  senators  of  Bukhdri  after  him,  who  ex- 
pressed humility,  and  invited  him  to  establish  him- 
self again  in  the  kingdom,  and  offered  to  assist  in 
securing  obedience  and  service  to  him.    And  when 
Abiil-Harith  heard  of  these  events  he  recovered 

*  Or  Isfanjani ;  the  points  are  doubtful. — M.  Kasimikski. 


206  AFFAIRS  OF  BUKHARA. 

confidence,  and  exhibited  reliance  upon  Fdik,  and 
dispatched  to  F41k  a  royal  letter  full  of  praises  of 
his  efforts,  and  approbation  of  what  had  happened, 
and  of  gratification  at  all  his  loyalty,  and  the  com- 
mencement of  this  royaL  document  was  as  follows  : 
"  Thou  who  hast  acted  with  sincerity,  God  is  thy 
friend.  He  will  extend  thy  bridle-cords.  Thou  who 
art  a  faithful  adviser,  God  will  make  all  straight 
before  thee.  Happy  is  his  confidence  where  he  hath 
fixed  it.  This  man  will  pass  his  life  commended 
wherever  this  (i.  e.,  confidence)  is  current."* 

And  Abiil-Harith  was  very  cheerful  under  these 
circumstances,  and  he  sent  Yaktuzun,f  the  Lord 
Chamberlain,  to  Nishapdr,  for  the  purpose  of  col- 
lecting the  soldiers  and  the  military  stores,  and 
gave  to  him  the  surname  of  Sinan-Addoulat,t  and 
he  set  forward  to  Bukhdrd,  and  F&lk  went  out  with 
a  deputation  to  meet  him,  and  paid  to  him  the 
usual  compliments  of  service  and  respect  ',■  and  he 
came  to  him  upon  his  charger  to  the  palace,  and 
thus  the  fire  of  that  quarrel  became  entirely  extinct 
(Persian  Verse) 

"  Beast  and  bird  found  repose  in  the  asyliim  of  peace ;  men 
and  animals  rested  under  the  canopy  of  justice ;  heaven  took  off 
the  belt  from  the  sword ;  fortune  remored  the  string  from  the 
curved  bow ;  the  oppressor  felt  his  empty  liver  grieved  for  want 
of  blood,  and  the  mouth  of  righteousness  unfolded  in  smiles 
like  the  rose." 

*  A  free  version.  f  Or  Baktuzun  (passim). 

i  Probably  Bridle  Eein  of  the  Empire. 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHASNA.  207 

And  between  FS.lk  and  Begtiizun  an  old  grudge 
existed,  and  a  violent  controversy  had  lasted  long ; 
but  the  Amir  Abiil-Harith  exerted  himself  in 
appeasing  and  removing  it ;  and  he  reconstructed 
their  friendship  so  that  the  words  of  both  agreed 
in  professing  service  to  his  Highness,  and  their  foot 
became  firm  and  stedfast  in  assisting  the  State. 
And  F^ik  relinquished  his  coldness,  and  displayed 
a  readiness  for  agreement  and  concord.  And  the 
command  of  the  army  was  settled  upon  Begtiizun, 
and  he  made  the  taxes  of  Khurasan  profitable  to 
the  royal  treasury,  and  he  displayed  zeal  in  procu- 
ring the  regular  payment  of  dues  to  the  tribute. 
And  the  Amir  thus  possessed  Elhurasin  without 
interruption  or  trouble,  until  the  demon  of  strife 
found  the  means  of  interrupting  this  tranquUlity  of 
mind,  and  he  rose  up  against  his  benefactor,  and 
gave  to  the  winds  the. ancient  kingdom,  and  the 
noble  house  of  the  family  of  Sdmdn,  and  procured 
unto  himself  so  bad  a  name  that  the  blame  of  those 
deeds  and  the  shame  of  those  actions  shall  exist  for 
ever. 

AcCOUlfT    OF    THAT    WHICH    PAST    BETWEEN    THE  AmIe    SaIF- 

Addoulat  and  his  Beothbe  Ismail,  aetee  the  Death 
OE  theie  Fathee. 

When  Nasir-Addln  died,  and  the  government 
was  settled  upon  Ismail,  the  army  extended  the 
neck  of  covetousness,  and  began  to  seek  the  largesse 


208  MEMOIRS  OT?  MAHMUD  OF  GHASNA. 

of  investiture.  And  he  divided  amongst  them  the 
treasures  of  the  earth,  but  his  belt  became  too  nar- 
row to  embrace  that  office,  and  the  enervation  of 
his  strength  and  the  debility  of  his  disposition  be- 
came apparent,  and  he  was  not  able  to  abide  firmly 
by  the  rules  of  the  government,  and  of  the  mastery 
of  others.  There  were  two  causes  of  this,  one,  that 
he  was  in  the  vigour  of  youth,  and  possessed  no 
experience,  and  saw  not  what  was  right  or-wrong, 
and  knew  nothing  of  the  management  of  afiairs  ; 
and  the  second  was,  that  he  had  no  confidence  in 
his  brother,  and  was  acquainted  with  his  perfect 
haughtiness  and  severe  manners,  and  was  aware  of 
his  powerful  intellect,  his  great  virtues,  his  un- 
bounded vigour,  strength,  and  majesty.  And  when 
the  army  perceived  his  inefficiency  and  weakness 
they  began  to  stretch  out  the  skirt  of  intemperance 
and  importunity,  and  to  .ask  for  allowances  and 
payments  beyond  their  due,  and  became  eager  for 
increased  pay  and  allowances,  until  the  whole  of  the 
accumulated  treasures  left  behind  by  Naslr-Addin 
were  swallowed  up  in  the  supply  of  their  cravings, 
and  the  treasury  became  empty.  And  the  Amir 
Ismail  extended  his  hand  to  seize  upon  the  trea- 
sures of  the  citadel,  and  the  trust-money  of 
Ghazna,  and  if  the  period  of  his  government  had 
been  extended,  he  would  have  broken  up  the  whole 
system  of  administration  and  of  revenue,  for  most 
of  the  Court  attached  themselves  to  divide  and  tear 


AtEMOmS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  ^09 

up.  And  when  Saif-Addoulat  received  intelligence 
of  that  which  had  happened  to  his  father,  he  (first) 
adhered  to  the  usual  rules  of  mourning,  and  sent  a 
letter  of  condolence  to  his  brother,  and  dispatched 
Abul-Hasan-Hamiili  *  on  a  mission  to  convey  it, 
(and  in  this  letter  he  said),  "  Oiir  father  who  was 
the  Paradise  of  affairs  and  the  pillar  of  events 
hath  departed,  and  now  there  is  not  for  me  upon 
tlie  face  of  the  earth  any  one  more  honoured  than 
thee,  and  nothing  dearer  to  me  than  thy  sweet  life, 
and  thy  bright  eyes  ;  and  whatever  thy  wish,  or 
the  desire  of  thy  inclination  might  seek  to  obtain, 
as  regards  authority,  and  command,  and  treasure, 
and  slaves,  and  goods,  and  troops,  I  feel  no  regret 
that  you  should  possess  them.  Notwithstanding 
this,  my  power  and  my  experience  in  the  events  of 
fortune,  and  my  knowledge  of  the  minutest  points 
relating  to  military  command,  and  my  acquaintance 
with  the  management  of  troops,  and  my  practical 
experience  in  the  manners  of  the  world,  may  prove 
a  well- compacted  foundation,  and  a  strong  means 
of  support  for  the  estabhshment  of  thy  kingdom, 
and  for  the  perpetuity  of  thy  authority,  and  if  thy 
supreme  power  and  authority  should  perform  what 
is  expected  of  thee  in  the  transaction  of  these 
affairs,  and  should  display  firmness  in  that  which 
appertains  unto   the  throne,    and  should   exhibit 

*  Or  Ilamioali. 


210  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

liberality  in  the  settlement  of  these  matters,  I  will 
be  the  most  obedient  and  the  most  satisfied  of  all' 
men,  although  our  father  made  a  will  which  was 
affronting  to  me,  on  account  of  the  distance  between 
us,  and  on  account  of  the  dread  of  calamity,  and 
on  account  of  his  being  separated  from  a  composed 
mind  and  a  state  of  volition.  It  would  seem  there- 
fore fit  that  thou  shouldst  entertain  thoughts  of 
foresight,  and  shouldst  recognize  the  way  of  equity, 
and  that  thou  shouldst  relinquish  to  me  Ghazna, 
which  is  the  rising  star  of  fortune,  and  the  starting 
point  of  government,  and  the  strength  of  the  chiefs 
of  the  State  ;  whilst  we,  on  our  part,  will  relinquish 
for  thee  the  territory  of  Balkh,  or  we  will  settle 
upon  thee  the  government  and  generalship  of  the 
arhiies  of  Khurasan!" 

The  Amir  Ismail  did  not  receive  these  words 
favourably,  and  that  which  was  unfortunate  and 
afflicting  in  his  road  seized  hold  of  the  border  of 
his  prosperity,  and  he  remained  interdicted  from 
the  enjoyment  of  fortune.  The  Governor  of  Jurj4n 
sto'cid  up  to  mediate  between  them,  and  chided 
them  much,  giving  them  many  good  counsels  and 
pieces  of  advice,  if  by  any  means  he  might  have 
held  them  to  the  observance  of  the  rules  of  frater- 
nity and  friendship,  and  might  expel  from  the 
minds  of  each  of  them  the  serpent  of  malignity,  by 
means  of  kindness  and  benevolence.  And  said  thus 
to  them  :  "  Kindxed  when  so  near  should  display 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  211 

mutual  affection.  It  is  right  that  you  two  brothers 
should  be  inclined  to  each  other,  and  should  regard 
each  other,  and  by  personal  conversation  and  hear- 
ing each  other  should  bring  forth  that  affection, 
and  regard,  and  attention  to  entreaty,  which  re- 
mains concealed  within  your  secret  souls,  and  that 
you  should  keep  entirely  apart  from  all  that  might 
conduce  to  the  injury  of  your  houses,  and  the 
diminution  of  your  dignity,  and  to  blind  anger, 
and  to  the  gratification  of  your  enemies."  This 
advice  was  favourably  received  by  the  Amir  Saif- 
Addoulat,  and  he  yielded  to  it  a  gracious  ear,  and 
he  was  satisfied  with  and  concurred  with  it.  But 
with  respect  to  the  Amir  Ismail,  on  account  of  his 
apprehension,  and  his  distrust  and  suspicion,  he 
would  not  surrender  himself,  and  turned  aside  from 
these  good  counsels,  and  he  saw  the  waste  of  his 
most  precious  treasures,  and  the  overbearing  force 
of  a  corrupted  army  preponderate  over  the  preser- 
vation of  his  family,  ■  and  the  friendship  of  his 
brother,  and  of  his  subjects,  and  over  all  sound 
conduct.  On  account  of  the  depravity  which  had 
obtained  the  mastery  over  his  better  soul,  and  of  the 
fancy  which  was  newly  conceived  in  the  border  of 
his  mind,  because  he  had  removed  the  reins  of 
quietness  and  repose  from  his  hand.  And  Utbi* 
relates  as  follows — I  conveyed  to  the  hearing  of 

*  Autlior  of  these  Memoirs  (the  Arabic  original  text). 

P  2 


212      MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OP  GHAZNA. 

the  Amir  Ismail  certain  verses  which  Saif-Addou- 
lat-Hamaddni  had  spoken  upon  the  subject  of  his 
brother  Nasir-Addoulat,  in  order  that  he  might  if 
possible  smooth  the  way  to  the  establishment  of 
the  foundations  of  friendship,  and  might  establish 
those  brotherly  relations  becoming  their  condition, 
whereby  all  motive  for  unkindness  and  aversion 
might  be  abolished.  But  these  verses  did  not 
stand  before  him  on  the  wheels  of  fortune,  and  did 
not  attach  themselves  unto  the  resting  point  (ful- 
crum) of  gracious  acceptance.  And  the  verses 
were  these  that  follow  fVerse) 

"  I  was  well  pleased  with  thy  elevation,  even  although  I 
myself  was  worthy  thereof,  and  I  said  to  them,  '  Between  me 
and  between  my  brother  there  is  a  difference,  yet  I  by  no 
means  evaded  taking  an  oath  of  fidelity  to  him,  although  it 
infringed  upon  my  rights.  Thus  all  duty  was  fulfilled.  But, 
since  thou  art  not  content  that  I  should  be  a  successful  peti- 
tioner, I  am  content  that  he  may  be  the  pre-eminent.'  " 

And  the  Amir  Saif-Addoulat  remained  unequal 
to  apply  a  remedy  to  these  matters,  or  to  discover 
a  way  of  deliverance  and  escape  from  these  difficul- 
ties, since  his  quiet  disposition  and  kind  nature, 
and  gravity,  and  gentleness  was  averse  from  taking 
the  first  step  into  the  gate  of  extremities,  or  from 
taking  the  lead  in  opposition  and  determination ; 
particularly  in  reference  to  a  brother  who  was  the 
apple  of  his  eye  and  a  part  of  the  liver  of  his  body 
and  soul,  and  the  fruit  of  his  heart,  and  the  flower 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OP  GHAZNA.  213 

of  the  garden  of  his  enjoyment,  and  the  mainte- 
nance of  the  days  of  his  Hfe ;  but  he  could  not 
succeed  in  his  endeavours  to  seek  the  means  of 
mending  this  torn  garment,  nor  could  he  find  any 
way  to  reconcile  this  quarrel.  And  in  him  was 
exemplified  the  text  which  says,  "  The  last  remedy 
is  the  actual  cautery,"  and  he  began  to  be  convinced 
that  when  the  hand,  which  is  the  pillar  of  the 
body,  and  the  most  precious  limb  for  seizing, 
wounding,  or  attacking,  is  bitten  by  a  serpent,  and 
the  rest  of  the  body,  on  account  of  its  dependence 
upon  it,  begins  to  perish,  there  are  no  means  of 
cure  except  by  cutting  it  ofi";  and  also  the  teeth 
which  compose  the  mill  of  the  body,  and  by  the 
strength  of  which  the  meals  which  support  life  are 
broken  up,  when  they  become  eaten  through  by 
decay,  and  when  through  the  pain  which  they 
cause,  the  delights  of  life  become  impracticable, 
there  is  no  other  remedy  with  respect  to  them 
except  to  extract  them,  and  to  destroy  them. 

Hereupon  he  sent  a  letter  to  the  Amir  Abul- 
Harith,  and  intimated  to  him  the  state  of  affairs, 
and  informed  him  that  to  proceed  to  Ghazna  was 
a  matter  of  necessity,  and  that  to  march  down  to 
that  quarter  was  an  act  which  was  indispensable. 
He  therefore  set  off.  and  turned  his  face  towards 
Ghazna,  and  when  he  arrived  at  Her4t  he  betook 
himself  to  write,  and  he  brought  forward  words  and 
fair  promises,  and  both  in  kind  and  harsh  (expres- 


214  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

sions)  brought  prominently  forward  the  most 
minute  points  in  apology  for  his  measures.  But 
nothing  profitable  resulted,  and  nothing  useful 
ensued,  so  that  the  mediation  between  these 
powers,  and  the  cutting  off  of  this  strife,  fell  to  the 
sword,  and  the  sword  produced  perils,  and  slaugh- 
ter, and  battles  (Verse) 

"  Increased  opposition  was  intenae  between  us.  I  related 
to  him  the  affection  of  Safad  and  Haivarn,  and  when  I  saw  that 
there  was  nothing  definite  in  him  I  managed  what  was  suffi- 
cient for  him  with  the  victorious  contention  of  resistance." 

And  Saif-Addoulat  mentioned  his  grief  to 
Bagrajak,  and  offered  proposals  of  mutual  friend- 
ship and  support,  and  he  undertook  to  do  him  ser- 
vice without  stipulating  for  any  fixed  reward,  and 
he  sought  to  aid  him  with  the  ensigns  of  war,  and 
came  to  Bost  to  help  him.  And  the  Amir  Nasr-'bn- 
Nasir-Addln*  was  at  that  place.  He  also,  with  the 
most  sincere  friendship  and  the  most  pure  feehng  of 
brotherhood  proceeded  without  delay  to  the  service 
of  his  fortunate  standard,  and  girded  up  the  loinS: 
of  obedience  and  readiness  in  the  support  of  his 
design,  and  with  the  utmost  candour,  and  without 
the  least  hypocrisy,  became  one  of  his  followers. 

And  when  the  Amir  Ismail  received  the  news 
of  the  march  of  Saif-Addoulat,  and  of  his  intention 
to  proceed  towards  Ghazna.  he  used  great  expedi' 

*  Brother  of  the  two  princes,  Ismail  and  Mahmud. 


MEMOmS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GB[AZNA.  215 

tion,  and  proceeded  from  Balkh  to  Ghazua.  And 
the  nobles  of  the  kingdom,  and  the  phiefs  of  his 
Highness,  dispatched  messages  of  kindness  to  the 
Amir  Saif-Addoulat,  and  represented,  the  sincerity 
of  their  obedience,  and  began  to  enter  into  propo- 
sals of  reconciliation  and  friendship,  and  the  rejec- 
tion of  variance.  And  the  envoys,  and  intercessors 
used  their  utmost  endeavours  for  the  settlement  qf 
friendship ;  but  the  dispensation  of  heaven  proved 
victorious,  and  the  spajks  of  iniquity  blazed  into  a 
flame,  and  the  Arnir  SaifrAddoulat  advanced  his 
'forces,  and  put  his  regiments  in  array. 

And  he  arranged  rightly  his  left  and  right 
wing;  and  the  warriors  of  the  troops  and  the  chiefs 
of  the  armies  came  into  the  field  of  battle  like  fierce 
lions,  who  strike  the  talons  of  war  into  the  neck  of 
fate  at  the  time  of  battle  when  the  wheel  of  fortune 
is  suspended  in  the  air  (Verse) 

"  Sword  skilfully  took  off  the  edge  of  ,sword ;  so.ulg,  and 
bodies  resided  in  them.  They  are  messengers  seeking  death  ; 
for  doubtless  between  death  and  them  there  is  a  near  relation- 
ship" (or  sympathy). 

And  the  Amir  Ismail  came  to  meet  him  .witli 
his  own  guards  and  slaves,  and  with  the  coparades 
and  followers  of  his  father,  apd  he  supported  the 
centre  and  the  wing  with  elephants  of  an  enormous 
size,  like  dark-coloured  mountains.  And  when  the 
two  armies  came  together,   the   sword  becoming 


216  MEMOIKS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA, 

capable  of  speech,  mounting  upon  the  lofty  pulpit 
to  utter  forth  the  decrees  of  destiny,  summoned  the 
wielders  of  the  spear,  and  said,  "  The  spear,  al- 
though he  is  a  strong  serpent,  when  he  comes  upon 
the  eye  of  a  ring  of  a  coat  of  mail,  quivers  and 
trembles,  and  I  am  a  Hindi!  of  good  family,*  and 
I  so  bore  into  the  eye  of  the  body-clothing-armour 
that  I  enter  into  the  object  which  I  seek,  namely, 
the  red  face  (of  warriors).  By  every  flash  of  mine 
which  pierces  from  the  depth  of  my  vigour  I  see 
into  the  treasury  of  the  breast,  and  with  every 
edge  which  is  attached  to  my  belt  I  have  drawn 
blood  (as)  from  the  mouth  of  the  gad-fly."  All 
threw  the  darts  and  drew  out  the  swords,  and  so 
great  a  battle  ensued  that  the  iron-hearted  weapon 
wept  blood  at  the  noise  of  the  exploits  of  the  youth- 
ful combatants  of  the  war,  and  the  scorpion  in  the 
sky  burnt  his  heart,  and  battles  succeeded  battles, 
and  Arcturus  shot  forth  javelins,  and  the  two  dog- 
stars  began  to  weep,  and  the  sky  drew  over  her 
head  the  blue  garment  of  mourning,  and  from  the 
fire  of  battle  the  moon  singed  her  cheek,  and  the 
expanse  of  the  heavens  became  bent  in  the  back 
from  anxiety,  and  the  stars  spread  their  pUlows 
upon  the  carpet  of  the  milky  way,  and  the  morning 
tore  her  garment  (Verse) 

"  By  the  slaughter  which  caused  the  leaves  of  life  to  fall 

*  i.  e.   A  sword  of  Indian  steel. 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  217 

and  by  the  voice  of  the  cock  proclaiming  death,  the  state  of 
affairs  converted  the  spring  into  autumn,- the  sword  pouring 
water  like  blood  upon  the  garden  of  the  field  of  battle,  filled  it 
with  roses  and  flowers  stained  with  gore." 

And  the  Amir  Saif-Addoulat  made  a  charge, 
and  from  the  mist  of  his  sword  superinduced  a 
dark-coloured  mantle  of  blood  over  the  hills  and  on 
the  plains,  and  from  the  blood  of  throats  converted 
the  surface  of  the  green  turf  into  a  rose-coloured 
parterre  of  the  Argwan  (Verse) 

"  Whereboever  thou  hast  thrust  thy  spear  it  reached  the 
heroes  of  the  field  ;  wheresoever  thou  hast  dashed  thy  battle- 
axe  thou  didst  cause  the  enemy  to  remember  it,  thou  hast 
broken  the  ball  of  ])ardou*  over  the  head  of  the  lions  of  war, 
thou  hast  cut  through  the  coats  of  mail  which  were  upon  the 
bodies  of  warriors.  Unto  Khusru  and  to  Mansur  arose  the 
shout  of  battle  from  the  sky,  and  from  the  earth  came  the  cry 
of  the  enemy,  saying,  '  Oh,  King  of  Kings,  quarter !'  every 
moment  from  smiling  victory  arose  the  clamour  of  '  Wonderful, 
wonderful  is  the  sword  in  the  royal  hand.'  " 

And  the  leavings  of  the  sword  sought  the  road 
of  safety  and  the  way  of  security  upon  the  cliffs  of 
the  mountains,  and  the  Amir  Ismail  fled  into  the 
castle  of  Ghazna,  and  in  one  of  the  towers  of  that 
stronghold  was  guarded  against  the  misfortunes 
of  his  chiefs  and  the  mischances  of  his  officers,  and 
the  Amir  Saif  Addoulat,  when  his  anger  was 
appeased  and  the  battle  at  an  end,  and  the  flame 
of  war  had  gone  down,  forgave  him,  and  received 

*  i.  e.  Death,  Mhen  referred  to  Miissalmans. 


218  JlfiMOIIlS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

him  under  the  guardianship  of  his  protection  and 
support,  and  forgot  what  was  past ;  and  the  fidelity 
of  brotherhood  and  the  sincerity  of  affection  was 
again  placed  upon  a  secure  foundation.  Truly  God 
is  most  wise  in  equity.* 


HisTOET  OF  Abul-Kasim-Simjue,  and  or  what  fell  out 

BETWEEN  HIM  AND  BeGTUZTTM. 

Abul-Kasim-Simjiir,  after  the  death  of  Fakhr- 
Addoulat,  became  settled  at  Jurjan,  in  the  Court 
of  his  son  Majd-Addoulat,  and  appeared  constant 
in  his  obedience  and  service  to  him,  and  the  most 
eminent  of  the  servants  and  the  most  important  of 
the  courtiers  of  the  family  of  Simjiir  betook 
themselves  to  him  from  Khurasdn,  and  a  consider- 
able army  was  collected  together  with  him,  and  all 
his  affairs  were  well  ordered,  both  as  regards  the 
compactness  of  the  army,  and  the  liberal  supply  of 
stores  and  men,  and  Faik,  on  account  of  the  irrita- 
tion which  he  felt  against  Begtuzum,  wrote  soothing 
letters  to  Abul-K^sim,  and  stirred  him  up  to 
march  against  Begtuzum,  and  excited  him,  and 
induced  him  to  request  the  office  of  general  of  the 
army,  which  was  the  ancient  dignity  belonging  to 
the  family  of  Simjur,  until  he  began  to  inhale  this 

*  Abul  Farajius  informs  us  that  Mahmud  and  Ismail 
divided  the  kingdom  between  them,  which  may  probably  have 
been  the  case  for  some  time. 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.      219 

breath  (of  flattery)  and  to  buy  this  coquetry  (of 
deception)  and  forgetfully  to  sell  ready  money  for 
credit,  and,. according  to  the  proverb,  "The  den  is 
the  lodging  for  the  lion,"  he  set  his  heart  upon 
being  separated  ,from  Jurjan,  and  he  proceeded  to 
oppress  and  vex  Begtuziim,  and  thus  all  things 
happened  according  to  the  saying  (Verse) 

"  I  am  surely  one  wlio  leave  the  assembly  of  the  generous, 
aud  my  cup  fills  with  abundauce  the  avaricious  ;  like  that  bird 
who  leaves  her  eggs  uncovered  and  clothes  the  egg  of  another 
bird  with  her  wings." 

And  he  sent  on  in  advance  the  lawyer*  Abu- 
Ali-'bn-Abil-Kasira.  And  he,  when  he  came  to 
Isf^rayin,  arrived  at  a  place  where  a  detachment 
from  the  army  of  Begtuziim  had  taken  up  its  posi- 
tion. He  gave  them  battle  and  broke  through 
them,  and  went  on  their  rear  as  far  as  to  Nishapiir, 
and,  when  they  arrived  at  Nishapiir,  Begtuziim 
sent  a  message  to  Abul-Kasim,  to  the  following 
effect,  that  the  business  of ,  war  rests  upon  no 
security,  and  its  issue  is  behind  the  veil  of  mystery, 
and  to,  support  one's  self  upon  the  prop  of  force  and 
grandeur,  and  to  become  cheated  and  flattered  by 
fortunate  circumstances  and  propitious  events,  is  a 
proceeding  far  removed  from  the  system  of  good 
sense  and  the  way  of  rectitude.  And  a  man  falls 
into  the  difficulties  of  war  who  finds  no  possible 

*  Or  theologian,  priest. 


220  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OP  GHAZNA. 

means  of  returning  into  the  spacious  and  uncon- 
fined  plain  of  peace.  This  is  the  most  advisable 
proceeding,  that  you  should  halt  at  Kohistdn, 
which  is  the  (ancient)  portion  of  the  house  of 
Simjiir,  until  I  send  to  the  king,  and  obtain  a 
grant  and  concession  (for  you)  of  the  province  of 
Herat  and  the  districts  bordering  upon  those 
coasts. 

Abul-Kasim,  however,  did  not  incline  himself 
to  these  words  and  was  entirely  deceived  by  his 
victory  over  those  timid  youths  and  by  the  number 
of  his  followers,  and  he  placed  his  entire  reliance 
upon  his  force  and  strength,  and  remained  indif- 
ferent to  the  consequences  of  self-will  and  careless- 
ness, and  to  the  issue  of  rebellion  and  peevishness, 
and  therefore  he  put  his  troops  in  array  and  ])re- 
pared  for  war.  And  Bektuzdm,  when  he  saw  his 
stubbornness  in  folly  and  in  error,  and  that, 
through  his  recklessness,  like  the  moth  flying  into 
the  flame,  he  had  fallen  into  the  narrow  passage  of 
ruin,  began  also  to  prepare  the  necessaries  of  war  ; 
and  he  made  a  prosperous  commencement  of  the 
undertaking  and  set  his  face  to  carry  on  the  war, 
and  they  fell  upon  each  other  at  the  moist  desert 
at  the  gate  of  Nishapiir,  and  they  made  the  social 
round  of  the  cup  of  vengeance  to  each  other,  until 
their  swords  had  drank  well  (of  the  streams  of 
blood).  And  the  sun,  in  terror  at  that  battle, 
drew  his  round  shield  over  his  face,  and  the  sword 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  221 

struck  in  attacking  the  young  warriors,  and  the 
eastern  rays  of  the  sun,  from  shame  at  the  western 
flash  of  the  swords,  became  veiled,  and  the  battle- 
axe  recorded  upon  the  helmet  historical  tales  and 
exploits  (Verse) 

"  The  rejoicing  dagger  streamed  with  the  blood  of  enemies, 
like  clods  of  earth  which  are  penetrated  with  the  force  of 
moisture." 

(Arabic  Verse) 

"  The  aimed  javelins  cut  through  livers,  and  thy  protection 
is  only  to  be  found  in  the  fortunate  verses  of  the  Koran." 

And  at  last  Bektuzum  obtained  the  victory  and 
Simjur  t6ok  to  flight,  and  Abul-Kasim,  the  Divine, 
who  was  the  pillar  of  the  army  and  the  support  of 
afiairs,  together  with  the  whole  company  of  the 
other  chiefs  of  the  people,  were  taken  prisoners, 
and  Simjiir  proceeded  to  Kohistin.  This  event 
happened  in  the  month  Rebia-Al-Awwal,  in  the 
year  388,  and  Bektuzum  caused  to  run,  in  all 
directions,  swift  messengers,  and  gave  information 
of  the  victory  which  had  been  gained  ;  and  the 
chiefs  of  the  State  were  exalted  at  that  joyful  news 
and  proof  of  God's  goodness,  except  Fdik,  who  was 
sorry  thereat,  and  from  vexation  thereat  gnawed 
the  finger  of  spitefulness  and  rage.  And  with 
regard  to  Simjur  he  remained  quiet  at  Kohistan, 
and  began  to  recover  from  that  misfortune,  and 


222  MEMOIRS  OP  MAIIMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

was  engaged  in  the  business  of  his  investiture,  and 
urged  ou  the  collectors  of  taxes  to  be  active  in 
gathering  the  dues ;  and  Bektuzum  began  to  turn 
his  attention  unto  him,  in  order  that  he  might 
wrest  that  province  from  his  grasp  ;  and,  when  an 
engagement  between  them  was  nearly  ajjproaching, 
all  who  were  around  them  interposed  to  mediate 
between  them  and  to  arrange  the  dispute,  and  they 
contrived  to  procure  a  meeting  bet\Vfeen  them,  and 
Abul-Kasim  gave  his  son  'Bn-Abu-Sahlto  Bek- 
tuzum, as  an  hostage,  and  the  chief  matter  of 
dispute  was  thus  cut  off.  And  Abul-Kasim  came 
to  Kohist4n  and  Bektuzum  proceeded  to  Nishapur. 
This  accommodation  took  place  in  the  month 
Rejib,  m  the  year  388. 

But  that  grudge  which  had  existed  between 
Faik  and  the  Vizir  Abul-MuzafFar  broke  out 
afresh,  and  Abul-Muzaffar,  from  his  dread  of  Faik, 
flew  to  the  chief  capital,  and  found  safety  in  trans- 
ferring his  allegiance  to  the  Amir  Abul-Hareth. 
And  F4ik  sent  a  person  and  demanded  him  again, 
in  an  overbearing  and  contentious  manner ;  and 
the  Amir  Abul  Haretli  returned  a  sharp  answer, 
and  Fdlk,  in  disgust,  quitted  the  Governor's  palace, 
and  resolved  to  proceed  towards  the  Turkish  pro- 
vinces, but  the  senators  of  Bukh^ri  exerted 
themselves  to  restore  friendship,  and  they  appeased 
the  mind  of  the  Amir  Abul-Hareth,  and  they  pre- 
vailed upon  Faik  to  relax  his  fury,  and,  for  the 


A[EM01RS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZSA.  223 

sake  of  peace,  they  sent  Abul-Muzaffar,  for  a  time, 
to  the  coast  of  Jurjdn,  and  they  conferred  the  office 
of  Vizir  upon  Abul-Kasim-Barmaki,*  and  the 
skilful  lyre  of  Abu-Shanji  thus  sings  of  this  equi- 
table arrangement,  in  these  verses,  where  he  says 
(Verse) 

"  "We  certainly,  for  a  time,  blamed  (the  course  of)  time,  and 
we  grieved  that  the  office  of  Vizir  should  be  given  to  Al- 
Balaami  (the  glutton).  Time  afterwards  changed  for  us  and 
attained  from  Al  Balaami  unto  Al-Burghushi  (the  flea)  and 
time  will  now  unfold  what  it  announced  respecting  him  ■ 
(namely)  that  he  was  near  unto  (the  appointment  of)  Al-Bar- 
malsi."t 

And  Abul-Kasim  Barmaki  was  virtuous,  effi- 
cient, and  intelligent,  but,  however,  the  spirit  of 
avarice  had  obtained  a  mastery  over  his  disposition, 
and,  when  he  took  possession  of  the  office  of  Vizir, 
he  betook  himself  to  the  course  of  injustice  and  of 
close  calculation  and  scantiness  towards  the 
Turkish  guards  and  officers  of  the  army,  with 
respect  to  their  wages,  and  rations,  and  clothing. 
He  was  suddenly  killed,  by  two  or  three  of  the 
guards ;  and  these  verses  (following  upon  the 
subject)  are  remarkable  for  their  beauty,  their 
cadence,  and  their  pleasing  expression  (Verse) 

"  There  was  mentioned  to  me  an  old  camel,  whose  disposi- 

*  Barashi. — De  Sact. 

t  It  was  grievous  to  have  the  glutton  for  Yizir  but  it  was 
better  to  have  the  flea,  for  we  soon  afterwards  had  Barmaki. 


224  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

tion  was  mutilated  and  as  it  viere  possessed  by  a  corrupt  spirit. 
Never  may  the  tips  of  my  fingers  touch  that  mutilated  and 
depraved  old  camel.  He  is  not  one  who  melts  (into  his  mouth) 
wine  out  of  gold.  And  a  cup  of  silver  would  choke  an  ava- 
ricious man." 


Account  of  the  Convetancb  op  the  Amir  Ismail  feom 
THE  Citadel  of  G-hazna. 

The  Amir  Saif-Addoulat  brought  dowTi  his 
brother,  by  professions  of  peace,  and  kindness,  and 
friendship,  froiii  the  citadel  of  Ghazna,  and 
extorted  from  him  the  keys  of  the  Treasury,  and 
converted  to  his  own  use  the  property,  and  the 
deposits  of  the  citadel,  and  the  state  of  weakness 
into  which  the  army  had  recently  fallen  was  reme- 
died and  a  state  of  security  was  restored.  And  he 
placed  his  own  surveyors  and  collectors  at  Ghazna, 
over  the  revenue,  and  he  replaced  a  strong  guard 
of  horse,  for  the  purpose  of  guarding  and  protecting 
the  treasure  in  the  castle,  and  he  came,  with  his 
army  laden  with  booty,  to  Balkh,  and  communi- 
cated to  His  Highness  (his  Suzerain)*  an  account 
of  his  condition  and  of  his  famous  victory,  and  of 
his  complete  arrangement  of  his  brother's  affair, 
and  of  his  return  unto  Khurasan,  under  the  canopy 
of  prosperity,  and  he  gave  a  message,  to  the  fol- 
lowing effect,  "  If  my  father,  who  was  the  guardian 

*  The   Prince   of  Bukhara  was   still  Mahmiid's  superior 
lord. 


MEMOIKS  OF  MAHMUD  OP  GHAZNA.  225 

of  the  kingdom  and  the  protector  of  the  State, 
hath  made  a  removal  from  the  transitory  unto  the 
everlasting  world,  we  nevertheless,  in  the  service 
of  the  throne  and  in  the  maintenance  of  the  rixles 
of  obedience,  are  our  father's  heir,  and  we  have 
stood  firmly  in  maintaining  our  former  duty  to  the 
King  Ridha-Nilh-'bn-Mansur,  and  in  adhering  to 
the  rights  of  A  bul-Hareth,  who  is  the  next  link  in 
the  chain  of  royalty,  and  the  heir  of  his  crown  and 
of  his  throne,  and  to  him  we  bind  up  the  loins  of 
service,  and  we  will  charge  ourselves  with  the  duty 
of  supporting  the  chiefs  of  the  State,  and  of 
humbling  the  enemies  of  His  Highness." 

The  Amir  Abul-Hareth  sent  unto  him  the 
Sayyad  Abul-Hasan-Alawy-Hamaddni,  and,  in 
order  to  congratulate  him  upon  his  arrival,  sent 
by  his  hand  a  royal  letter  patent,  confirming  to 
him  the  government  of  Balkh,  _and  Hardt,  and 
Bost,  and  Sarmadh.  But,  as  to  the  question  of 
Nishapilr  and  the  prince-generalship  of  the  troops, 
he,  with  great  kindness  and  regard,  observed, 
"  Bektuziin  is  a  servant  of  the  State  and  one  who 
was  piously  well  disposed  and  inclined  to  fulfil  his 
ancient  duties,  and  for  me,  without  some  new 
cause  and  the  allegation  of  some  excuse,  to  issue  a 
royal  order  for  his  removal,  and  thus  to  cut  off  his 
bread,  would  be  an  action  far  removed  from  the 
rules  of  generosity  and  justice."  The  Amir  Saif- 
Addoulat  charged  this  proceeding  with  the  accusa- 

Q 


226  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA, 

tion  that  it  had  been  dictated  by  envious  and 
raaUcious  opponents  ;  and  he  sent  Abiil-Hasam- 
Hamwali  with  a  message  to  him  and  despatched 
by' him,  the  particulars  of  his  charge,  informing 
him  that  both  the  pens  of  his  writers  and  the 
intellects  of  his  accountants  were  unable  to  define 
or  to  compute  that  communication.  He  expressed 
his  expectation  that  the  exalted  mind  would  not 
change  or  alter  the  settlement  to  which  he  was 
engaged,  or  that  the  extension  of  mutual  assist- 
ance, according  to  the  rules  of  friendly  intercourse, 
should  receive  no  diminution.  He  said,  "Those 
ties  which  have  been  established  between  us  and 
our  father,  for  the  service  of  the  royal  throne, 
ought  not  to  be  destroyed  by  the  violence  or  the 
cavils  of  enemies,  nor  ought  the  bracelet  of  affection 
be  broken,  or  the  foundation  of  mutual  aid  and 
support  be  split  asunder,  and  that  strength  which 
has  resulted  and  has  enabled  us  to  obtain  a  firm 
mastery  over  Khurasan,  and  to  regulate  all  the 
affairs  of  the  army,  ought  not  to  be  ruined  and 
undone." 

And  when  Hamwali  arrived  at  Bukhara  the 
cushion  of  the  Vizirat  was  vacant,  and  they  pro- 
posed to  him  the  gratification  of  this  office.  With 
this  office  he  was  so  much  overjoyed  and  flattered 
that  he  began  to  overlook  the  mission  on  which  he 
had  been  sent,  and  the  negotiation  with  which  he 
had   been   charged   and   to   which   he   had  been 


MEMOIRS  OV  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  227 

engaged.     And  hia  condition  resembled  that  of 
which  the  wise  speak  (Verse) 

"  The  country  was  empty,  so  I  ruled  without  a  rival.  But 
it  was  in  misery,  I  was  unrivalled  in  defects."* 

He  in  this  office  betook  himself  to  labour  hard 
in  what  was  sinful,  and  to  struggle  in  affecting 
that  which  was  impossible,  and  he  fancied  that,  by 
his  own  capabilities  and  management,  he  could 
untie  a  knot  which  by  the  revolutions  of  the  sky 
(time)  had  been  firmly  fixed,  and  that,  by  his  skill 
and  wisdom,  he  could  restore  those  systems  which 
had  arrived  at  old  age  to  the  freshness  of  youth, 
and  that,  through  the  manceuvreing  and  attention 
of  ingenuity,  he  could  restore  newness  and  sweet- 
ness to  the  robe  which,  by  constant  wear  in  the 
streets  and  amongst  the  people,  had  become  a  tat- 
tered beggar's  garment,  and  was  far  from  thinking 
of  the  proverb,  "  That  which  time  has  made  offen- 
sive the  perfumer  wUl,  never  make  fresh."  And 
truly  does  the  lyre  of  Boshanji  say  of  him  (Terse) 

"  Surely  we  blame  fortune,  through  inexperience,  with 
respect  to  Joseph  and  Al-Balghami,  and  others,  until  fortune 
shoots  against  our  helmet  afterwards,  and  we,  both  servant 
and  master,  do  wrong,"  &c. 

And  when  the  Amir  SaifAddoulat  received 
by  testimony  the  representation  of  affairs,  and  an 


*  Freely  rendered. 


Q  2 


228  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

account  of  his  weak  understanding,  and  his  failing" 
judgment,  and  of  the  clashing  of  interests,  and  of 
the  bad  guidance  of  the  people,  and  understood 
that  the  kingdom  was  on  the  verge  of  ruin  and  the 
path  of  destruction,  and  that  all  those  persons  who 
are  the  most  eminent  of  the  State,  and  the  chief 
officers  of  the  Court,  were  engaged  in  benefiting 
their  own  condition,  and  in  compassing  their  own 
ends,  he  set  his  face  towards  Nishapilr,  in  order  to 
keep  watch  over  his  ancient  dignity,  and  that  he 
might  remove  those  defacings  which  through  mis- 
management had  appeared  upon  the  structure  of 
his   honour.      And  Bektuziin,    when    he    became 
convinced   of  his   intention   and   design,    hurried 
out  of  the  way  of  the  course  of  the  torrent,  and 
conveyed  himself  and  his  property,  and  his  house- 
hold, and  his  army  out  of  danger,   and  removed 
from  Nishapilr,  and  sent  a  letter  to  his  Highness 
of  Bukhdrd,  and  intimated  his  condition.    And  the 
Amir   Abul-Hareth   through   the   intoxication  of 
youth,  and  the  foolishness  of  boyhood,  and  because 
he  had  not  experienced  the  changes  of  fortune,  or 
tasted  of  the  coldness  or  the  warmth  of  time,  col- 
lected  a  considerable  army,  and  proceeded  from 
Bukhdrd  unto  the  province  of  Khurasdn,  with  the 
intention  of  opposition,    and   with  the  design  of 
repelling  him,*  and  came  by  successive  marches  to 

*  i.  e.  Mahmud,  at  present  entitled  Saif-Addoulat. 


MEMOIRS  OP  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  22& 

Sarakhs.*  And  the  Amir  Saif-Addoulat  knew  well 
that  this  proceeding  was  caused  by  folly,  and  by 
disregard  to  the  opinion  of  people  of  judgment,  and 
an  evidence  of  a  departure  from  right  advice  and 
counsel,  since  this  body  of  men  were  not  possessed 
of  much  strength,  nor  were  a  match  for  his  forces, 
for  that  they  all  would  be  annihilated  by  one  attack 
of  the  torrent  of  his  sea,  and  by  one  charge  of 
his  reserved  guard  would  be  reduced  to  nothing. 
However  he  was  unwilling  to  tear  the  curtain  of 
his  bashfulness,f  or  to  rend  his  veil,  or  that  the 
glory  of  that  kingdom  should  pass  away  by  his 
means,  and  that  the  claims  of  friendship  should  be 
destroyed  or  set  aside  for  one  fault.  Therefore  he 
exhibited  some  delay  and  procrastination  in  ad- 
vancing his  standards  to  battle,  and  he  went  slowly 
to  Men!  and  returned  to  Nishapiir,  in  order  that 
at  another  time  he  might  arrange  that  dispute  by 
means  of  cutting  wrangling,  and  clear  argument, 
and  brilliant  apologies,  that  thus  the  darts  of  the 
envious,  and  the  reproaches  of  the  opposite  party, 
should  find  no  occasion  for  attacking  him,  and  that 
both  the  learned  and  the  ignorant,  the  high  and 
the  humble,  might  perceive  that  he  had  a  sufficient 

*  For  an  account  of  Sarakhs  and  Meru,  or  Merv,  see 
Bume's  Travels  in  Sulchdrd. 

t  i.  e.  Disabuse  him  and  mortify  his  youthful  pride,  remove 
his  bashfulness,  by  collision  with  others,  or  dishonour  him,  by 
encountering  him  in  the  field. 


230  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OP  GHAZNA. 

excuse  for  his  proceedings,  therefore  he  proceeded 
from  Merunid  unto  the  bridge  Zaghiil,  and  re- 
mained quiet  at  that  place,  and  occupied  himself  in 
the  regulations  of  his  affairs,  and  in  meditating 
upon  the  most  equitable  method  of  proceeding. 
And  Bektuzdn  proceeded  to  the  Court  of  the 
Amfr  Abul-Hareth,  where  Fdtk  remained  in  the 
service  of  the  throne.  And  Bektuziin  had  enter- 
tained expectations  that  the  honours  of  his  reception 
by  the  Amir  Abul-Hareth  would  be  greater  than 
he  perceived  them  (really  to  be),  and  he  submitted 
to  Fiik  a  complaint  upon  the  subject ;  and  Fdlk  on 
his,  side  re-echoed  the  complaint,  and  both  of  them 
used  their  utmost,  endeavours  to  fix  upon  him*  the 
imputation  of  errors  and  reprehensible  actions,  and 
of  harshness  of  disposition,  and  roughness  of  de- 
portment, and  of  a  want  of  popular  manners.  Their 
projects  soon  obtained  favour,  and  they  prevailed 
upon  the  commonalty  to  make  a  demand  for  his 
deprivation,  and  removal  from  office,  and  they  found 
in  all  a  ready  hearing  to  their  directions,  and 
obedience  to  their  guidance ;  and  they  engaged 
together  in  a  plot,  and  Bektuztfn  made  a  petition, 
and  alleged  a  certain  important  affair,  for  which 
there  was  need  of  the  assistance  and  advice  of 
Abul-Hareth,  and  by  this  contrivance  they  pro- 
cured his  presence  at  a  Court,  and  they  seized  him 

*■  i.  e.  The  Amir  of  Bukhara. 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OE  GHAZNA.  231 

and  put  out  his  world-seeing  eyes, ,  and  tore  his 
delicate  beauty  and  his  form  like  the  new  moon. 
Nor  can  they  be  considered  free  from  the  imputai- 
tion  of  infamy,  nor  their  dress  pure  from  the  stain^ 
of  ingratitude  for  benefits.  But  what  was  most 
wonderful  was  that  in  this  condition  he  earnestly 
besought  them  for  three  necessary  indulgences  by 
way  of  existence.  One  was  that  they  should 
deposit  with  him  his  wife,  for  the  purpose  of  aid, 
conversation,  and  society,  that  he  might  not  endure 
all  the  burden  of  the  penalty^  and  severity,  and 
misery  of  his  oflfence  ;*  but  they,  through  :  the 
excess  of  their  harshness  and  the  fault  of  their  dis- 
position, did  not  grant  that  request,  but  they 
resisted  in  a  grudging  and  vacillating  manner 
and  through  these  restrictions  and  vain  longings 
the  fire  of  his  sighs  and  the  wind  of  his  hardship, 
became  increased. 

And  they  placed;his  brother  Abd-Almalik-Ibn- 
Niih  upon  the  throne^  and  he  was  in  the  season  of 
infancy  and  the  time  of  perversity,  and  in  the 
period  of  weakness  and  intellectuar  deficienqy. 
And  both  high  and  low,  hurnble  and  noble, 
stretched  forth  the  tongue  of  reproof  .against  this 
unjust  action  and  shameful  measure,  and  displayed 
the  utmost  aversion  to  this  audacious  proceeding. 
But  no  sooner  had  intelligence  arrived  that ;  the 

*  The  other  two  requests  are  not  mentioned. 


232      MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

Amir  Saif-Addoulat  had  marched  to  the  bridge  of 
Zaghiil  than  all  that  party  began  to  fly  away  in 
terror,  like  a  flock  of  sheep  from  the  violence  of  the 
lion,  or  a  sparrow  from  the  onset  of  the  hawk,  and 
they  did  not  stop  at  any  place  until  they  arrived  at 
Menl  And  the  Amir  Saif-Addoulat  sent  a  person 
to  Fdik  and  Bektuzdn,  and  made  unmeasured 
complaints  against  them,  for  their  infringement  of 
the  rights  of  their  benefactor,  and  their  diminution 
of  the  reverence  due  to  him.  And  they  betook 
themselves  to  deception,  and  obtained  a  justifica- 
tion of  their  proceedings  from  the  mouth  of  Abdul- 
Malik-'bn-Niih,  and  promised  additional  subjects, 
and  augmented  power,  and  made  liberal  offers,  for 
the  purpose  of  detaching  him  (from  the  opposite 
party),  and  exciting  avarice  in  the  country  of  his 
enlarged  soul  and  liberal  feelings.  But  the  Amir 
Saif-Addoulat,  on  account  of  his  veneration  for 
Islam  and  his  jealousy  for  the  faith,  did  not  con- 
sider it  lawful  to  connive  at  this  shameful  conduct, 
and  persisted  in  resisting  these  tyrants  and  syco- 
phants, and  marched  out  with  his  army  and  came 
to  Menl,  in  order  that  this  affair  might  arrive  at 
examination  atid  these  words  might  be  brought  to 
an  end  by  a  discussion  face  to  face.  But  upon  the 
arrival  of  his  stirrup  (suite)  all  this  party  were 
struck  with  confusion,  and  various  kinds  of  terror 
and  of  dread  obtained  the  mastery  over  their  tem- 
perament, and  they  were  ashamed  of  what  they 


MEMOIRS  OP  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  233 

had  done.  And  when  they  fell  into  their  hands, 
and  saw  that  they  had  erred,  they  said,  "  Unless 
our  Lord  has  mercy  upon  us,  and  forgives  us,  we 
shall  certainly  be  among  the  wretched." 

And  the  Lord  inflicted  upon  .them  vengeance, 
by  means  of  Saif-Addoulat,  and  made  them  all 
examples  and  (proofs  of)  misery,  according  to 
their  deeds  and  to  the  wickedness  of  their  actions, 
and  he  stripped  and  pierced  them  all  through  with 
the  anguish  of  their  treachery,  and  with  the  vile- 
ness  of  their  malice,  ■*'"  according  to  that  verse  of  the 
Koran :  "  Thus  hath  thy  Lord  seized  thee,  when 
he  seized  thy  back,  and  this  is  wretchedness,  that 
a  great  calamity  hath  seized  you.^' 

And  Fdik  and  Bektuziin  took  their  coursers 
and  went  down  to  meet  Saif-Addoulat,  and  instead 
of  obstinacy  drew  the  veil  over  the  head  of  confu- 
sion, and  carried  depression  of  mind  and  weakness 
of  heart  upon  the  loins  of  repentance,  because  they 
thought  that  that  was  a  sea  beyond  the  measure  of 
their  swimming,  and  that  that  was  a  burden  beyond 
their  power  and  strength.  And  from  that  reflec- 
tion perplexity  obtained  the  mastery,  and  fear  and 
terror  became  conquerors,  and  all  the  world  became 
blocked  up,  no  means  of  departing  from  place  to 
place,  no  means  of  seeking  flight,  and  no  way  of 
providing  assistance  (Verse) 

*  MS.  confused  here. 


234  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

"  Unto  whatever  action  thou  dost  betake  thyself  an  enemy 
thereof  says,  '  Despair !  this  affair  comes  not  to  thee,  do  not 
thou  come  to  this  affair.'  " 

And  they  began  to  understand  that  to  wrestle 
with  a  torrent  is  to  risk  one's  life,  and  to  butt 
against  a  mountain  is  to  give  one's  head  to  the 
winds,  and  that  to  strike  a  blow  upon  a  bodkin*  is 
to  expose  the  hand  to  destruction.  In  this  help- 
less condition  they  sent  messengers,  and  requested 
delay,  and  with  the  most  perfect  humility  offered 
proposals  of  peace. 

And  Saif-Addoulat  although  he  was  well  ac- 
quainted with  the  corruption  of  their  hearts,  and 
the  depravity  of  their  conduct,  and  although  he 
well  knew  the  depth  of  their  baseness  and  treachery, 
yet  in  order  to  quiet  all  dispute,  and  establish  an 
excuse  (for  his  own  conduct),  to  remove  all  appear- 
ance of  suspicion,  and  to  redeem  himself  from  the 
stigma  of  rebellion,  and  the  imputation  of  obstruc- 
tion and  enmity,  regarded  their  petition  with 
favour,  and  returned  a  favourable  answer  to  their 
application,  and  consented  to  depart.  He  accord- 
ingly marched,  and  when  his  heavy  furniture  and 
baggage  was  on  the  route  the  low  followers  and 
mob  of  their  camp  began  to  lay  the  hand  of  violence 
and  enmity  upon  the  rear  of  his  army,  and  they 
plundered  some  portion  of  his  baggage.     And  the 

*  "  aKkrjpov  aoi  Trphi  xevrpa  XaiCTi^eiv." — Acts  ix,  5. 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  235 

regular  troops  of  Saif-Addoulat,  with  their  excess 
of  strength  and  augmented  majesty,  made  a  charge  ; 
and  they  (thus)  put  their  foot  upon  the  serpent's 
tail  and  threw  themselves  into  the  way  of  destruc- 
tion. And  when  Saif-Addoulat  witnessed  them 
thus  falHng  into  the  ruin  of  error,  and  precipitating 
themselves  into  the  den  of  fate,  and  beheld  their 
overpowering  greediness  and  false  covetousness  in 
the  plundering  and  rapine  of  their  followers,  and 
that  the  chiefs  and  officers  did  nothing  to  repress 
the  folly  of  their  low  followers,  or  the  oscitancy  of 
their  mob,  he  began  to  understand  that  their  limbs 
were  in  his  power,  and  that  their  stillness  and 
silence*  would  become  examples  of  the  saying, 
"The  fool  becomes  determined  when  misfortune 
compels  him."  He  accordingly  ordered  that  a 
company  of  his  troops  should  surround  these  mob- 
foUowers  and  put  them  all  to  death  (Yerse) 

"  Prom  the  abundance  of  slain  bodies  the  back  of  the  earth 
became  crooked,  instead  of  being  straight ;  on  that. side  another 
groundt  gave  dew."J 

And  the  army  formed  itself,  and  arguments  of 
steel  ran  throughout  the  battle  field,  and  well- 
ordered  ranks  faced  the  enemy  (Verse) 

"  Prom  the  hoofs  of  the  camels,  upon  the  border  of  the 
plain,  the  earth  became  six  and  the  sky  rolled  eight."§ 

*  i.  e.  Their  indifference  to  the  conduct  of  the  plunderers, 
t  i.  e.  The  bodies  of  the  dead.  %  i.  e.  Blood. 

§  i.  e.  Confounded  at  sixes  and  sevens. 


236  MEMOIBS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

"  The  low  man,  when  his  folly  protects  itself  by  speech — in 
him  wiU  be  found  stutterings  and  shameful  blunders." 

And  with  them  the  two  brothers  Nasr  and 
Ismail,  and  their  uncle  Begrajak,  stood  in  their 
centre,  and  there  is  a  place  in  the  verses  of  Abu- 
Farash  which  contains  a  description  of  their  con- 
dition (Verse) 

"  Our  elevation  (was)  on  an  eminence,  with  iutense 
(courage)  therein.  Truly  thou  didst  stand  firm  amidst  the 
trees  of  spears,  the  horsemen  boiled  in  billows,  until  the  firm 
earth  might  be  deemed  a  sea  of  weapons,"  &c. 

And  the  disaffected  commonalty,  on  account 
of  the  advance  of  his  standards-  and  the  onward 
pressure  of  his  flags,  beheld  terrific  sights  like 
those  of  the  day  of  judgment,  and  their  affairs  were 
abundantly  supplied  with  vexation  and  repentance, 
and  they  began  to  blame  each  other  for  these 
reprehensible  acts,  and  for  having  undertaken  so 
shameful  an  affair.  And  being  in  the  intricate 
narrowness  of  this  difficulty  they  could  not  discover 
the  egress  of  good  advice,  and  being  thus  without 
remedy  they  came  out  from  the  city  in  gaudy 
cloaks,  and  splendid  coats,  and  new  festival  dresses, 
and  the  insignia  of  holiday  making,  for  they  had  a 
great  opinion  of  their  troops  collected  from  the 
provinces  of  Khurasan  and  M4warannahr.  Horse 
and  foot  then  assembling,  drew  up  in  rank  on  the 
front  of  Saif-Addoulat,  and  they  took  their  stand 


MEifOIES  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  237 

opposite  his  army,  and  on  both  sides  the  hand 
embraced  the  sword  and  a  great  slaughter  ensued 
(Verse) 

"  Oh  heaven !  what  a  day  was  that  when,  from  the  rapine 
of  the  Bword  and  the  arrow,  the  heavens  were  thrown  into  con- 
fusion and  the  earth  reduced  into  distress  !  Through  the  heat 
of  the  sword  the  air  of  the  battle-field  was  burning  ;  and  from 
the  flame  of  the  fight  the  earth  of  the  war-plain  was  boiling. 
There  were  hearts  cast  down  th-ough  fear  of  death,  and  there 
were  hearts  raised  up  by  the  desire  of  fame.  These  were  flying 
like  the  mouse  and  those  were  catching  like  the  serpent." 

And  the  punishment  of  these  vile  infidels  and 
of  these  traitors  to  the  fidelity  due  to  their  master 
came  upon  them,  and  at  one  charge  the  army  of 
Saif-Addoulat  broke  through  them,  and  they  took 
the  road  of  flight,  and  if  night  had  not  come  as  a 
Veil  over  their  aflPairs,  and  as  a  fresh  resource  to 
them,  all  would  have  been  involved  in  the  rope  of 
destruction,  and  cast  down  the  precipice  of  sudden 
ruin  (Verse) 

"  If  it  had  not  been  for  the  darkness  and  its  fears  upon 
which  they  relied  their  neck  would  have  passed  the  night 
without  its  prop  (i.  e.,  the  body).  Therefore  let  them  praise 
the  useful  darkness  and  its  advantage  ;  for  they  are  in  safety 
and  darkness  is  their  defender." 

And  Abdul-Malik-Ibn-Niih  and  F&lk  halted 
after  that  defeat  at  Bukhdrd,  and  Bektuziin  came 
to  Nishapdr,  and  Abul-Kasim-Simjur  went  to  Ko- 
histin,  and  the  star  of  the  happiness  of  Saif- 
Addoulat  arrived  at  the  zenith  of  glory,  and  the 


238  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

height  of  his  dignity,  and  the  perfection  of  his  good 
fortune  exceeded  that  of  the  pinnacle  of  the  skies ; 
and  the  kingdom  of  Khurasdn  and  the  inheritance 
of  the  royalty  of  the  family  of  Sdmin  became  pre- 
pared and  concocted  for  him,  and  his  rivals  and 
opponents  became  dispersed  and  torn  to  tatters  in 
the  various  provinces  and  asylums  of  the  world 
(Verse) 

"  From  the  claws  of  the  lions  did  he  bear  away  the 
kingdom  ;  from  the  greediness  of  the  crocodiles  he  rescued  the 
object  of  his  wishes." 

And  after  this  event  he  marched  towards  Tiis, 
lest  Bektuziln  and  Simjur  should  unite  together, 
and  lest  from  their  union  some  new  injury  should 
arise,  and  that  confusion  might  not  be  produced ; 
and  Bektuziin  through  fear  of  this  proceeding 
went  on  towards  Jurjan,  and  the  SuMn  sent 
Arsldn-Jadhib  after  him,  in  order  that  he  might  go 
upon  his  track,  like  the  shooting  stars  after  the 
foot-marks  of  evil  spirits,  and  expel  him  jfrom  the 
regions  of  Khurasin.  And  he  betook  himself  to 
this  service ;  but  the  Sultdn  had  included  Tiis  in 
his  computations,  and  therefore  with  most  of  his 
army  left  him  for  Tils,  and  went  on  his  way,  in 
order  that  he  might  inspect  the  revenue  collectors, 
and  renew  fidelity  in  those  districts. 

And  Bektuziin  seized  the  opportunity  of  the 
absence  of  the  SuMn,  and  returned  to  Nishapiir, 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  QHAZNA.  239 

and  began  to  advance  the  pretensions  of  Abdul- 
Malik  to  royalty,  not  recognizing  the  truth,  that 
when  the  supporting  columns  of  a  kingdom  have 
become  decayed  by  the  changeful  hand  of  time,  and 
when  its  foundations  have  become  destroyed  by 
reason  of  the  lapse  of  many  ages,  no  vain  exertion 
and  no  fruitless  endeavour  can  restore  it ;  and  that 
when  the  natural  conformation  differs  from  the 
usual  sym^metry  it  is  impossible  to  restore  it  perma- 
nently to  the,  common  figure.-  And  the  result  of 
all  these  proceedings  was  this,  that  the  Sultdn  was 
compelled  to  endure  renewed  trouble  and  reiterated 
annoyance,  lest  they  should  by  one  blow  gain  head 
and  preserve  it.  And  he  went  out  by  the  way  of 
Alnward,  and  the  army  of  the  SuMn  went  on  his. 
track;  so  that  he  turned  towards  the  road  through 
the  desert  in  the  direction  of  Merd,  and  desired  to 
fix  himself  in  that  city,  and  to  entrench  himself  in 
that  fortification  ;  but  the  people  of  Merd  having 
made  opposition  he  plundered  the  city,  and  pro- 
ceeded from  the  desert  of  Amil  to  Bukhdrd,  and 
when  the  plain  of  Khurasan  was  free  from  Bektu- 
ziin*  and;  his  followers,  the-  Sultdn  sent  Arslan- 
Jadhib  unto  Kohistan,"  that  he  might  expel  Abul- 
Kasim-SimJTir  from  those  coasts,  and  might  break 
down  his  expectation  of  restoration  and  prosperity 
whilst  the  cup  was  at  his  lips.     Arslan  then  pro- 

*  The  MS.  repeatedly  gives  YeJctuzuri,  hnt  De  Sacy  prefers 
BeJetuzwi. 


240  MEMOIRS  OF  MA.HMUD  OF  GHAZNA; 

ceeded  to  Kohistan,  and  gave  Mm  battle,  and  de- 
feating him  expelled  him  unto  the  coasts  of  Tiis  ; 
and  the  Sultan  conferred  the  generalship  of  the 
army  upon  his  brother  Nasr-Ibn-Naslr-Addin,  and 
sent  him  to  Nishapdr,  and  proceeded  to  Baikh, 
and  made  Balkh  his  capital,  and  there  took  his 
seat  upon  the  royal  throne.  And  in  this  journey 
he  went  one  day  with  certain  of  his  guards  on  a 
hunting  expedition  to  the  frontiers  of  Meruward, 
and  the  Amir  Ismail  and  Noshtagin-Kdj,  who  was 
one  of  the  nobles  of  Nasir-Addin,  was  in  atten- 
dance, and  the  Sultdn  happened  to  look  round  and 
saw  Noshtagin  holding  his  hand  ready  upon  his 
sword,  and  looking  out  for  a  signal  and  intimation 
from  the  Amir  Ismail,  and  the  Sultin  by  that 
action  of  Noshtagin  discovered  the  treachery  of 
the  Amir  Ismail,  and  perceived  the  hint  he  gav6 
by  a  glance  and  the  winking  of  his  eye.  However 
he  (the  Amir  Ismail)  had  spread  the  carpet  of 
hesitation  upon  that  consultation,  and  the  evidences 
of  his  doubt  were  manifest. 

And  the  Sultan,  when  he  returned,  put  Nosh- 
tagin to  death  and  summoned  his  brother  before 
him,  and  began  to  search  into  the  particulars  of 
the  affair.  And  the  Amir  Ismail  began  craftily  to 
extenuate  the  deceit  of  that  traitor,  and  the  vile 
mysteriousness  of  that  deceiver.  In  consequence 
of  this  much  discussion  and  conversation  took  place 
between  them,  and  the  Sultan  perceived  that  it 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OP  GHAZNA.  241 

would  conduce  to  the  preservation  of  the  State  and 
to  the  peace  of  the  times  to  deposit  Ismail  with 
certain  of  the  nobles  of  the  Court  in  some  place 
where  he  could  be  kept  safely  and  be  well  guarded, 
knowing  that  two  swords  cannot  be  contained  in 
one  sheath,  and  that  dissensions  arise  from  the 
concurrence  of  two  kings  even  upon  one  sheet  of 
paper,*  and  that  if  there  are  two  rams  in  one  flock 
they  will  begin  to  butt  at  one-another,  And  the 
Sultdn,  at  the  time  whqn  the  Amir  Ismail  had 
been  removed  from  the  castle  of  Ghazna,  had,  at 
an  entertainment,  entered  upon  free  conversation 
with  him,  and  had  entered  upon  a  gradual  enquiry 
into  his  most  hidden  thoughts,  and  asked  of  him 
thus, — "  If  the  accident  of  victory  and  the  fortunate 
opportunity  which  has  happened  to  me  had'  hap- 
pened to  thee,  and  I  had  become  a  prisoner  in  thy 
hands,  what  course  wouldest  thou  have  pursued 
with  me  ?  and  in  what  way  wouldest  thou  have 
thought  to  have  acted  towards  me  ?"  The  Amir 
Ismail,  through  the  extreme  mildness  of  his  heart 
and  equity  of  his  disposition,  replied,  "  I  had  this 
intention  respecting  you,  to  send  you  to  some 
mountain-castle  and  to  settle  upon  you  whatever 
you  might  wish  or  desire  with  respect  to  your  fur- 
niture, your  attendants,  your  wives,  and  all  the 
conveniences  and  comforts  of  life  ;  and  if  you  felt 

*  Or  from  the  association  of  two  kings  upon  one  carpet,  or 
board,  or  floor,  &c.,  &c. 

R 


242  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

any  inclination,  or  wish,  or  desire  for  anything 
whatever  I  should  have  freely  granted  it  to  you." 
The  Sultan,  therefore,  took  the  same  measures  with 
regard  to  him,  and  acted  towards  him  according  to 
the  judgment  of  his  own  intention,  and  committed 
him  to  the  care  of  the  governor  of  Jurjan,  and 
gave  order  that  he  should  be  guarded,  but  liberally 
provided  with  all  comforts,  and  settled  and  com- 
manded that  all  the  means  of  enjoyment  should  be 
supplied  to  him,  in  the  measure  of  his  own  wUl. 
And  truly  the  Sultan  was  a  man  of  perfect  gene- 
rosity and  amiable  disposition,  with  which  virtues 
Ms  royal  garment  was  adorned  and  the  robe  of  his 
intentions  wonderfully  embroidered  ;  and  he  never 
alienated  his  brother  from  that  place  in  his  affec- 
tions which  was  due  to  the  feelings  of  kindred  and 
of  fraternal  connection.  And,  moreover,  in  his 
treatment  of  individuals  who  were  obviously  guilty 
of  great  crimes  and  treachery,  and  who,  in  opposing 
him  and  acting  contumaciously  against  him  had 
been  foremost,  and  had  rendered  themselves  liable 
to  pay  the  penalty  of  offences  and  shameful  crimes, 
he,  in  the  time  of  power  and  opportunity,  would 
slacken  the  fire  of  anger  and  indignation  with  the 
water  of  mildness  and  forgiveness,  and  would  over- 
look and  receive  excuses,  and  pass  over  errors  and 
offences  ;  and,  if  ever  he  took  any  strong  proceed- 
ings in  the  way  of  punishing  offenders,  he  pro- 
ceeded according  to  that  blessed  proverb,  that  a 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  QHAZNA.  243 

wise  king  ought  to  act  with  such  prudence  that,  in 
a  state  of  anger,  he  should  inflict  injury  upon  a 
man  in  such  a  way  as  that,  in  a  state  of  good 
humour,  he- may  be  able  to  repair  the  wrong  ;  for, 
in  the  destroying  of  anything,  let  Him  only  be 
active  who  is  almighty  to  create,  since  it  is  impos- 
sible to  make  reparation  when  the  spirit  is  over- 
powered and  life  destroyed,  and  destruction  will 
not  be  formed  again  (Verse) 

"  Oh  do  thou  confer  pleasure  and  kindness  who  canst  retain 
life  or  destroy  it." 

Account  or  the  Kobe  oe  Honoitr  ■which  the  Commaitdee 

OE     THE      rAITHlTL,    Ai-KAdIB-BiLLAH,     SENT     TO     THE 

SttltXn  Tamin-Addoulat. 

The  Commander  of  the  Faithful,  Al-Kkdir- 
Billdh  sent  to  the  SuMn  a  precious  robe  and  a 
valuable  jewel,  such  as  no  other  king  or  sultdn  had 
been  honoured  with,  from  the  palace  of  the  spi- 
ritual sovereign,  and  granted  to  him  the  surname 
of  Tamin-Addoulat-wa-AmirirAl-miUat*  a  surname 
which  had  been  treasured  up  in  the  treasury  of  the 
clement  lord,  and  had  been  carefully  preserved,  for 
his  sake,  from  being  shared  with  others.  And  the 
SuMn  was  clothed  with  that  robe  of  honour  which 
had  been  woven  for  his  exalted  stature,  and  had 

*  i.  ^  Eight  hand  of  the  empire  and  guardian  of  the  reli- 
gion. 

e2 


244  MEMOIRS  OP  MAHMUD  OP  GHAZNA. 

been  brought  from  that  prophetical  presence  and 
abode  of  the  ELhilafat  for  that  object  of  generosity 
and  happiness.  And  he  sat  down  on  the  royal 
throne,  and  the  nobles  of  Khurasan  and  the  chiefs 
of  the  provinces  at  his  levees,  were  arranged  in 
ranks,  and  stood  before  his  throne,  and  girded  up 
their  loins  in  service  and  obedience ;  and  he  grati- 
fied every  one  with  due  marks  of  favour  and  sub- 
stantial ornaments,  and  he  honoured  them  with 
valuable  dresses  and  innumerable  gifts.  And  the 
royal  and  kingly  authority  became  established 
upon  a  firm  basis,  and  the  hearts  of  the  nobles  and 
the  people,  of  the  humble  and  of  the  great,  became 
confirmed  in  obedience  to  him,  and  his  circum- 
stances became  well  arranged  and  under  the 
canopy  of  his  rule  and  the  excellence  of  his  system 
the  affairs  of  the  provinces  of  Khurasfi,n  were  well 
settled,  and  happiness  was  sought  under  the  good 
fortune  of  his  government,  and  the  benefits  of  his 
service,  and  the  sanction  of  the  Khildfat,  and  the 
porch  of  security,  and  the  splendid  authority  of  the 
people  of  the  house  (of  God)  and  the  manifestation 
of  the  word  of  truth,  exhibited  its  mission  amongst 
the  subjects  of  this  kingly  family ;  for  every  year 
Ghazna  made,  in  the  provinces  of  Hindostd,n,  a 
free-will  offering,  by  giving  victory  to  the  princes 
of  faith,  and  by  causing  the  depression  of  the  ene- 
mies of  Islam,  and  it  became  unto  them  the  cause 
of  the  settlement  of  the  State  and  of  the  establish- 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.      245 

ment  of  the  government,  and  of  the  security  of  his 
affairs,  according  to  that  which  hath  been  uttered 
by  the  exalted  and  glorious  Koran  :  "  O  ye  who 
believe,  if  ye  support  the  cause  of  God  He  will 
support  you  and  will  strengthen  your  feet." 


AccorNT  or  the  Eetubn  or  Abdul-Malik-Ibn-Nuh  vsio 
BitkhIea. 

"When  Abdul-Malik-Ibn-Nuh  and  Fdlk  arrived, 
after  that  defeat  at  Bukhd,ra,  and  Bektuzdn  formed 
a  union  with  them,  and  the  opposing  armies 
became  united,  then  the  dream  of  recovery,  and 
the  hope  of  renewed  success,  and  the  desire  of 
prosperity,  again  obtained  the  mastery  over  their 
minds,  and  they  again  began  to  entertain  thoughts 
of  renewing  the  quarrel  and  recommencing  the 
fight ;  but,  in  the  midst  of  this  affair,  F&lk,  who 
was  the  upper  packet  in  the  matter,  and  the  fringe 
of  the  garment,  and  the  column  of  the  whole 
building,  succumbed  to  death,  and  thereby  all  their 
secret  intentions  were  frustrated,  and  various  indi- 
cations of  weakness  and  imbecility  became  visible 
in  their  counsels.  And  Ilek-Khdn  came  to  Buk- 
har&,  and,  for  the  purpose  of  plotting  and  deceiv- 
ing, pretended  to  display  friendship  and  attach- 
ment to  Abdul-Malik,  and  said,  "  In  adversity  we 
make  ill-will  disappear.  Although,  in  former 
times,  the  uprisings  of   these  demons  have  sue- 


246  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

ceeded,  to  a  certain  degree,  in  injuring  the  bands 
of  affection  and  destroying  the  basis  of  intimacy, 
and  hence  some  disagreeable  events  have  arisen. 
'  Truly  he  hath  eaten  his  brother's  meat  and  hath 
not  invited  him  to  eat  of  it.'  On  account  of  my 
kindred  to  this  house  and  on  account  of  the  estab- 
lishment of  causes  for  friendship  I  feel  it  incum- 
bent upon  me  to  guard  the  safety  of  this  royal 
dynasty,  and  to  experience  anger  and  indignation 
on  account  of  the  entrance  of  misfortune  upon  the 
plains  of  this  province.  And  since  foreigners*  have 
now  entered  the  province,  and  are  stretching  forth 
the  neck  of  desire  over  the  ancient  house  and 
inherited  throne  of  the  family  of  Saman,  it  is 
incumbent  upon  me  to  repulse  such  an  attack,  and 
to  oppose  it  is  one  of  the  necessary  duties  of  my 
allegiance."  They  bought  up  these  blandishments 
and  became  fascinated  with  his  gilded  words,  and 
infatuating  actions.  And  Begtuziin  and  Yanalta- 
gln,  and  other  generals  and  nobles,  proceeded  to 
meet  him,  and  whilst  they  were  sitting  confidently 
he  seized  and  bound  them  all,  and  gave  up  all 
their  wealth,  and  beasts  of  burden,  and  furniture, 
to  plunder.  And  Abdul -Malik,  through  his 
anguish,  on  account  of  this  stratagem,  and  his 
vexation  at  this  sudden  event  became  distracted, 
and  possessed  no  resource,  except  to  take  flight 

*  Alluding  to  Mahmud,  who  had  now,   by   the  Khalif  s 
grant,  assumed  the  suzerainty. 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  247 

and  to  hang  his  hand  in  the  lap  of  trouble.  And 
Ilek-Khan,  upon  Saturday,  in  the  month  Zil- 
Kaadat,  in  the  year  389,  arrived  at  Bukhara  and 
alighted  at  the  government  residence,  and  sent  out 
spies  who  were  charged  to  deliver  Abdul-Malik 
into  his  hands.  And  he  took  him  and  sent  him  to 
Urgand,  and  he  was  kept  guarded  at  that  place ; 
and  thus  the  flame  of  the  grandeur  of  the  family  of 
Samdn,  at  one  blow,  became  lowered  and  their 
affairs  approached  destruction.  "  The  foregoing 
ordinance  of  God  is  fulfilled  in  those  who  are  des- 
titute, nor  can  any  change  be  found  in  that  which 
God  ordains." 


An    Account   oj?   the   Expedition    of  Abu-Ibeahim-'bn- 
IsMAiii-'Bir-NcrH,  and  of  the  Transactions  which  took 

PLACE  WITH  HIM  AND  IlEK-KhAN,  IN  MaWABALNAHR,  AND 
WITH  THE  GrBNEEAL  OF  THE  AbMT,  ABrii-MuZAFFA  E- 
NASB-'sN-NASIE-ADDIN-SABAKTAofN,  IN  KhUEASAN. 

When  Ilek-Khan  took  Bukhard,  Abu-Alha- 
reth,  and  Abdul-Malik,  and  Ibrahim,  and  Abu- 
Yakub,  the  sons  of  Nuh-'bn-Mansiir,  fell  into  his 
hands  ;  and  he,  moreover,  took  their  uncles,  Abu- 
Zakaria  and  Abu-Sahh,  and  all  the  other  branches 
of  the  family  of  Samdn ;  and  he  retained  posses- 
sion of  them  all  and  separated  the  brothers  from 
each  other,  and  kept  them  apart  in  prison,  lest,  if 
they  had  been  together,  they  should  have  began  to 


248  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

plot  and  to  seek  the  means  of  escaping.  And 
Ibrahim  took  the  robe*  of  a  certain  female  who 
was  employed  about  the  household,  and  drew  it 
over  his  head,  and  by  means  of  that  dress  he  fled 
from  his  residence,  and  his  condition  resembled  the 
condition  of  that  (person)f  who  dressed  himself  in 
female  clothes  and  escaped  from  confinement,  and 
who  wrote  these  verses  (Verse) 

"  I  have  come  forth  just  as  an  arrow  comes  forth  —  an 
arrow  son  of  the  aim,  according  to  the  force,  whether  it  be 
direct  or  doubtful. 

"  Upon  me  were  woman's  dresses,  but  beneath  them  was 
a  manly  mind ;  it  was  like  a  basket  full  of  spear-points." 

And  Muntasir,|:  when  he  had  escaped  from 
prison,  took  refuge  in  the  house  of  a  certain  old 
woman  of  Bukhird,  until  the  first  heat  of  the  news 
and  the  first  impression  of  the  event  was  a  little 
abated,  and  until  those  who  were  seeking  him  put 
on  the  dress  of  despair  and  no  longer  felt  anxious 
to  find  him.  Then  he  went  in  this  disguise  to 
Khwarizm ;  and,  when  he  was  in  safety,  he  resolved 
to  seek  revenge.  And  the  rest  of  the  chiefs  of  the 
dynasty  of  the  family  of  Sdman  betook  themselves 
to   him,   and   collected   a   complete    army ;    and 

*  Or  veil,  shawl. 

'  c^o^.  The  translator  is  not  satisfied  as  to  the  purport 
of  this  word. 

J  That  is,  Abti-Ibrahim  (Muntasir). 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHM0D  OF  GHAZNA.  249 

Arsld,n-BalTi,  who  was  his  Chamberlain,  made  him 
return  to  Bukhdrd,  where  he  took  prisoner  Jafar- 
tagin,  with  seventeen  other  of  the  principal  lords 
and  khans,  and  sent  them  to  Jurjan.  Upon  this 
the  others  became  dispirited  and  departed  to  join 
Ilek-Khan,  and  Arslan-Balii  proceeded  closely 
upon  their  track,  as  far  as  the  borders  of  Samar- 
kand, and  there  they  came  to  blows,  and,  when  he 
arrived  at  the  bridge  of  Kohak,  Tagin-Khan, 
Governor  of  Samarkand,  on  behalf  of  Ilek-Klidn, 
was  posted  there,  with  a  complete  army,  and  some 
forces,  which  had  been  driven  from  Bukhd,rd  {i.  e., 
by  Arsldn)  had  joined  him  ;  and  they  with  one 
accord  directed  their  course  towards  Arsl4n,  nor 
did  ArsMn  turn  aside  from  them,  but  stood  firmly 
to  attack  and  engage  them.  And  he  broke 
through  their  ranks  and  carried  away  their  pro- 
perty and  heavy  baggage  as  booty.  And  Mun- 
tasir  came  to  Bukhard,  and  the  people  of  Bukhara 
made  great  rejoicings  at  his  arrival,  and  they  con- 
gratulated one  another. 

And  when  Ilek-Khan  observed  these  events  he 
assembled  his  army  and  resolved  to  return.  And 
Arslan-Balu  came  to  His  Highness  Muntasir,  and 
they  perceived  that  the  proceeding  most  suitable 
for  that  conjuncture  and  the  most  prudent  resolu- 
tion was  this,  that  they  should  proceed  to  Atnil- 
Shatt,  and  should  collect  the  revenues  of  those 
provinces,  and  should  direct  their  march,  by  the 


250      MEMOIES  OF  MAHMUD  OP  GHAZNA. 

way  of  the  desert,  to  Abiward.  And  th6y  also 
seized  for  their  own  use  the  troops  of  Abiward 
and  the  territory.  And  from  that  place  they 
came  to  N  ishapiir,  and  outside  the  gates  of  Nisha- 
pilr  there  arose  battles  between  them  and  the 
Amir  Nasr-'bn-N4sir-Addin,  but  the  Amir  Nasr, 
on  account  of  the  number  of  their  forces  and  the 
crowded  multitude  of  their  troops,  resolved  as  a 
measure  of  bulwarking  security,  that,  like  a 
brilliant  sun,*  he  would  be  veiled  under  the  canopy 
of  the  family  of  Abbas.  He  set  his  face  towards 
Menl  on  the  dtisky  chariot  of  night,  and  passing 
by  Nishapiir,  travelled  during  all  that  night  at  an 
elephant's  pace,  under  the  young  star  of  darkness, 
until,  when  the  first  streak  of  the  dawn  of  morning 
appeared  on  the  eastern  horizon,  he  arrived  at  the 
frontiers  of  Jurjan,  and  from  that  place  proceeded 
to  Herdt  (Verse) 

"  The  youngt  (horse)  is  no  longer  disgraced  by  the  inspec- 
tion of  his  mouth  (in  order  to  ascertain  his  age).  Truly  his 
courage  is  known  confidently  upon  trust." 

And  when  intelligence  of  this  event  reached 
the  Sultan  he  forthwith  marched,  and  came  by  a 
quick  road  to  Nishapdr,  and  Muntasir  when  he 
received  the  news  of  the  prosperous  success  of  his 
standard  went  forward,  and  proceeded  i;o  Isfarain, 

*  Or  like  Jemshid.     Here  is  some  historical  allusion, 
t  (Young)  horseman,  &c.,  here  horse. 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  QHAZNA.  251 

and  wished  to  obtain  some  profit  by  selling  the 
revenue  and  forestalling  the  taxes  of  that  province  ; 
but  he  did  not  succeed,  and  finding  it  impossible  to 
remain  there,  he  proceeded  towards  the  province  of 
Shams- Almuali-Kabds,  and  applied  himself  to  pro- 
cure succour  from  his  Excellency  Shams- Almuali, 
who,  on  account  of  his  former  eminent  dignity  and 
venerable  rank,  was  extremely  pleased,  and  sent  to 
him  certain  presents  and  donations,  part  of  which 
consisted  of  ten  Arabian  horses  with  silver  trap- 
pings, and  with  the  upper  part  of  the  reins  covered 
with  gold,  and  thirty  others  with  trappings  of  silver 
lace,  and  thirty  housings  of  silk,  and  twenty  mules 
with  ornaments  of  gold  and  silver  ;  and  thirty 
mules  of  burden  laden  with  precious  carpets  and 
rare  merchandize,  and  with  the  productions  of 
Tabaristdn,  and  with  furniture  and  vessels  fit  for 
royalty  ;  and  one  thousand  bales,  each  containing 
one  thousand  royal  direms,  and  thirty  thousand 
dinars  of  red  gold,  and  fifty  wardrobes  adorned 
with  splendid  tapestry,  (and  cups  with  concealed 
handles*)  (?)  and  precious  trappings,  and  raw  silks 
folded  up,  and  Egyptian  books.  And  the  army 
gave  unto  him  twenty  well-prepared  guards,  who 
should  be  ready  to  fiilfil  his  wishes,  and  his  inten- 
tions, and  (supply)  his  needs.  And  he  said  to  him 
thus,  "The  most  advisable  plan  at  present  ig  this, 

#  MS.  doubtful. 


252  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHA2NA. 

that  thou  shouldest  proceed  to  Ray,  whilst  I  send 
my  sons  Dar&  and  Manuchhar  to  serve  under  your 
flag,  since  the  throne  of  the  kingdom  of  Ray  is 
now  undecorated  (by  a  prince),  and  the  affairs  of 
that  province  are  in  confusion,  and  that  province 
needs  a  victorious  King,  and  a  successful  Emperor, 
and  that  a  King  should  arise  amidst  them  who 
might  be  the  belt  of  the  State.  And  as  the  army 
in  that  region  is  wavering,  through  differences  of 
feelings,  the  confusion  of  the  times,  and  the  break- 
ing off  of  authority,  it  is  needful  to  use  the  stirrup 
of  severity,  and  to  reduce  those  provinces  again 
under  ouv  rule,  and  for  one  to  be  seated  upon  the 
throne  of  command,  whilst  I  here  quietly  enter 
upon  arrangements,  and  think  of  some  means  of 
your  returning  to  Khurasan,  and  how  to  claim  your 
hereditary  house."  This  intimation  was  favourably 
received,  and,  after  offering  the  prayer  for  success, 
he  gave  orders  to  march,  and  he  came  down  over 
against  Ray,  and  the  soldiers  who  were  quartered 
in  the  city  of  Ray  came  into  his  camp,  and  brought 
pavilions  to  meet  him.  And  Arslan-Balu  and 
Abiil-Kasim-Simjur,  and  the  other  nobles  of  the 
State,  sent  traitors  and  beguiled  them  with  gifts  of 
ready  money,  and  professions  of  service,  until  all 
began  to  disagree.  And  they  diverted  Muntasir 
from  that  plan,  and  said,  "  Thy  glory  and  renown 
is  too  great  for  thee  that  thou  should  have  any  (ill) 
relations  with  or  opposition  to  a  community  who 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OP  GHAZNA.  253 

are  thy  subjects,  and  desire  the  happiness  of  serving 
thy  flag,  and  who  are  affectionately  disposed 
towards  thee  by  the  obligations  of  near  kindred,  or 
who  have  armed  and  joined  thee  as  allies  and  feu- 
datories "  And  with  respect  to  them  the  opinion 
of  a  man  of  judgment  was  listened  to  who  said, 
"  Kabils  would  take  us  by  the  hand  of  thy  chiefs 
and  supporters,  and  would  knead  his  scarcely- 
leavened  dough  in  the  oven  which  shall  be  found 
in  the  hand  of  thy  followers  and  warriors ;  so  that 
if  the  affair  turns  out  according  to  his  wishes, 
advantage  may  accrue  unto  him,  or  if  (which  God 
forbid  i  some  evil  eye  should  blight  the  undertaking, 
or  some  cause  of  weakness  supervene,  the  fault 
may  rest  upon  some  person  of  the  Court."  Muntasir 
received  this  coloured  and  deceitful  speech  with 
favour,  and  marched  from  Ray,  and  proceeded  by 
the  way  of  Diraghin.  And  Dard  and  Manuchahar 
separated  themselves  again  from  his  society,  and 
proceeded  to  Jurjdn.  Thus  this  design  became 
abortive,  and  this  decree  was  fulfilled,  "Truly 
when  God  wills  evil  upon  a  people,  then  there  are 
no  means  of  repelhng  Him  ;  nor  is  there  for  them 
any  mediating  deputy  under  Him." 

And  when  Muntasir  arrived  at  Nishapiir,  the 
Amir  Nasr  was  there,  and  he  (Nasr)  thought  that 
if  he  refrained  from  then  opposing  Muntasir  and 
delayed  awhile,  it  would  be  impossible  that  any  evil 
eye  should  interrupt  his  project,  as  upon  occasion 


254  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

of  the  first  collision  and  the  past  occurrence.  He 
therefore  rose  up  and  retreated  towards  Jurjdn. 
Thus  in  the  month  Shawal,  in  the  year  391,  Mun- 
tasir  again  took  up  his  position  at  Nishapilr,  and 
sent  for  the  collectors  of  taxes,  and  began  to  demand 
money,  and  the  produce  of  the  revenue.  And  the 
General  of  the  Army,  Nasr-Ibn-N4sir-Addln  re- 
quested some  men  from  the  Sultan,  who  sent  to  his 
assistance  the  Chamberlain  Altontash,  who  was 
Governor  of  Herit,  with  a  complete  army.  And 
when  he  was  reinforced  by  these  tfoops  he  went 
towards  Nishapiir ;  and  Muntasir  sent  Arslan- 
Balii  and  Abiil-Kasim-Simjiir  to  fight  with  him, 
and  between  them  there  ensued  many  blows,  and 
much  slaughter ;  and  the  army  of  the  Amir  Nasr 
took  vengeance  on  the  army  of  Muntasir,  and  de- 
feated them.  "  Yes,  they  have  turned  their  backs 
in  flight,  and  the  word  of  God  hath  become  effec- 
tually supreme."  And  the  Amir  Nasr  came  into 
Nishapiir,  and  the  men  of  the  city  displayed  glad- 
ness, and  arranged  ceremonies  of  triumph ;  and 
they  scattered  gifts  of  gold  and  silver  like  drops  of 
rain.  And  Muntasir  went  by  the  way  of  Abiward, 
and  the  army  of  the  Amir  Nasr  went  after  him, 
until  they  had  driven  him  as  far  as  the  frontiers  of 
Jurjan.  And  the  Amir  Shams- Alumudli*  sent  on 
to  repulse  him  two  thousand  men  of  the  Kurdish 

*  t.  e.  Kab.us,  indiguant  that  Muntasir  should  have  rejected 
his  advice  and  listened  to  the  calninnies  of  the  people  of  Ray. 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OP  GHAZNA.  255 

tribes,  that  they  might  give  him  his  answer,  and 
expel  him  from  the  frontiers  of  the  kingdom.  Into 
this  misfortune  did  Muntasir  fall,  and  did  not  con- 
sider that  he  had  committed  a  great  fault  in  his 
determination  at  Ray,  and  that  in  opposing  Kabiis, 
and  rejecting  his  sound  advice  he  had  lost  the 
right  road  And  he  became  alienated  from  Arslan- 
Balu  on  account  of  the  contentions  which  he  caused, 
and  on  account  of  his  assumed  imperiousness  over 
the  affairs  of  the  kingdom  and  in  matters  of  im- 
portance. And  through  his  injustice  disputing 
words  ensued,  and  this  ill-feeling  and  malevolence 
obtained  a  firm  and  settled  hold  upon  the  mind  of 
Muntasir,  and  they  objected  to  him  another  fault 
which  took  place  in  the  defeat  of  Nishapilr,  saying 
that  through  the  calumnies  and  envy  of  Abiil- 
Kasim-Simjiir  he  refused  to  renew  the  fight,  but 
resolved  upon  inactivity.  And  this  was  the  pretext 
for  the  augmentation  of  the  ill-will  of  Muntasir, 
and  his  hatred  increased  to  such  a  degree  that  he 
put  Arslan-Balu  to  death.  .  This  event  threw  the 
whole  army  into  confusion,  and  aU  moved  the 
tongue  of  disavowal  and  aversion  towards  Muntasir. 
And  Abiil-Kasim-Simjiir  exerted  himself  to  repair 
that  state  of  affairs,  and  to  mend  that  ragged  cloak, 
and  succeeded  in  quenching  that  fire,  and  extin- 
guishing those  burning  embers,  until  all  was  quiet. 
And  this  uproar  and  disturbance  was  diminished, 
and  they  agreed  to  a  design  to  be  carried  out  in 


256  MEMOIRS  OP  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

the  direction  of  Sarkhas.  And  the  Prince  of  that 
country,  who  is  called  by  the  name  of  Pir*-Fakih, 
who  was  an  ally  and  supporter  of  Muntasir,  made 
in  his  favour  offers  of  service,  and  gave  him  money, 
and  provisions,  and  several  regiments.  And  when 
they  arrived  at  Sarkhas,  and  had  been  replaced  in 
a  prosperous  condition  by  the  money  and  revenues 
and  property  of  Sarkhas,  and  by  the  assistance  and 
abundance  and  liberality  of  the  Prince,  f  (literally 
the  bailiff),  the  Amir,  commander  of  the  army, 
Nasr,  was  convinced  that  their  stay  in  that  place 
was  caused  by  their  grasping  covetousness  and  base 
designs ;  therefore  he  turned  against  them  with  his 
army,  and  Muntasir  confronted  him  with  his  forces. 
A  severe  engagement  ensued  between  the  two 
parties,  but  the  heavenly  decree,  and  the  Divine 
determination  respecting  changing  the  state  of 
affairs,  and  altering  all  that  could  be  altered  was 
triumphant,  and  the  happy  breeze  of  the  good  for- 
tune of  the  Amir  Nasr  blew  from  the  benign  quar- 
ter of  the  heaven  abovQ,  and  he  struck  the  army  of 
Muntasir  against  the  wall  of  ruin,  and  scattered 
them  into  dust.     And  they  brought  Abdl-K^sim- 

*  Pir,  literally,  old  man,  but  it  is  the  usual  name  for  the 
Mussulman  saints  in  India  and  Affghanistan.  (See  the  inte- 
resting pamphlet  of  M.  Grascin  de  Tassy,  "  Sur  la  religion 
Musulmane  dans  I'lnde"). — Fakih,  theologian,  priest. 

t  He  appears  to  have  been  a  kind  of  ecclesiastical  prince. 
The  Amir  of  Bukhard  still  regards  himself  in  that  point  of 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  257 

Simjiir  bound  with  a  halter  before  the  Amir  Nasr  ; 
and  in  like  manner  the  chamberlain  Tozt^sh,  who 
was  the  arm,  and  the  efficient  friend,  and  the  faith- 
ful supporter  of  Muntasir,  was  taken  prisoner.  And 
the  greater  portion  of  the  army  were  also  taken 
captive,  and  all  conducted  to  Ghazna  in  the  robes 
of  reproach  and  shame.  And  Muntasir,  thus  dis- 
graced and  ruined  by  repeated  unlucky  strokes  of 
fortune,  and  by  successive  blows,  became  an  undone 
wanderer  ;  whilst  the  Amir  Nasr,  placing  himself 
under  the  canopy  of  prosperity  and  might,  the 
pledge  of  stability  and  victory,  applied  himself  to 
the  consolidation  of  his  power.  And  Abu-Mansur- 
Thaalibi  thus  speaks  in  commemoration  of  this 
event  (Verse) 

"  Time  hath  illuminated  the  white  spot  of  fortune  and  hath 
let  slip,  against  the  followers  of  rebellion,  the  breaking  of 
backs. 

"  The  Lord  of  the  World  hath  caused  these  sons  of  des- 
truction to  turn  their  backs, 

"And  hath  judged  amongst  them  in  victory,"  &c. 

And  also  this  fragment  was  composed  by  Abu- 
Said,  his  friend  (Verse) 

"  Unto  the  Amir  Al-Muzaffar,  wise  and  just,  there  is  vic- 
tory. G-lorious  in  heroism  and  abundance  he  hath  possessed 
empire  with  conquest." 

And  Muntasir  after  this  defeat  betook  himself 
to  the  Gozz-Turks.     These  people  greatly  boasted 

s 


258  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

of  their  fidelity  to  the  family  of  Samdn,  and  had 
been  forward  in  favour  and  support  unto  them. 
They  vied  with  each  other  in  affording  him  a  kind 
reception,  and  entered  into  his  design  with  the  ut- 
most anxiety  and  respect,  and  girded  up  their  loins 
to  assist  and  defend  him,  and  encouraged  each 
x)ther  in  a  ready  and  zealous  recognition  of  the  glory 
of  his  ancient  house  and  renowned  grandeur.  They 
accordingly  proceeded  in  the  service  of  his  standard 
to  the  country  of  Ilek-Kh4n.  And  Ilek-Kh^n, 
when  he  received  intelligence  of  the  approach  of 
Muntasir  arose  to  resist  him,  and  assembled  a  con- 
siderable body  of  troops  out  of  the  Turkish  tribes, 
and  came  to  the  frontiers  of  Samarkand.  The 
army  of  the  Gozz-Turks  thought  upon  the  matter, 
and  the  result  of  their  arrangements  and  resolution 
was  this,  that  they  chaunted  the  following  (Verse) 

"  Truly  they  challenged  us  to  come  down  and  fight, 
therefore  I  came  down  first  and  my  flags  were  borne  against 
him,  when  he  did  not  come  down  himself  to  battle." 

And  they  made  a  night  attack  upon  Ilek-Khdn, 
and  when  the  ship  of  the  morning  arrived  from  the 
whirlpool  of  darkness  at  the  shore  of  the  horizon, 
they  fell  upon  his  soldiers,  and  they  made  prisoners 
of  all  his  officers,  and  put  all  the  other  men  to  the 
sword,  and  plundered  and  seized  their  furniture 
and  tent  baggage,  and  collecting  together  all  their 
spoil,  and  the  wealth  and  property  whicli  they  had 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  259 

obtained  they  returned,  and  they  delivered  up  the 
prisoners  which  they  had  taken  into  the  hand  of 
Muntasir.  Then  a  report  arose  that  they  wished 
to  be  reconciled  (with  the  enemy),  and  Muntasir 
was  alarmed  and  uneasy  at  the  thought,  and  in  the 
night-time  he  selected  seven  hundred  of  the  most 
excellent  and  trusty  of  his  cavalry,  and  departed 
from  amongst  the  Ghozzes.  And  when  they  came 
to  the  banks  of  the  river  Jihiin  it  was  entirely 
frozen  over,  therefore  he  ordered  that  they  should 
strew  straw  over  the  surface — thus  they  passed. 
And  when  the  army  of  the  Ghozzes  arrived  it 
was  daylight,  and  the  sun  had  risen  and  entirely 
scorched  (and  melted  away)  the  marks  of  their 
passage,  and  destroyed  them.  Thus  Muntasir 
arrived  at  AmU-Shatt,  and  sent  a  letter  to  the 
Sultdn,  in  which  he  reminded  him  of  the  rights  of 
his  ancestors,  and  of  the  Sultan's  feudal  relation  to 
them,  and  expressed  many  complaints  of  the  heavy 
floods  of  sorrow  and  the  large  measures  of  extreme 
distress  which  had  been  his  portion,  and  took 
refuge  under  the  canopy  of  his  kindness  and 
humanity,  and  under  the  shadow  of  his  compassion 
and  favour,  and  gave  the  reins  of  obedience  and 
guidance  into  the  hand  of  his  will  and  pleasure, 
and  said  (Verse) 

"  For  my  eye,  whicli  hatk  beheld  thy  portrait,  thou  art 
good ;  for  my  heart,  depressed  by  sorrow,  in  thy  love  to  me 
thou  art  good ;  with  a  soul  which  has  possessed  none  of  the 

S  2 


260  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

advantages  of  the  Divine  destiny  T  have  looked  upon  all,  and  in 
thy  love  to  me  thou  art  good."* 

"  If  by  means  of  the  law  of  thy  clemency  and  the 
volume  of  thy  generosity  I  should  become  partaker 
of  the  water  of  life,  I  will  wear  the  ring  of  slavery 
in  my  ear,  and  I  shall  gird  up  the  waistband  of 
obedience  around  my  loins,  and  if  thou  wouldest 
retain  the  darkness  of  my  misfortunes  under  the 
shadow  of  the  State,  then  shall  I  stand  unmoved, 
like  the  sun,  in  thy  light-streaming  Court."  In 
this  manner  did  he  paint  the  pages  of  this 
volume,  and  thus  did  he  decorate  the  construction 
of  the  volume  of  this  letter  with  royal  pearls  taken 
from  the  treasury  of  the  imagination.  But,f  from 
the  alarm  which  arose  at  the  dread  of  the  violence 
of  the  Ghozz  Turks,    he   removed,   and  went  to 

To  mine  eye,  on  which  thy  goodness  still  is  painted,  thou 

art  dear  ; 
To   mine   heart,   vrhich   oft   from    misery's   blows    hath 

fainted,  thou  art  dear ; 
To  a  soul  forlorn,  to  sorrow  born, 

Which  Heaven  has  grudged  to  cheer, 
That,  looking  round,  few  friends  hath  found, 

Oh,  chieftain,  thou  art  dear, 
t  i.  e.  Meanwhile,  before  he  received  the  Sultan's  reply. 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OP  GHAZNA.      261 

Merd,  and  sent  a  person  to   Abu-Jaafar,   son  of 
Khahar,  seeking  assistance  in  restoring  his  affairs 
and  relieving   his    necessity,    requesting   him    to 
supply  him  with  the  gift  of  arms  and  necessaries. 
But  he  was  one  of  that  crowd  of  base  and  vile  per- 
sons who  had  arrived  at  power  in  the  days  of  the 
government  of  the  family  of  Samin,  and  had  ob- 
tained worldly  wealth  and  prosperity.    His  ignoble 
disposition,  mean  notions,  and  low-born  baseness, 
restrained  him  from  performing  the  good  action  of 
shewing  pity  unto,  and  zealously  bestirring  him- 
self in  the  service  of,  so  royal  a  Prince  ;  therefore 
he  drew  the    hand  of  rejection  over  the   face   of 
his   request;  nor   was   he   satisfied   until  he  had 
departed,  and  he  came  out  and  displayed  opposi- 
tion to  him.      And  the  guards  of  Muntasir    in 
a   furious  and   tempestuous  onset  broke  him  up, 
and  dissevered  his  troops  like  the  letters  of  words 
separated  from  one  another.     Muntasir  therefore 
betook  himself  unto  the  direction  of  Abiward,  and 
arrived  alone  at  Abiward,  in  the  year  394.     And 
the  Sultan  displayed  the  most  striking  proofs  of 
compassion,  and  the  splendour  of  a  most  generous 
disposition,  and  exhibited  the  most  glorious  purity 
and  sincerity  in  receiving  his  message,  and  treating 
his  messenger  with  honour,  and  allowing  him  the 
recognition  which  he  had  hoped  for.     He  sent  to 
him  the  number  of  troops  that  were  required,  and 
ofave  a  comniission  to  the  son  of  Khdhir-Zadah  to 


262  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHA2NA. 

perform  all  that  was  necessary  for  his  service.  And 
by  dint  of  necessity,  and  at  the  end  of  his  teeth, 
girded  up  his  loins  to  assist  Muntasir.  He  there- 
fore attained  his  wish,  without  paying  and  without 
praising;  but  the  spot  of  disgrace  thus  became 
apparent  upon  the  face  of  his  fortune,  so  that  the 
consequences  of  his  error  and  fault  lasted  many 
years.  And  Abii-Nasr,  one  of  the  lord  chamber- 
lains of  the  Sult4n  was  posted  at  that  place  ;*  and 
when  Muntasir  arrived  at  those  borders  he  rose  up 
to  support  his  pretensions,  and  displayed  the  utmost 
zeal  in  the  service  of  his  standard.  But  the  mind 
of  the  people  of  Nissaf  was  averse  to  this  end ; 
they  suspected  that  this  movement  of  Abii-Nasr 
would  not  give  content,  and  they  wished  to  beware 
of  the  imputation  of  participating  in  his  offence. 
They  therefore  sent  a  letter  to  the  King  of 
Khwarizm,  and  requested  assistance.  He  accord- 
ingly sent  Abd-Fazl,  a  chamberlain,  who  was  one 
of  the  most  distinguished  men  of  his  Court,  in 
order  that  he  might  effect  a  repulse  of  the  danger, 
and  act  as  an  expedient  rectifier  of  the  injury  of 
that  army.  Upon  this  Abu-Nasr  removed  the  veil 
from  his  head,  and  openly  appearing  in  the  service 
of  the  flag  of  Muntasir,  they  proceeded  together 

*  i.  e.  Abiward. 

t  Probably  situated  on  the  site  where  the  ruins  of  Oodec- 
nuggar  are  now  seen,  near  the  modern  village  of  Darapflr,  on 
the  banks  of  the  Hydaspes, — Btjenes. 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  263 

side  by  side  against  the  enemy.  And  in  the  middle 
of  a  gloomy  night,  when  a  cold  and  strong  wind 
discharged  the  eyesight  from  the  office  of  discerning 
individuals  and  distinguishing  bodies  (forms),  and 
when  the  darkness  blocked  up  the  pupil  of  the  eye, 
a  battle  took  place  between  them  and  the  army  of 
Khwarlzm  under  Abii-Fazl.  And  until  the  falcon 
of  the  morning  opened  his  wings  from  the  nest  of 
the  horizon  they  continued  to  cast  at  each  other 
swords,  and  arrows,  and  spears.  And  when  the 
bride  of  day  washed  off  the  black  dye  of  the  dp,rk- 
ness,  Abii-Nasr,  the  chamberlain,  and  the  son  of 
His^m-Addoulat  Td,sh,  with  a  considerable  body 
of  the  allies  of  Muntasir,  lay  slain  upon  the 
field  of  battle,  and  the  remainder  were  dispersed. 
And  Muntasir  went  to  Isfarayin,  the  inhabitants  of 
which  place,  dreading  the  trouble  into  which  they 
would  be  exposed  by  aiding  him,  rose  up  against 
him.  Muntasir  therefore  quitted  that  city,  and 
with  a  body  of  men  who  adhered  as  closely  to  him 
as  a  mill-working  bullock  to  his  mill,  went  on,  and 
by  the  most  direct  roads  proceeded  on  his  return, 
until  he  arrived  at  the  confines  of  Sarkas.  Here 
they  halted  for  a  day,  until  the  soldiers  who  had 
been  separated  from  him  came  up  to  him,  when 
he  passed  over  the  Jihiln,  and  arrived  at  the  shore 
of  the  Kayta.  And  the  General  commanding  the 
cavalry  at  Bukhdr^  went  out  to  meet  him  and 
oppose  him,  and  he  not  possessing  any  means  of 


264  MEMOIRS  or  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

escape   halted   to   engage  him.     A  severe  battle 

ensued,  and  Muntasir   himself  by  great  exertion 

narrowly  escaped  with  his  life.     And  the  General 

of  that  place  (Bukhara  ?)  *       ....     and  took 

with  him  the  army  stationed  there,  and  therewith 

again  expelled  Muntasir  from  the  city  of  Darband- 

piir.     And  the  thread  that  united  his  troops  in  a 

body  was  broken,  and  they  were  aU  dispersed.  But 

the  son  of  Ibn-Dar,  who  was  Military  Governor  of 

Samarkand,  arose  to  support  Muntasir,  and  joined 

him  with  three  thousand  men.     And  the  principal 

citizens  of  Samarkand  sent  unto  him  three  hundred 

chosen  Turkish  soldiers,  with  a  large  sum  of  money, 

for  the  purpose  of  effecting  a  junction  with  him ; 

and  a  body  of  the  Ghozz  tribe  also  joined  him. 

And  thus  by  their  aid  he  again  became  strong, 

and  the  flame  of  his  affairs  again  mounted  high. 

And   when    Ilek-Khdn    received    information    of 

the  recovery  of  his  power,  and  of  the  consequent 

shaking  of  his  own  authority,  he  applied  himself 

to   repulse   him.        The   armies   engaged   at    the 

village  Burband,  on  the  border  of  the  territory  of 

Samarkand,  when   the  Khdn  was   put   to   flight, 

and  the  army  of  the  Ghozzes  collected  abundant 

booty   and   treasure   beyond   computation.      This 

*  Some  obscurity  in  the  Persian  MS. ;  but,  from  the 
Arabic,  it  seems  that  he  again  approached  Bukhard,  "  fell  into 
the  mouth  of  the  fire,"  and  moved  about,  harassed  and  con- 
fused, until  Ibn-Dar  joined  him  ;  but  the  translator  found  diffi- 
culty in  this  passage. 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  265 

event  occurred  in  tlie  month  of  Shaaban,  in  the 
year  394.  The  Khan  retreated  to  his  own  terri- 
tory, where  he  reassembled  his  army,  and  again 
proceeded  to  attack  Muntasir.  (But  by  this  time 
the  tribes  of  the  Ghozzes  had  separated  from  him, 
and  taken  the  road  unto  their  own  homes  and  resi- 
dences, and  were  occupied  in  the  division  of  the 
spoil.)  The  troops  engaged  in  a  plain  which  is 
between  Darak  and  Javas.  And  just  as  the  two 
armies  engaged,  and  the  two  bodies  of  troops  met, 
Abul-Hasan-Tik,  with  five  thousand  men  of  his 
army,  treacherously  betrayed  Muntasir,  and  de- 
serted to  the  party  of  the  Khan,  and  Muntasir 
deprived  of  all  hope  was  routed,  yet  he  continued 
to  resist  the  Kh^n  and  his  army,  for  the  purpose  of 
vengeance.  And  from  the  clouds  of  (striking) 
swords  the  hiUs  and  the  plains  became  full  of  tor- 
rents of  blood,  and  from  that  body  of  men  a  perfect 
satiety  of  gluttony  and  a  rich  banquet  resulted  for 
the  lions  and  the  vultures.  And  Muntasir  came 
to  the  bank  of  the  Jihiln,  and  finding  no  boat,  he 
joined  some  trees  together,  and  thus  escaped  from 
the  army  of  the  Khdn,  and  passed  over  the  water. 
And  he  seized  all  that  he  found  in  those  coasts 
and  cultivated  lands,  and  shared  it  with  his  army. 
And  he  himself  went  by  the  way  of  the  wilderness 
to  the  bridge  of  Zaghul.  They  informed  the 
Sultan*  of  his  arrival^  who  commanded  that  they 
*  The  Sultan  considered  himself  delivered  from  all  relations 


266  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

should  speedily  resist  Mm,  before  he  could  arrange 
affairs,  or  draw  the  matter  to  a  head.  He  there- 
fore came  to  Balkh.  And  he  sent  Farighiin-'bu- 
Muhammad,  with  forty  standards  of  select  officers, 
to  banish  his  band,  and  cut  down  his  iniquity. 
And  Muntasir  retreated  from  them,  and  went  in 
the  direction  of  Kohistan.  But  in  all  the  world  he 
found  no  place  of  refuge  and  no  prospect  towards 
which  he  could  direct  himself,  for  wherever  he 
turned  his  face  he  found  the  dragon  of  misfortune 
opening  his  mouth  against  him,  and  on  all  sides  to 
which  he  could  hasten  the  lion  of  misery  extended 
his  claws  against  him.  Thus  he  ran  round  in  a 
circle,  and  when  he  arrived  at  Kohistan,  the 
General  of  the  troops,  Nasr,  and  Arslan-Jazib, 
Prince  of  Tils,  and  Toghanjak,  Prince  of  Sarkhas, 
hurried  after  him.  For  fear  of  them  he  directed 
his  course  to  Jumand,  and  from  that  place  came  to 
Borstam.  And  Shams-Almu41i-Kabits  sent  two 
thousand  men  of  the  royal  body-guards  to  repulse 
him,  in  order  that  they  might  hurry  him  away 
from  those  countries.  He  accordingly  retreated  to 
Bibar,  and  from  thence  came  to  Nisa  ;  but  the 
son  of  Sarkhak-Samani  wrote  a  letter  to  him,  and 
deceived  him  with  lying  promises,  and  treacherous 
words,  and  promised  him  the  assistance  and  support 
and  friendship  of  Ilek-Khdn.     He,  beguiled  with 

of  feudal  allegiance,  by  the  conduct  of  Muntasir,  in  ravaging 
his  territory. 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  267 

the  hope  which  these  blandishments  afforded, 
marched  into  the  province  of  Bukhfi,ri,  and  when 
he  arrived  at  Chah-Hamad  his  army  became 
wearied  with  their  lengthened  marches,  and  with 
the  constant  opposition  of  unlucky  fortune,  and 
becoming  dispirited  with  the  long  continuance  of 
war  and  battles  they  deserted  him,  and  went  to 
Sulaiman  and  Safi,  who  were  chamberlains  of  Ilek- 
Khan,  and  informed  him  of  the  weak  state  of  his 
horses,  and  the  low  ebb  of  his  supplies,  and  scanty 
means  of  resistance,  and  of  the  stopping  up  of  all 
sources  of  succour.  And  when  Muntasir  heard  of 
this,  and  when  many  of  the  soldiers  came  around 
his  tent,  he  for  a  short  time  remained  as  if  intend- 
ing to  await  thein  and  resist  them  ;  but  he  after- 
wards betook  himself  to  flight.  And  they  took  his 
brothers  and  his  chief  friends  and  officers  prisoners 
and  carried  them  to  Urkand.  And  Muntasir  re- 
treated to  the  encampment  of  Ibn-Bahaj-Arabi. 
Here  one  named  Mdh-R6i  had  been  placed  over 
them,  on  behalf  of  the  Sultan.  This  man  incited 
(the  tribe)  to  pursue  him.  And  when  night  arrived 
the  vile  Arabs  of  this  Arab  made  a  sudden  attack 
upon  him,  and  gave  his  precious  life  to  the  wind, 
and  spilt  his  noble  blood  upon  the  ground.  His 
fate  is  described  in  the  following  verses  of  Abu- 
Tamdm  (Verse) 

"  The   youth   hath  perished  beneath  javelins   and  deadly 


268  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

blows.  He  stood  firmly  upon  the  position  of  victory,  although 
victory  failed  him, 

"Nor  did  he  die  until  he  died  striking  blows  with  the 
sword, 

"Nor  until  continual  thrusts  of  the  javelins  destroyed  him. 

"  At  the  last  throes  of  death  he  firmly  set  his  foot,  and  said 
unto  her,  '  Beneath  thy  sole  is  the  Resurrection.'  What  hath 
come  upon  him  hath  come  upon  him,  but  glory  is  upon  his 
black  robe.  Tet  the  only  reward  paid  to  him  was  his  shroud. 
His  pleasant  gardens  have  passed  away  from  the  pure-robed 
one,  nor  is  the  banquet  of  the  brave  prolonged,  since  the  grave 
casts  upon  them  the  evU  eye.  God's  blessing  be  upon  thee 
unchangeably.  So  I  have  seen  that  long  life  is  not  for  the 
noble  and  warm  (hearted)!" 

And  they  buried  his  remains  in  the  marshy 
ground  in  the  irrigated  country  of  Mardam.  This 
event  happened  on  the  first  day  of  the  month 
Rabiah,  in  the  year  395, 

And  when  the  news  of  this  occurrence  reached 
the  SuMn,  he  seized  the  perpetrator  and  put  him 
to  a  cruel  death,  and  plundered  the  encampment  of 
Ibn-Bahaj.  Thus  at  one  blow  the  lofty  flame  of 
the  house  of  the  Sd,minides  sunk  down,  and  the 
star  of  their  empire  fell.  But  God  directs  all 
things  according  to  his  fore- knowledge.* 

*  It  is  to  be  presumed  that  the  remaining  princes  of  the 
famUy  of  Saman  were  massacred  by  Ilek-Khan  and  the  Sultan 
Mahmud. 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OP  GHAZNA,  269 

Account   of    the    Famili   of    the    Samanides   add   the 

DUBATION     OF     THEIE     GrOTEENMENT,     tTNTlL     THE     TiME 
THAT   THE    KINGDOM   EETEETED    TO   THE     SULTAN   TaMIN- 

Addotoat. 

The  duration  of  the  reign  and  authority  of  the 
family  of  S4md,n  over  Khurasin,  and  Mawaralnahr, 
and  over  certain  other  territories  of  Sistin,  and 
Karman,  and  Jurj^n,  and  Ray,  and  Tabaristdn,  as 
far  as  to  the  borders  of  Ispahan,  which  were  under 
their  government  for  various  periods  of  time  was 
one  hundred  and  two  years  and  sixteen  days.  The 
first  King  of  this  family  was  Ismail-Ibn- Ahmad, 
who  seized  upon  Amr-Lays,  in  the  territory  of 
Balkh,  and  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  early  on 
Saturday,  in  the  middle  of  the  month  Eabia,  the 
last  in  the  year  287.  He  possessed  the  kingdom 
for  the  space  of  eight  years,  and  he  succumbed 
(died)  at  Bukhdrd,  on  the  night  of  Tuesday,  the 
fourteenth  of  the  month  Safar,  in  the  year  295. 
His  son  Abu-Nasr-Ahmad-Ibn-Ismail  took  his 
seat  upon  the  throne  in  his  stead.  He  was  King 
six  years  and  six  months,  and  was  killed  by  his 
guards  on  the  night  of  Thursday,  the  twenty-sixth 
day  of  the  month  Jumadhi-Al-Akhar,  in  the  year 
302.  His  son,  Nasr-Ibn-Ahmad  was  his  heir  and 
successor,  who  for  thirty  years  prosperously  held 
the  highest  station  and  the  chief  authority.  After 
him  his  son  NTih-'bn-Nasr,  surnamed  Al-Hamid, 
took  his  seat  upon  the  royal  throne,  reigning  eight 


270  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

years,  three  months,  and  seven  days,  and  deceasing 
at  Bukh^rS,,  on  Tuesday,  the  nineteenth  day  of 
Rabia-Al-Akbar,  in  the  year  343,  his  dignity  de- 
volved upon  his  son,  Abdul-Mahk-'bn-Niih,  who 
governed  seven  years,  six  months,  and  eleven  days  ; 
and  on  Thursday,  the  eleventh  Shawwdl,  in  the 
year  350,  he  fell  from  his  horse  and  resigned  his  life. 
His  son  Mansiir-'bn- Abdul- Malik,  surnamed  Sadid, 
succeeded,  and  struck  the  relief  guard  (drum)  of 
royalty  for  fifteen  years  and  nine  months,  dying  at 
Bukhdrd,  on  Tuesday,  the  eleventh  Shaww^l,  in 
the  year  365.  His  son  Niih-'bn-Mansiir,  surnamed 
Ar-Eidha,  sat  on  the  musnard,  reigning  twenty- 
one  years  and  nine  months.  He  vpent  to  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  mercy,  on  Friday,  the  thirteenth  of 
Rajib,  in  the  year  387,  and  his  son  Abul-Harith- 
Mansiir-'bn-Nilh  became  King.  He  reigned  one 
year  and  seven  months,  and  on  Wednesday,  the 
eighteenth  of  Safar,  in  the  year  389,  was  blinded 
and  imprisoned  by  the  hand  of  Baktilziin,  at  Sark- 
has,  and  the  investiture  was  conferred  upon  his 
brother  Abdul-Malik-'bn-Niih,  who  brought  the 
city  to  the  ground,  until  Bukh^rd  was  taken  by  the 
hand  of  Ilek-Khdn,  and  the  kingdom  of  Mawardn- 
nahr  fell  from  his  hand,  and  the  duration  of  his 
affair  was  eight  months  and  seven  days.  During 
these  days  the  victories  of  the  kingdom  and 
royalty  of  Yamin-Addoulat  and  Amin-Almillat 
commenced ;  and  subsequently  as  time  advanced. 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZSA.  271 

the  tablet  of  his  kingdom  was  gladdened,  and  the 
flame  of  his  empire  blazed,  and  the  star  of  his  pros- 
perity rose  to  a  degree  of  happiness  and  power, 
until  the  pulpits  of  Isldm  became  illuminated  by 
the  might  of  his  august  surnames,  and  his  decree 
was  current  as  destiny  in  all  tracts  and  portions  of 
the  world ;  for  God  maketh  royalty  to  come  unto 
whom  He  wiUeth,  and  God  is  bounteous  and  wise ! 
(Verse) 

"  The  bridegroom  of  his  kingdom  holds  her  fast  in  his 
embrace,  that  she  may  imprint  kisses  upon  the  lips  of  the 
brilliant  scimitar.  Of  a  hundred  heroes  it  is  one  like  thee,  to 
whom  is  given  the  cutting  sword  and  the  wish-winning  arm." 


ACCOTTNT  OF  TBAT  WHICH  HAPPENED  BETWEEN  NasIE-AdDIN- 
SaBAKTAGIN  AlfD  KhALAF-AhMAD,  both  as  BEaAEDS 
THBIE  DiEEBEENCES  AND  THBIE  FeIENDSHIPS,  TP  TO  THE 
TIME  WHEN  THE    SuiiTAN  TaMIN-AdDOTTLAT  WEESTED   THE 

Kingdom  eeom  his  Hands,  and  an  AocorNT  of  the 
"Waeiikb  Ineoads  upon  India  which  ensued. 

The  retreat  of  Khalaf- Ahmad  and  his  banish- 
ment from  his  home,  and  the  anxious  endeavours 
of  the  Amir  Sadid-Mansur-Ibn-Niih,  for  the 
defence  and  support,  and  preservation  of  his 
kingdom,  have  already  been  brought  out  to  mani- 
festation, up  to  those  days  when  the  affairs  of 
Khurasin  became  confused  and  shaken,  and  the 
whole  kingdom  was  disturbed.  But  he  remained 
sitting  in  perfect  quietude,  in  his  own  land,  and 


272  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

was  eminent  for  his  worldly  treasures.  And  the 
way  of  perverseness  obtained  the  mastery  over  his 
intellect,  and  brought  him  from  a  condition  of 
vigour  and  virtue  into  a  state  of  crime.  And 
when  the  King  of  India  entertained  designs 
against  the  dwellings  of  Islam,  and  Nasir-Addin 
rose  up  to  repulse  them,  in  the  manner  described 
in  the  contents  of  this  book,  then  since  Khalaf- 
'bn- Ahmad  found  Bost  empty,  he  sent  an  army  to 
that  place,  and  caused  the  public  prayers  to  be 
offered  and  the  coin  struck  in  his  name  therein, 
and  seized  upon  all  the  money  which  had  been 
collected  as  the  revenue  of  that  country.  But 
when  Nasir-Addin  returned  from  that  battle  with 
Mansiir,  and  drew  near  to  Bost,  the  chiefs  of  the 
city  deserted  Khalaf  and  departed.  And  Nasir- 
Addin  was  angry,  on  account  of  his  carelessness 
and  his  treachery,  and  entertained  an  intention  of 
proceeding  towards  Sistdn.  But  Khalaf  sent  a 
person  and  sought  to  win  him  by  soothing  excuses 
and  by  unacceptable  words,  and  said,  "  This  auda- 
city proceeded  from  the  most  sincere  duty,  and 
even  if  a  garrison  of  cavalry  did  enter  the  city  of 
Bost  from  me,  it  was  done  for  the  sake  of  guarding 
thy  territory  and  protecting  thy  subjects ;  and  if 
the  produce  of  the  taxes  were  taken  it  was  taken 
for  the  sake  of  thy  treasury.  But  if,  on  this 
account,  some  dust  has  settled  upon  the  border  of 
the   illustrious   mind,   I    shall   regard    myself  as 


MEMOIKS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  273 

obliged  to  offer  expiation  for  this  crime  and  to  pay 
a  tax  for  this  impertinence."  Nasir-Addin,  from  his 
extreme  generosity,  mild  goodness,  and  amiable 
disposition,  took  the  path  of  indifference  and  of 
holding  himself  above  taking  notice  of  such  things, 
and  replaced  the  sword  of  vengeance  in  its  sheath, 
and  returned  to  his  usual  state  of  contentment. 
But  he  asked  for  the  return  of  the  revenue-money 
of  Bost,  which  property  the  other  sent  back  with  a 
good- will.  Thus  the  state  of  affection  was  cleansed 
from  the  smears  of  hatred,  and  the  distinguished 
mind  was  settled,  until  those  days  when  Abu-Ali- 
Simjur  gave  battle  at  the  gate  of  Nishapilr,  in  the 
manner  which  has  been  declared.  And  Khalaf 
displayed  words  of  friendship,  offering  the  aid  of 
fiiends  and  the  conquest  of  enemies,  and  good  evi- 
dences of  a  desire  for  the  alliance  and  prosperity  of 
Nasir-Addin.  And  he  girded  up  his  loins  and 
devoted  himself  and  his  army,  and  his  property 
and  his  goods,  to  the  vindication  of  the  rights  of 
Nasir-Addin.  But,  however  he  might  outwardly 
assist  and  favour  the  success  of  Nasir-Addin,  his 
inward  object  was  Abii-All,  and  his  aim  was  to 
obtain  vengeance  for  the  mutual  injuries  which 
had  long  since  occurred  between  them.  And 
Khalaf  proceeded  in  the  service  and  in  the  aid  of 
the  flag  of  Nasir-Addin,  as  far  as  to  Bushanj. 
And  Nasir-Addin  left  him  at  that  place,  and  com- 
manded him  to  repose  himself  from  the  trouble  of 


274      MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

the  journey,  and  from  all  annoyance  of  mind. 
And  he  took  his  army  with  himself,  and  went  to 
Tiis,  to  fight  with  Abd-All)  until  he  defeated  him. 
And  his  mind  became  at  rest  from  that  affair,  and 
he  sent  back  the  army  of  Khalaf  with  honour  and 
caresses,  and  flattering  words.  And  thus  the  path 
of  their  affection  and  the  fountains  of  their 
friendship  remained  free  from  the  mutations  of 
time  and  the  pollution  of  accident,  from  the 
disputes  of  deceit  and  the  impurities  of  dissimula- 
tion, until  the  time  when  Nasir-Addin  proceeded 
towards  Mawaralnahr,  for  the  purpose  of  assisting 
the  Prince  Eidha-Niih-'bu-Mansiir,  and  in  order  to 
repulse  Ilek-Kh4n.  And,  under  his  direction, 
affairs,  by  the  benignity  of  peace  and  security, 
remained  free  from  open  rent  or  violence.  But 
Khalaf,  in  the  midst  of  this  state  of  things,  wrote 
kind  letters  to  Ilek-Kh4n,  and  began  to  deceive 
him  and  lead  him  astray,  and  to  stir  him  up  to 
attack  and  estrange  himself  from  Nasir-Addin. 
And  he  began  to  stretch  forth  the  neck  of  cove- 
tousness  for  the  territory  of  Bost  and  the  provinces 
annexed  thereto,  and  it  was  reported  that  an 
expression  publicly  fell  from  him,  that  he  repented 
of  his  enmity  to  Abii-All,  and,  that,  in  this  point, 
he  blamed  Nasir-Addin,  and  said,  "To  attack 
noble  princes  and  ancient  royal  families  (is  an  act) 
which  will  never  be  blest,  and  to  advance  upon  help- 
requiring  and  needy  kings  is  odious  and  culpable." 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  QHAZNA.  275 

At  these  reproaches,  Nasir-Addin  was  in  a 
rage  and  determined  to  seize  upon  the  territory  of 
Sistan.  But  Abul-Fath-Bosti  used  his  utmost 
endeavours,  by  means  of  various  acts  of  kindness 
and  indications  of  attachment,  to  put  a  stop  to  this 
ill-will  and  to  banish  this  suspicion.  And  he 
attributed  all  these  reports  to  the  malice  of  false 
speakers,  and  said,  "  Some  hearts  are  like  birds 
which  fly  in  the  air,  and  whom  we  cannot  suppose 
that  we  shall  capture,  except  by  the  use  of  craft ; 
but  when  they  fall  into  the  snare  and  our  object  is 
joined  to  attainment  then  there  is  a  further  neces- 
sity for  exertion,  to  preclude  the  opportunity  of 
their  escape  or  of  letting  them  fly  away,  and  that 
we  may  not  have  the  annoyance  of  losing  them. 
Such  is  the  case  with  the  hearts  of  friends,  who 
may  come  to  our  hand  by  skiU,  by  the  difiusion  of 
manceuvreings  and  by  the  employment  of  manage- 
ment, and  who  have  become  bound  to  us  by  bene- 
fits and  kindness.  For  one  heart-burn  they  are 
alienated  and  the  highways  of  affection  are 
darkened."  He  then  brought  forward,  in  proof  of 
his  assertion,  the  following  text  of  the  Koran,  "  O 
ye  who  believe  there  comes  to  you  some  false 
prophet,  then  ye  become  rebellious  and  place 
yourselves  in  the  way  of,  folly,  so  that  you  wake 
one  morning  full  of  repentance  for  that  which  you 
have  done."  He  then  mentioned  to  him  the  inter- 
pretation of  these  verses  and   further   confirmed 

T  2 


276  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

them,  by  the  evidence  of  various  histories  and 
tales,  so  that  be  began  to  recover  of  his  hatred, 
and  laid  aside  his  haste  for  meeting  and  exposing 
him.  And  Abul-Fath-Bosti  recorded  these  verses 
in  confirmation  of  these  counsels,  and  as  a  gloss 
upon  these  events  (Verse) 

"  If  thou  dost  wish  to  win  the  love  of  a  brother's  heart, 

"  And  to  gain  his  whole  devotion  and  affection, 

"  Then  cause  him  to  partake  of  the  good  wherewith  God 
hath  prospered  thee, 

"  And  to  enter  into  thy  blessings,  by  the  participation  of 
love. 

"  Dost  thou  not  see  the  bird  of  the  air  ?  how  ,she  loves  to 
pick  up  the  grain, 

"  In  order  to  divide  it,  bit  by  bit,  amongst  the  progeny  of 
her  cherished  nest ; 

"  Even  so  no  one  possessed  of  mind  and  sense  will  expect 
to  win  the  love  of  hearts  without  his  grains." 

And  Khalaf,  upon  this  point,  sent  letters  to 
His  Highness  Nasir-Addin,  filled  with  excuses  for 
these  transactions,  and  with  endeavours  to  smooth 
down  his  declarations.  And  the  Amir  Nasir- 
Addin  listened  to  these  apologies  with  a  favour- 
able ear,  and  turned  round  upon  him  the  head  of 
sincere  friendship  and  ancient  regard.  And  for  the 
rest  of  the  life  of  Nasir-Addin  all  the  offices  of 
affection  remained  settled  between  them,  and  all 
the  demonstrations  of  fidelity  and  devotion  were 
preserved  with  unshaken  truth.  But  after  the 
event  (death)  of  Nasir-Addin,  they  brought  to  the 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  277 

hearing  of  the  Sultdn  his  former  intention  (re- 
specting attacking  Sistin),  and  intimated  that,  in 
his  subsequent  conduct  to  Khalaf,  he  had  only  put 
on  the  guise  of  satisfaction,  and  that  he  could  be 
spoken  of  as  figured  in  these  verses  (Verse) 

"  Tell  those  who  remain  in  this  world  after  those  who  have 
passed  away,  that  in  the  next  world  there  is  prepared  .for  them 
that  \ihich  is  like  what  hath  already  been."* 

These  words  made  a  deep  impression  upon  the 
mind  of  the  Sultdn,  and  the  arrow  of  this  scan- 
dalous remark  fully  reached  the  middle  of  the 
target,  and  he  kept  these  words  within  his  heart, 
until  the  time  when  an  opportunity  of  alluding  to 
it  occurred.  And  when  the  kingdom  of  Khurasan 
became  settled  in  the  possession  of  the  Sultdn,  and 
meddlers  were  removed,  and  the  various  parts  of 
the  kingdom  were  freed  from  the  dust  of  uproar 
and  confusion  (Khalaf)  then,  during  the  sickness 
that  prevailed  in  the  kingdom,  and  at  the  time  of 
the  last  illness  that  befell  Nasir-Addin,  sent  his 
son  Tahir  to  Kohistan,  and  obtained  possession  of 
Kohistan  and  Bushanj.  Now  Bushanj  was  one  of 
the  annexations  of  Herd,t,  and  was  numbered  as 
one  of  the  estates  of  Bagrajak,  the  uncle  of  the 

*  That  is,  greater  success  and  happiness  in  this  world  will 
be  the  cause  of  greater  happiness  hereafter.  Mahmud, 
therefore,  desired  to  carry  out  his  father's  design,  that  the 
merit  of  suggesting  it  might  profit  him.  This  appears  to  be 
rather  a  Hindu  than  a  Muhammadan  notion. 


278  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

SuMn ;  and,  as  it  was  one  of  his  best  sources  of 
revenue,  Bagrajak  requested  assistance  from  the 
Suitan,  that  he  might  release  his  territory  from 
the  hand  of  violence,  and  return  a  reply  of  opposi- 
tion and  expulsion.  To  this  the  Sultdn  consented, 
and  Bagrajak  went  to  Bushanj,  and  Tahir  came 
out  to  oppose  him.  A  sharp  contest  ensued 
between  them,  but  the  end  of  the  affair  was  that 
Tahir  took  to  flight,  and  Bagrajak  proceeded  after 
him  and  killed  his  guards,  and  plundered  his  goods 
and  heavy  baggage.  But,  having  drank  several 
cups  of  wine,  the  fantasies  of  drunkenness  obtained 
the  mastery  over  him,  and  the  eyes  of  clear  vision 
and  of  self-command,  through  the  carelessness  of 
intoxication,  became  unable  to  fight  with  any  one, 
so  that  he  cast  himself  into  the  precipice  of  folly 
and  error.  And  Tahir  wheeled  round  his  horse 
and  cast  him  down  from  his  saddle,  at  one  blow, 
and  came  down  and  took  his  head.  Upon  this, 
both  armies  became  dispersed  and  put  to  flight ; 
but  Tahir  collected  his  own  troops  and  came  to 
Kohistan.  And  the  Sultan  was  extremely  dis- 
turbed upon  the  intelligence  of  this  event,  and  was 
grieved  at  the  affair  of  the  son  of  Khalaf,  and  at 
the  thought  of  his  being  hemmed  in  by  sorrow, 
and  darkly  walking  amidst  the  dangers  of  calamity, 
and  falling  headlong  into  the  deep  fissures  of  care, 
and  that  he  should  be  like  an  ant,  whose  wing  is  the 
cause    of  its  injury,   or   like  the    serpent,   which, 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.      279 

although  the  wrestler  of  death,  struts  as  a  poet  in 
the  streets  {i.  e.,  dances  to  music). ''^  And  he  wrote 
these  paraboUc  verses  (Verse) 

"  Have  the  Persians  ever  recorded,  in  their  histories,  any- 
thing like  this  ? 

"  Have  the  Arabians,  in  their  times,  ever  beheld  any  thing 
like  this  P 

"  They  said,  '  Behold  the  camel,  vphen  his  end  draws  nigh, 

" '  Walks  round  and  round  the  well,  until  the  rope  is 
destroyed.'  " 

And,  in  the  new  moon  of  the  year  390,  he 
came  to  Sistfi.n,  in  order  to  take  vengeance,  for  this 
occurrence.  But  Khalaf  took  refuge  in  the  citadel 
of  the  fortress  of  Asphabad,  a  fortress  which  was 
the  companion  of  the  sign  Arcturus  and  a  comrade 
of  the  skies ;  the  clouds  pitched  their  tents  upon 
the  lap  of  its  basement,  and  the  stars  revolved 
around  the  edge  of  its  summit ;  the  new  moon  was 
like  the  gilded  ball  (or  finial)  upon  the  top,  and 
the  planet  Saturn  was  like  the  star-shaped  orna- 
ment inserted  into  the  threshold  of  this  castle 
(Verse) 

''  Such  was  its  height  that,  from  its  loftiness,  you  would  not 
be  able  to  distinguish  between  a  fire-eyed  rocketf  and  the  body 
of  the  planet  Satiu-n." 

*  i.  e.  Sports  with  ruin. 

"t"  i^b  »Jjl>  (jiuT.  Perhaps  the  use  of  this  word  may 
have  encouraged  the  idea  that  artillery  was  known  in  Mah- 
mud's  age. 


280      MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

And  Khalaf  remained  hemmed  in  -witliin  this 
citadel,  without  comfort,  and  bade  adieu  to  the 
delights  of  life  and  to  sleep  of  the  eyes,  and, 
through  the  darkness  of  these  circumstances  and 
the  horror  of  these  events,  lost  all  tranquillity  and 
saw  no  means  of  arranging  the  affair,  except  by 
lamentation,  and  the  resignation  of  his  kingdom, 
and  humiliation.  He  therefore  offered  to  the 
Sultin,  by  way  of  a  preliminary  offering,  six 
thousand  dinars  of  red  gold,  and,  in  addition,  any 
suitable  pledge,  and,  at  the  same  time,  entreated 
an  accommodation.  The  Sultan,  although  he  was 
determined  to  obtain  full  possession  of  Sistan,  yet, 
for  the  present,  in  order  to  secure  a  better  time  for 
the  design  of  conquest  which  he  entertained, 
resolved  to  accommodate  that  affair,  and  accepted 
that  redemption  money  from  Khalaf,  and  loosened 
the  reins,  and  turned  his  face  towards  the  countries 
of  India,  and  set  forward  unto  the  territory  over 
against  Parshawar,*  in  the  midst  of  the  land  of 
Hindustan.  And  intelligence  reached  him  that 
Jaibal  had  collected  and  equipped  an  army,  and 
had  set  forward  to  meet  the  standards  of  Isldm. 
Upon  this,  the  SuMn  marched  forward,  for  the 
protection  and  support  of  Islam  and  religion,  with 
fifteen  thousand  chosen  cavalry,  and  proceeded 
onwards  with  firm  intention  and  sincere  confidence. 

*  Parshawar  or  Parashawar,  i.  e.,  Peshawir. 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  281 

But  this  vile  infidel  advanced  in  opposition  to  tlie 
standards  of  the  SuMn  with,  eight  thousand  cavalry 
and  thirty  thousand  infantry,  and  three  hundred 
elephants.  The  earth  groaned  under  the  pain  of 
their  boots.  And  he  was  bewitched  by  the  multi- 
tude of  his  troops  and  the  strength  of  his  army  and 
forces,  so  as  to  forget  the  victorious  power  and 
strength  of  God  (may  His  majesty  be  glorified), 
and  the  wondrous  influence  of  that  verse  of  the 
Koran,  "  As  for  you  with  a  small  troop  you  have 
vanquished  a  large  troop  by  the  word  of  God." 
And  when  the  distance  between  the  two  armies 
was  but  small,  the  infidel  began  to  delay  the  com- 
mencement of  the  battle  and  the  onset,  in  order 
that  the  rear  of  the  troops,  and  those  men  of  the 
army  who  were  coming  up  behind  the  others  should 
arrive.  The  Sultan  perceived  this  stratagem,  and 
hasted  forward,  and  wrested  the  power  of  choice 
from  his  hand.  Upon  this,  the  ranks  arranged 
themselves,  and  prepared  to  march  forward,  and 
begin  the  fight.  Throughout  the  atmosphere  a 
veil  of  pitch  proceeding  from  the  hands  of  the 
balancing  warriors  was  drawn  overhead,  and  the 
wishes  of  the  male  spears  of  Islim,  in  demanding 
in  marriage  as  wives  the  lives  of  all  on  that  field, 
received  a  perfect  accomplishment,  and  their  earnest 
intentions  in  thrusting  through  the  breasts,  and  in 
pressing  forward  the  front  ranks  of  those  accursed 
wretches  attained  reality.     Thus  at  the  time  of 


282      MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

mid-day  nearly  five  thousand  carcases  of  the  infi- 
dels cut  in  half  by  the  sword  lay  upon  the  field  of 
battle,  as  food  for  dogs,  and  as  a  gift  for  wolves, 
and  fifty  elephants  were  cut  down  by  the  stroke  of 
arrows  and  of  swords.  Moreover,  they  seized 
Jaibal,  with  all  his  family  and  children  and  kindred, 
and  a  considerable  number  of  his  intimate  officers, 
in  the  snaring  rope  of  violence,  and  brought  them 
as  prisoners  before  the  Sultin.      (Verse) 

"  The  fire  of  the  dread  of  the  king  produced  smoke  in  the 
land  of  India,  and  from  that  smoke  their  cheeks  became  as 
black  as  pitch." 

And  SO  many  necklaces  were  taken  from  the 
necks  of  the  children,  set  with  precious  stones, 
glittering  pearls,  and  valuable  rubies,  that  the 
appraisers  valued  them  at  two  hundred  thousand 
dinars  of  red  gold.  In  like  manner,  similar  pre- 
cious stones  were  found  on  the  necks  of  the 
wounded  and  the  slain,  so  that  the  army  of  Isldm 
obtained  abundant  wealth  and  unlimited  riches 
from  their  booty,  and  from  their  spoil,  and  near  a 
hundred  thousand  children  and  young  people  and 
girls  were  obtained  from  that  country,  and  aU  those 
provinces  of  India  submitted  to  the  SuMn  which 
are  on  the  side  of  Khurasan,  inclining  towards  the 
kingdoms  of  the  west.  This  victory  took  place  on 
Thursday,  the  eighth  of  the  month  Muharram,  in 
the  year  392,  and  the  news  of  it  proceeded  through 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.      283 

the  most  distant  horizons.  And  after  the  cessation 
of  the  blaze  of  war  and  the  extinguishing  of  the 
coals  of  engagement,  the  Sultdn  was  of  opinion  that 
he  might  dismiss  the  cursed  one,  with  the  brand  of 
disgrace  and  the  robe  of  loss  and  captivity,  into  the 
provinces  and  huts  of  his  country.  And  he  made 
friendship  with  him,  and  took  fifty  head  of  elephants 
from  him,  and  took  his  son  as  a  hostage  for  the  con- 
firmation of  his  promise,  and  dismissed  him  to  his 
own  country.  And  when  he  arrived  at  the  midst 
of  his  own  territory  a  letter  came  to  his  son,  stating 
that  his  father  had  become  afilicted  with  the  disease 
of  regret,  and  that  he  had  clothed  himself  with  the 
robe  of  calamity,  and  that  his  fortune  had  become 
polluted  with  the  spot  of  inferiority  and  the  distor- 
tion of  shame,  and  that  he  would  drink  the  cup  of 
death,  and  be  boiled  in  the  hot  water  of  hell.  Now 
in  mid-India  it  had  been  a  long  time  established  as 
a  rule  that  if  any  king  fell  as  a  prisoner  into  the 
hands  of  the  Muslims  he  should  no  longer  hold  his 
kingdom,  and  that  no  more  allegiance  or  duty 
should  efiectually  appertain  to  him.  Jaibal  for  this 
reason  drew  away  his  skirt  from  the  power  of  hold- 
ing the  kingdom,  and  shaved  his  head,  and  threw 
himself  into  the  fire,  and  went  unto  the  lowest  of  the 
pits  of  hell.  And  the  SuMn  for  the  second  time 
renewed  the  enjoyment  of  the  racy  wine  of  con- 
quest and  the  gladness  of  sacred  warfare,  and 
desired  to  add  a  fellow  to  that  victory,  and  a  pledge 


284  MEMOIRS  OF  MAIIMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

to  that  golden  deed.  He  therefore  commanded  the 
army  to  fly  forth  into  the  provinces  of  Hindustan, 
and  took  possession  of  those  territories.  And  with 
regard  to  all  the  soldiers  of  India  in  the  hills  and 
the  castles  of  those  frontiers  who  stirred  up  vio- 
lence, and  wickedness,  and  perverseness,  he  made 
them  all  the  food  of  swords  and  the  subjects  of 
justice ;  and  lie  claimed  the  imputation  of  merit  for 
having  entirely  purified  those  places  from  their 
filthy  ungodliness,  and  thus  with  glorious  victories, 
and  illustrious  conduct,  and  solid  power,  and  dis- 
tinguisted  conquest,  he  arrived  at  his  capital, 
making  the  rosy  cheek  of  Islam  brilliant  with  the 
rosy  blush  of  victory,  and  he  broke  the  back  of 
these  innovators*  and  idolaters  with  the  sword  of 
vengeance. 

In  the  midst  of  all  these  transactions,  Khalaf- 
'bn-Ahmad  appointed  his  son  Tahir  to  be  his  heir, 
and  entrusted  unto  him  the  keys  of  his  treasuries, 
and  gave  him  up  the  keys  of  his  provinces,  and 
became  a  hermit,  and  betook  himself  to  the  service 
of  God,  and  requested  to  be  allowed  the  ragged 
habit,  and  asked  to  be  released  from  the  kingly 
ofiice  ;  for  he  saw  that  this  was  the  only  contriv- 
ance whereby  the  cup  of  the  calamity-encircling 
(anger)  of  the  Sultan  might  be  driven  far  away 
from  him.      But,  when  these  events  were  passed, 

*  The  Musalmdns  declare  that  idolatry  is  an  innovation 
upon  original  Monotheism. 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  285 

he  began  to  repent  of  what  he  had  done,  and  felt 
remorse  and  shame  for  having  left  royalty  and 
declined  the  throne,  and  felt  unable  to  endure  or 
to  support  the  public  declaration  and  revelation  of 
his  error  which  had  taken  place,  and  of  the  event 
which  had  occurred.  He,  therefore,  contrived 
another  trick,  and  feigned  himself  sick,  and  called 
his  son  before  him,  in  order  to  renew  his  will,  and 
in  order  to  communicate  some  explanations, 
together  with  his  last  farewell.  And  he  placed 
some  of  his  chief  officers  in  ambush,  until  the  time 
of  his  arrival ;  and  they  came  like  a  dream  to  the 
edge  of  the  mountain-path,  and  bound  him  fast, 
and  cast  him  into  a  dungeon.  And  one  day  they 
took  him  dead  out  of  that  prison,  and  said  that  he 
had  kiUed  himself  But  Tahir-'bn-Zainab,  and  the 
other  chiefs  and  generals  who  beheld  that  event, 
began  to  be  extremely  averse  in  their  minds  from 
Khalaf,  and  in  their  inmost  hearts  inchned  to 
hatred  to  him  and  his  family,  and  bound  around 
their  foreheads  the  garland  of  rebellion  against 
him,  and  seized  upon  the  city  which  was  the  seat 
of  his  government,  and  caused  the  public  prayers 
to  be  celebrated,  and  the  coin  to  be  struck  deco- 
rated with  the  titles  of  the  Sultan,*  and  published 
a  document,  recognising  his  claim.   And  they  sent 

*  The  history  of  Khalaf  has  been  extracted  from  Mirkhond 
and  published;  Mirkhond  quotes  Utbi  and  his  Persian  Trans- 
lator. 


286      MEMOIRS  OF  MAHM0D  OP  GHAZNA. 

a  declaration  of  all  these  events  to  the  Sultan,  and 
implored  him  to  afford  them  the  opportunity  of 
entering  into  his  permanent  service.  And  the 
SuMn  received  their  entreaty  with  favour,  and  he 
called  them  all  to  his  presence,  and  addressed  kind 
words  to  them.  And,  in  the  year  393,  all  these 
provinces  became  enrolled  in  the  royal  registry  and 
taxation-books  of  the  SuMn.*  And  he  enter- 
tained a  design  of  proceeding  in  the  direction  of 
Sistan,  in  order  to  cut  off  the  primary  source  of 
these  disputes. 

(And  he  especially  addressed  himself  to  the 
destruction)  of  certain  lofty  fortresses,  each  so  high 
that  from  its  summit  the  sign  of  the  virgin  could 
be  seen,  and  the  angelic  hymns  could  be  heard, 
and  surrounding  each  a  moat  or  ditch  of  immense 
depth  was  dug,  that  if  the  crane  were  to  penetrate 
to  its  bottom  he  could  reach  to  the  fountain-reser- 
voir of  the  waters  that  supply  the  whole  globe  of 
the  earth.  And  the  army  of  the  Sult4n  surrounded 
this  fortress,  as  exactly  as  a  circumference  encircles 
the  centre,  and,  by  the  assistance  of  their  own 
hands,  they  heaped  together  abundance  of  thou- 
sands of  hardsfuU  of  dirt,  and  branches  and  arms 
of  the  trees  which  were  around  that  place,  and 
filled  up  the  depth  of  that  ditch,  and  enlarged  it  so 

*  Thus  Sistan,  as  well  as  BukharS,  fell  to  the  iSultdn,  but 
he  addressed  himself  to  complete  his  conquests  by  the  capture 
of  the  forts. 


MEMOIRS  OP  MAHMUD  OE- GHAZNA.      287 

as  to  be  a  pleasant  circus*  for  cavalry  and  infantry ; 
and  the  horses  and  the  elephants  of  the  Sultdn 
earnestly  exerted  themselves  for  the  destruction  of 
that  castle,  and  in  making  a  breach  in  that  wall, 
and  each  one  of  them  put  on  the  girdle  of  unpar- 
alleled zeal  in  his  endeavours  to  seize  that  fortress. 
But  the  followers  of  Khalaf  exerted  themselves  to 
repulse  them,  and  all  the  excess  of  iniquity  blazed 
forth ;  but  the  greater  number  of  the  elephants 
joining  together  dragged  away  the  gate  of  the 
citadel  by  mere  force,  and  cast  it  up  into  the  air,  and 
a  considerable  number  of  the  officers  of  Khalaf 
were  slain,  but  the  rest  fled  into  the  interior  (keep), 
and  stood  up  to  repel  the  attack.  And  Khalaf 
came  from  the  place  where  he  was  to  contemplate 
the  event,  and  to  witness  the  affair.  And  he  saw 
the  ruin  of  the  place,  and  the  obstinate  defence  of 
the  forts,  perceiving  that  the  whole  surface  of  the 
earth  was  like  a  stormy  sea  of  waves  of  human 
demons,  and  embodied  devils.  And  he  saw  that 
every  one  of  the  elephants  took  with  his  trunk 
before  his  eyes  an  individual  by  his  decorated  back 
and  threw  them  up  into  the  air  the  height  of  two 
spears,  and  when  they  descended  they  divided 
them  whilst  in  the  air  into  two  parts,  and  crushed 
them  beneath  their  feet ;  and  they  made  a  fulcrum 
with  their  shoulder,  and  struck  against  the  fortress, 

*  i.  e.  open  clear  battle-field  or  area. 


288  MEMOIRS  OF  M\HMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

and  took  it  from  its  basis.  And  when  Khalaf  saw 
all  this  transaction,  his  soul  nearly  went  out  of  his 
body,  from  his  extreme  fear  and  terror,  and  he 
cried  out  for  help  and  asked  for  quarter.  And  the 
Sultdn,  through  the  generosity  that  was  innate  in 
his  pure  disposition,  gave  him  quarter,  and  placed 
the  sword  of  vengeance  in  the  sheath.  And 
Khalaf  stretched  forth  his  hand  full  of  jewels  and 
ornaments  and  gifts,  and  cast  himself  before  the 
Sultdn,  and  rubbed  his  white  hairs  in  the  dust,  and 
filled  the  carpet  of  the  presence  chamber  with  the 
offerings  of  jewels,  and  scattered  around  so  many 
pearls  that  the  light  veiled  the  brilliancy  of  the 
sun,  and  made  the  eyes  dim-sighted.  And  more- 
over, in  praising  the  good  actions  of  the  Sultan, 
and  in  expatiating  upon  his  renewed  mercy  and 
returning  favour,  Khalaf  unfolded  the  book  of  self- 
blame  and  the  exhibition  of  his  Majesty's  pardon 
and  forgiveness  to  the  utmost  degree.  And  the 
Sultd,n,  in  the  generosity  of  his  dignity  and  in  the 
exaltation  of  his  rank,  displayed  the  marks  of  his 
merciful  breath,  and  restored  Khalaf  to  his  honours, 
and  drew  the  pen  of  forgetfiilness  over  the  surface 
of  past  evil  deeds,  and.  he  relinquished  to  him  all 
the  claim  to  the  treasures  in  the  citadel.  And  he 
resigned  to  him  the  chief  part  of  the  property  and 
provisions  of  that  place,  in  order  that  he  might 
carry  out  whatsoever  he  wished,  according  to  his 
free  choice,  and  might  make  himself  happy  in  his 


MEMOIRS  OP  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  289 

residence,  and  in  his  abode,  and  (consented)  that 
his  home  might  be  in  any  of  the  provinces  of  the 
Sultan  that  he  might  wish,  and  they  left  it  to  the 
convenience  of  his  choice,  and  to  the  computation 
of  his  preference,  and  to  the  calculation  of  his  for- 
tune. And  he  chose  the  territory  of  Jurjan,*  on 
account  of  the  convenience  of  che  air  and  the  water 
of  that  country.  And  the  Sultdn  sent  him  to  that 
place  with  the  utmost  respect,  and  he  reposed  for 
a  space  of  four  years  under  the  shadow  of  that 
peacefully-quiet  region.  And  after  that  time  the 
flattering  advance  which  he  had  written  unto  Ilek 
became  known,  and  the  Sultan,'  in  order  to  pre- 
serve the  peace  of  the  State,  sent  hira  unto  the 
fortress  of  Jurdin,  and  there  he  remained  until  his 
appointed  time  according  to  the  Almighty's  will 
arrived,  and  the  volume  of  his  life  received  its  last 
seal  in  the  month  of  Eajib,  in  the  year  399,  And 
the  Sultdn  gave  a  royal  order  that  all  the  property 
which  he  had  left  behind  him  should  be  given  up 
unto  his  son  Amir  Abu-Hass.  And  Abu-Mansur- 
Thaalabi  in  his  poem,  descriptive  of  all  these  aft'airs 
of  the  diminishing  of  the  dignity  and  the  diminu- 
tion of  the  kingdom  of  Khalaf,  says  thus  (Verse) 

"  (There  are  some  whose  obstinacy  age  will  not  wear  down ; 
there  are  some  whose  prosperity  the  hand  of  time  will  not 

*  Eather  Juzjan,  both  here  and  elsewhere,  on  the  authority 
of  M.  de  Sacy,  who  declares  that  Jurjfo  is  a  great  error  in  the 
MSS.     Juzjan  is  on  the  road  between  Herat  and  Balkh. 

U 


290  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA, 

render  gentle  and  meek).  Dost  thou  behold  Khalaf,  Senator 
of  Kings  in  might  ?— now  a  slave  unto  him  who  hath  con- 
quered the  impregnable  fortresses  of  his  country.  Yesterday 
he  was  a  king  unequalled,  to-day  a  prisoner,  whose  captivity 
shall  never  be  removed." 


The  Amir  Khalaf  was  one  of  the  greatest  kings 
of  the  world,  celebrated  for  a  generous,  noble,  and 
liberal  brilliancy  of  glory ;  his  gifts  rendered  his 
Court  useful  and  profitable  to  the  wise  and  inge- 
nious, and  the  worthies  and  poets  of  the  world 
opened  out  the  tongue  in  praising  and  commending 
him,  and  the  renown  of  his  merits  dwelt  on  the 
tongue  of  the  high  and  low.  He  assembled  the 
learned  of  his  time,  in  order  that  they  might  make 
a  complete  collection  of  interpretations  of  the 
glorious  Kordn,  compiled  from  the  words  of  inter- 
preters, and  the  expositions  of  ancient  and  modem 
commentators,  with  the  explanation  of  the  reasons 
of  readings,  the  cause  of  grammatical  constructions, 
and  the  derivations  of  words.  It  was  laden  with 
witnessing  examples  and  verses,  and  interwoven 
with  the  citation  of  tales  and  stories,  and  it  was 
reported  from  confidential  quarters  of  the  Court, 
that  he  had  sunk  twenty  thousand  dinars  of  red 
gold  in  providing  for  the  compilation  and  composi- 
tion of  this  book.  A  volume  of  this  interpretation 
was  treasured  up  at  the  Sabiini  College  at  Nisha- 
p\ir,  until  the  occurrence  of  the  conquest  took 
place.    At  present  this  perfect  and  complete  volume 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMI7D  OF  GHAZNA.  291 

is  at  Ispahan,  among  the  books  of  the  family  of 
Khajand  CHeaven  help  true  Moslems  by  their  sur- 
vivors, and  have  mercy  upon  their  fathers  who 
have  passed  away).  This  poor  author  (*'.  e.  Utbi\ 
at  the  time  when  he  had  been  expelled  his  native 
place,  and  was  for  some  time  settled  at  Ispahan, 
became  familiarly  acquainted  with  this  gainful 
garden,  and  borrowed  light  from  the  beams  of  its 
subtleties  and  mysteries.  This  is  a  book  of  one 
hundred  volumes,  written  in  different  hands,  so 
that  a  lifetime  would  be  absorbed  in  the  endeavour 
to  copy  it,  nor  could  such  a  result  be  possible  ex- 
cept in  long  years,  nor  could  it  be  successfully 
carried  out  but  by  the  assistance  of  copiers  and 
writers  in  divers  characters.  Utbi  thus  avers, 
the  Shaikh  Abiil-Fath-Busti  told  me,  once  it 
happened  that  there  fell  into  my  mind  three  v6rses 
in  his  praise,  which  I  had  no  intention  should 
reach  his  Highness.  They  fell  into  men's  mouths, 
and  reached  him  by  the  tongue  of  quotation.  One 
day,  a  confidential  officer  came  to  me  from  him, 
and  brought  me  a  present  of  three  hundred  dinars 
of  red  gold,  as  a  reward  for  these  verses,  and  he 
requested  me  to  excuse  him  for  the  amount ;  the 
verses  were  as  follows  (Poem) 

"  Khalaf-'bn- Ahmad  will  be  praisewoi'fchy  beyond  his  suo- 
cesBora,  but  he  abounded  in  defects  beyond  his  predecessors ; 
Klhalaf^'bn-Ahmad  in  truth  is  one,  but  he  is  the  guardian  of 
thousands.      He  clearly  showed  to  the  family  of  Al-Lays  the 

U2 


292  MEMOIRS  OP  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

way  of  kindling  the  sparks,  as  the  prophet  to  the  family  of  Abd- 
Munaf." 

I  replied,  this  story  is  similar  to  that  which 
occurred  with  regard  to  Ibrahiin-Sdbi  to  whom, 
at  Bagdad,  a  messenger  came  on  the  part  of  Saif- 
Addoulat-Hamadiini,  requesting  a  poem  from  him, 
expressing  verbally  the  sincere  desire  of  Saif-Ad- 
doulat  (for  this  poem).  Sibi  delayed  preparing  it, 
until  the  time  for  the  departure  of  the  messenger 
drew  near,  when  the  latter  came  to  S^bi,  and  as  a 
matter  of  great  need,  urged  him  to  comply  with  his 
request,  and  to  accomplish  the  object  sought.  Sabi 
speedily  improvised  these  three  verses  (Verse) 

.  "  If  for  awhile  I  appeared  faithless  in  my  attachment  to 
him, 

"  And  appeared  to  vituperate  the  renown  of  Saif-Addoulat, 

"  I  was  seeking  some  one  who  might  be  supposed  a  partner 
in  his  greatness,  and  I  was  ignoring  the  truth  of  his  absolute 
singularity  in  merit. 

"  I  swear  an  oath  that,  looking  into  the  depth  of  the 
matter, 

"  That  to  him  who  is  so  great  in  what  is  due  (i.  e.,  devotion 
or  dehf) 

"  One  would  not  wish  to  add  any  increase." 

The  next  time  that  the  messenger  came  to 
Bagdad  he  presented  him  with  three  hundred 
dinars  of  red  gold  as  a  reward.  The  Shaikh  Abiil- 
Fath-Busti  composed  this  Kasidah  in  his  praise 
(Verse) 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  QHAZNA.  293 

"  He  who  would  seek  greatness,  glory,  and  renown, 

"  He  who  hopes  that  fortune  may  incline  to  him,  and  give 

him  eminence  above  all, 

"  Or  he  who  hopes  to  obtain  rank  from  Q-od, 

"And  that  there  may  be  bountifully   granted   unto  him 

familiarity  with  the  illustrious  and  high, 

"  Or  he  who  seeks  to  be  confirmed  in  religion,"  &c.,  &c. 

Utbi  says — "  I  have  heard  from  Abii-Jafar  that 
the  following  was  written  upon  the  door  of  his 
palace  :  '  Let  him  who  has  been  gladdened  by  the 
sight  of  Paradise  but  look  at  these  porticoes.' 
'  If  he  has  been  delighted  by  the  Heaven  of  works, 
let  him  by  the  aid  of  his  eyes  only  look  at  this 
building.'" 

And  when  the  Sultin  had  obtained  firm  posses- 
sion of  Sajastdn,  when  the  stars  of  confusion  had 
set,  and  the  state  of  that  country  was  peaceful  and 
secure,  and  the  longings  of  the  children  and  kindred 
of  variance  was  cut  short,  the  Sultan  came  to 
Ghazna,  the  fame  of  this  important  victory  spread 
through  the  lands,  all  allowing  that  at  no  time,  and 
for  no  king,  had  such  fortunate  events  occurred 
with  regard  to  captured  fortresses  and  portioned 
kingdoms.  And  Abd-Mansiir-Thaalabi  thus  speaks 
of  the  conquest  of  Sist^n  (Verse) 

"  Fortune  hath  blessed  thy  face  witli  the  white  mark  (of 
victory) 

"  And  the  people  have  been  decorated  by  thy  safety. 

"The  thoughts  converse  with  thee  amongst  their  high 
reflections. 


294  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

"  Wherewith  the  intelligent  and  the  thinking  are  assisted," 
&c.,  &c. 

And  the  SuMn  appoiated  to  the  Yizirat  of 
Sajasthdn,  Kanajl,  the  Chamberlain,  who  had  been 
one  of  his  privy  counsellors  and  royal  deputies. 
He,  in  guiding  the  subjects  and  ruling  the  country, 
displayed  vestiges  of  justice  and  equity,  and  exhi- 
bited good  morals  and  pleasing  manners.  Then  a 
company  of  vile  wretches  and  odious  scoundrels, 
through  their  agreeable  condition,  and  wide  field 
(of  comfort),  and  the  insolence  of  ease,  and  their 
devilish  rebelliousness,  rubbed  themselves  upon  the 
wall  of  misfortune,  and  became  receivers  of  trouble 
and  misery,  and  in  their  ill-will,  and  iniquity  and 
opposition^  drew  the  sword  from  the  sheath,  and 
openly  declared  themselves  rebels  to  the  Sultdn. 
And  when  the  Sultin  knew  that  the  course  of  the 
government  of  his  Nuwwib  was  traitorously  inter- 
rupted by  the  ugly  wickedness  of  those  lost  ones, 
he  came  to  Sistdn  with  ten  thousand  men.  And 
the  Amir  Nasr-'bn-Nasir-Addin,  and  Altontash- 
Hdjib,  and  Abii-Abdullah-Tdl,  an  Arabian  chief, 
assembled  beneath  the  shadow  of  his  standard,  and 
he  besieged  those  men  in  the  citadel  of  Ark.  And 
when  he  had  brought  the  strength  of  his  army  to 
surround  them,  and  had  consigned  the  sides  of  the 
fort  and  the  troops  of  their  chief  to  the  singular 
Amirs  and  special  heroes  of  his  army,  upon  Friday, 
at  mid-day,  in  the  month  Dhdl-Hajjah,  and  in  the 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  2^5 

year  390,  the  battle  began.  And  the  generals  for 
a  time  returned  the  onset,  but  when  they  beheld 
the  eminent  strength  and  incomparable  fury  of  the 
Sultan's  army  they  were  frightened,  and  fled  within 
the  walls  of  the  fort,  and  when  the  Dhiil-Karanin 
(the  Alexander)  of  the  sun  descended  into  the 
darkness  of  night,  and  black  streaks  began  to 
appear  upon  the  white  cheek  of  day,  all  of  them 
submitted  to  the  Sultan's  will,  and  his  soldiers 
shouted  at  the  watchword  of  his  royalty,  and  the 
enemy  leaving  the  way  free,  they  fell  upon  the 
castle,  and  scattered  heads  down  from  the  fort  like 
the  leaves  of  autumn.  "Then  they  were  like 
demons  after  the  morning  draught."  "  And  they 
wore  the  amulets  from  the  carcases  of  the  slain." 
And  the  rest  cast  their  swords  into  the  wells  and 
fountains  of  the  land.  And  this  country  was  de- 
livered from  their  foulness  and  iniquity,  and  these 
tribes  of  malignity  fled  from  the  streets  and  pools 
of  the  kingdom,  and  these  coasts  were  emptied 
from  the  power  of  these  scorpions,  and  the  noxious-- 
ness  of  these  locusts.  A  certain  ingenious  person 
says,  in  narrating  this  victory,  "  Oh !  thou  art  a 
king  who  strikest  out  a  high  flame  from  thy  tinder. 
Thy  mouth  never  ceased  its  vigour  (in  encourage- 
ment) until  thou  didst  win  the  pass." 

And  the  Sultdn  gave  the  country  of  Sist4n  unto 
his  brother  Nasr-'bn-Nasir-Addin,  and  annexed  it 
to  the  territory  of  Nishapiir,  and  the  crown  of 


296  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

Khurasdn.  And  the  Amir  Nasr  appointed  as  his 
deputy  in  that  administration  his  Vizier  Nasr-'bn- 
Ishak,  who  distinguished  himself  in  the  govern- 
ment of  this  country,  and  the  regulation  of  those 
deserts,  by  vestiges  of  peace,  by  the  lights  of  pro- 
tection, the  niceties  of  administration,  and  the 
Regulations  of  security.  But  the  SuMn  returned 
to  his  capital  at  Balkh,  with  the  intention  of  a  war 
which,  if  God  will  and  ordain,  shall  appear  in  its 
place. 


Account  oe  SHAMS-AL-MtrALl-KABus-'BN-WASHAMefB  and 

HIS   EETUEN  TO  THE  ThkONB,  AFTEB  A  LONG  AbsEKCE  AND 
SETEEE  EkDUEANOE. 

Shams-al-Mu41i-Kabiis  remained  eight  years  at 
Khurasin,  and  displayed  patient  attention  to  the 
transaction  of  affairs,  and  thus  passed  his  days  and 
the  events  of  his  life.  He  was  not  deficient  in 
manliness  or  highmindedness,  and  lost  nothing  of 
the  splendour  of  his  station,  or  the  perfume  of  his 
position.  There  was  none  of  the  great  lords  of 
Khurasdn,  or  notables  of  the  State,  who  was  not 
courted  by  his  gratifications  and  recipients  of  his 
favours,  and  no  one  saluted  him  on  the  road  who 
was  not  rendered  happy  with  some  gifts,  liberalities 
and  portions,  and  there  was  not  one  either  of  the 
nobles  or  of  the  people,  who  did  not  clothe  himself 
in  a  dress  of  glory  or  honour  from  him,  or  who  had 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMTJD  OF  GHAZNA.  297 

not  drank  of  the  cup  of  his  gifts  in  places  and 
dignities.  And  the  Princes  of  the  house  of  Sd,mdn 
endeavoured  to  raise  him  to  their  own  desirable 
state  and  grandeur,  and  that  they  might  make  his 
happiness  and  eminence  lasting,  and  that  by  pro- 
moting his  power  and  aflfairs,  he  might  wrest  the 
sceptre  of  precedence  from  the  Kings  of  the  earth 
and  Sultdns  of  the  world.  But  by  reason  of  the 
heaven-descending  calamities,  the  eventual  trials, 
and  hindrances  of  the  times,  and  the  contingencies 
of  fortune,  the  arrow  of  their  intention  never  at- 
tained the  desired  object.  He  stood  indeed  like  a 
mountain  against  the  force  of  the  hurricanes,  and 
the  beating  of  the  moving  waters.  And  he  knew 
by  experience,  that  the  disquiet  of  the  pain  of 
suffering  is  an  overflowing  disquiet,  and  from  th6 
wrestlings  of  the  world's  events  nothing  but  distress 
and  anguish  are  produced.  And  these  distiches 
are  the  result  of  his  thoughts,  and  the  effect  of  his 
reflections  (Verse) 


"Say  unto  those  who,  as  well  as  we,  are  enduring  the 
changes  of  fortune, 

"  Did  fortune  ever  act  adversely  to  the  worthy  ? 

"  Dost  thou  behold  the  sea,  how  its  waves  boil  up  on  the 
surfaces,  but  in  its  deepest  abysses  the  pearls  remain  un- 
moved ? 

"  It  may  be  that  the  hand  of  time  may  become  young,  and 
may  smoothe  with  pleasant  things  the  kisses  of  adversity. 

"  In  the  sky  are  stars  unnumbered, 

"  But  none  are  eclipsed  except  the  sun  and  the  moon." 


298  MEMOIUS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

And  when  the  Amir  Nasir-Addin  arrived  at 
Khurasan,  and  had  sent  out  Abii-Ali  from  thence, 
he  displayed  gladness  at  a  meeting  with  Kabiis, 
and  wished  to  establish  and  preserve  his  rule  by 
his  aid  and  assistance.  A  journey  to  Balkh  inter- 
cepted his  intentions,  and  the  occupations  of  his 
time  hindered  him,  until  the  afiair  of  Abu- AH 
arrived  at  cessation,  and  by  reason  of  Abiil-Kasim- 
Simjiir,  an  opportunity  for  returning  to  Khurasdn 
again  fell  out ;  there  was  a  fresh  treaty  of  aid,  and 
they  displayed  great  kindnesses  on  each  other's 
behalf.  And  Fakr-Addoulat-AH-'bn-Boyah,  who 
was  the  possessor  of  Jurj^n,  had  a  powerful  army, 
and  came  with  a  great  army  of  Kurds  to  support 
Badr-'bn-HusnavI,  and  Nasir-Addin  wished,  in 
order  to  meet  them,  to  bring  an  army  of  Turks. 
And  for  the  purpose  of  assisting  and  supporting 
them  in  the  promotion  of  this  affair,  in  a  stronger 
manner,  he  sent  the  Grand  Chamberlain,  Alton- 
bfi.sh,  to  Ilek-Khan,  and  asked  an  auxiliary  force 
of  two  thousand  horse,  so  that  he  might  send  them 
to  Jurjin,  with  Shams-al-Mu411,  and  himself  depart 
to  his  capital  of  Balkh.  And  he  remained  looking 
for  and  expecting  the  arrival  of  these  auxiliaries. 
But  the  Divine  decree  coincided  not  with  his  pro- 
posal, and  Nasir-Addin,  before  the  return  of  his 
messenger,  changed  his  abode  for  Paradise.  And 
between  the  SultS,n  and  Shams-al-MuS,lI,  by  means 
of  a  great  quantity  of  money,  a  reconciliation  was 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  299 

defined,  that  the  Sultdn  should  hold  his  territory 
at  peace  from  the  inconvenience  of  rivals,  and  that 
he  should  confirm  the  possession  of  his  rank  and 
dignity  to  the  other.  It  was  also  stipulated  that 
this  sum  should  be  dehvered  to  the  Sultan's  trea- 
sury after  two  months.  He  asked  a  delay  of  this 
space  of  time,  because  some  of  this  settled  amount 
must  be  obtained  from  the  revenues  of  Juijd,n,  and 
Shams-al-ma^li  did  not  wish  to  squander  the  ryots' 
money  by  collecting  those  customs  then.  And  the 
Sultdn,  on  account  of  the  death  of  his  father,  and 
the  disturbed  state  of  Ghazni,  desisted  from  that 
proposal,  and  went  to  Ghazni,  and  Hs  w^ 
was  thus  delayed.  And  Abill-Kasim-Simjiir  was 
established  at  Koms,  and  when  Fakr-AddouMt 
died,  he  sent  one  to  KibiiSj  and  communicated  the 
news  of  his  death,  and  of  the  flame  that  was 
spreading  over  the  surface  of  the  country,  and  ex- 
pressed a  wish  to  settle  the  country  peacefully  upon 
him.  And  they  had  sent  Firzdn-'bn-Al-Hasan, 
from  Ray  to  Jurjdn,  with  a  great  army  of  Kurds 
and  Dalamites.  But  when  Kabiis  came  near  to 
Juij^n,  they  wrote  from  Bukhdrd  a  letter  to  Abiil- 
Kasim-Simjiir,  and  gave  unto  him  the  country  of 
Kohistdn.  And  he  then  abandoned  K^biis,  and 
acted  contrary  to  his  promises,  and  cared  not  for  the 
path  of  contention  and  repugnance  to  his  engage- 
ment, and  the  falsification  of  his  word.   So  he  came 


300  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

to  Isfardln,  and  thus  Kabils  returned  privately,* 
and  came  to  Nishapilr,  and  there  remained  in  ex- 
pectation of  happier  days,  and  a  more  decided 
opportunity.  And  when  he  became  aware  that 
the  affairs  of  the  family  of  S^mS.n  were  day  by  day 
falling  to  ruin,  and  from  every  corner  and  every 
side  new  imbecility  and  decay  existed,  and  that  to 
hold  on  in  expectation  of  their  good  fortune  was  to 
be  deceived  by  the  glitter  of  the  mirage,  and  that 
to  be  occupied  with  their  aflFairs  was  to  engrave 
Upon  the  surface  of  the  water,  he  sent  As-Af  hahad- 
Shari5.r-'bn-SharwIn  to  the  country  of  Sharlar,  to 
seize  upon  that  country,  and  Rastam  Marz-b4n,f 
Khal-Maj-Addoulat,  Abu-Talib  Rustam-'bn-Fakh- 
Addoul^t  was  posted  at  that  place.  And  Asafahad 
engaged  him  and  defeated  him,  and  obtained  great 
plunder  from  his  army.  And  in  those  coasts  the 
Khutbah  was  offered  in  the  name  of  Shams-al- 
Mu^li.  And  Banl-'bn  Said  in  the  midst  of  a 
troop  of  cavalry  was  fixed  at  Isfand-Yd,r,  and  often 
double-heartedness  appeared  in  them,  and  his  heart 
and  soul  were  full  of  ill-feeling  to  Shams-al-muali- 
Kabils.  And  Nasr- '  bn- Al-Hasan-Firilzan,  by  reason 
of  a  famine  which  had  lately  appeared  in  the  land 
of  Dilem,  fell  upon  their  country,  and  became 
rapacious  there.     And  he  sent  an   army  against 

*  Privately,  MS.  doubtful. 

t  Marz-ban,  Q-uardian  of  tbe  Marches,  Marquis. 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  301 

them,  and  expelled  them  all.  And  he  took  Asa- 
fahad-Abul-Fadhl  and  imprisoned  him,  and  he  was 
in  prison  until  he  found  an  opportunity  (of  escape). 
And  Bini  became  a  friend  with  Nasr,  and  both 
placed  their  Jieart  upon  the  possession  of  Amll. 
Now  Abiil-Abbds,  the  Chamberlain,  was  at  Amll, 
and  with  him  one  thousand  men  of  the  army.  And 
when  Abill-Abbds  was  too  weak  to  resist  them, 
and  was  defeated,  they  took  Amll  by  stratagem. 
And  BS,nl  wrote  a  letter  to  Kabils,  and  gave  him 
an  account  of  the  particulars  of  that  victory,  and 
expressed  a  readiness  to  submit  to  him,  and  as  a 
mark  of  true  attachment  intimated  to  him  an 
intention  of  uniting  their  standards.  And  Bdnl 
separated  from  Nasr,  and  came  to  Isterabfi,d,  and 
declared  for  the  claim  of  Kdbiis.  And  of  the 
cavalry  army  all  who  were  incUned  to  K^bils  pre- 
sented themselves  before  him.  And  Shams-al- 
Mu^li-Kabiis  wrote  to  Asafahad  that  he  should 
proceed  to  Bdni,  and  give  his  whole  attention  to  the 
task  of  repairing  the  friendship  and  re-uniting  the 
favour  of  his  Highness  to  Bdni.  And  Asafahad, 
pursuant  to  this  order,  reconciled  Kdbils  with  Bdnl. 
And  when  Flnizdn-'bn-Al-Hasan  heard  the 
intelligence  of  their  alliance  and  union,  he  set  out 
from  Jurjdn,  with  a  view  to  make  war  with  them. 
A  sharp  battle  took  place,  in  the  plain  of  Isterdbdd, 
and  Bani  was  very  nearly  defeated,  until  a  body  of 
Kurds  and  Arabs,    from   the   army    of  Firdzdn, 


302  MfiMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

shouted  forth  the  war-cry  of  Shatns-al-mudll,  and 
joined  the  side  of  Bam  ;  and  the  army  of  Bdnl 
came  after  him,  and  took  Flrilzdn,  with  twenty  of 
his  chiefs  and  generals.  The  remainder  of  the 
army  took  the  road  to  JurjI-n,  and,  when  they 
arrived  there,  Salfi,r-Kharkds,  who  was  one  of  the 
kindred  of  Kabils,  came  there,  and  stood  up  to 
oppose  (the  fugitives). 

And  they  were  defeated;  and  these  good 
tidings  came  to  Kabus,  and  he  became  happy  and 
glad  in  heart,  and  was  conscious  that  the  days  of 
sorrow  had  passed  over,  and  the  time  of  fortune 
had  arrived ;  and,  with  heart  at  ease  and  exhila- 
rated breast,  he  turned  his  face  to  Jilrjdn  ;  and  he 
took  his  seat  upon  the  musnud  of  his  empire  and 
settled  grandeur,  in  Shaabin  ;  and,  in  the  year  388, 
one  of  the  poets  of  the  time  says,  in  congratulating 
him  (Verse) 

"  There  is  an  exertion  whieli  no  fruitless  glory  distin- 
guishes ; 

"  There  is  a  nobleness  which  no  contemptible  endurance 
adorns. 

"  The  generous,  when  prosperity  fails, 

"  Satisfies  his  wishes  with  the  excuse  of  constancy  of  soul. 

"  Glory  to  the  illustrious,  whose  maddened  ardour 

"  Draws  his  eye  over  his  rough  standard ; 

"  Glory  to  the  wounded,  to  the  suffering  and  tearful  heart ; 

"  Glory  to  the  slain  and  the  marks  upon  their  sword ; 

"  Glory  to  the  poor,  without  vice  or  guile  ; 

"  And  glory  to  the  rich,  to  the  days  which  Providence  has 
given,"  &c.,  &c. 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OP  GHAZNA.      303 

And  when  this  army  in  their  flight  returned  to 
Rai  they  met  with  much  blame^  and  they  cast  dis- 
graceful reproach  and  finger-pointing  scorn  in  their 
faces.  And  Abii-Ah-Husain-'bn-Hamiilah  was 
Vizier ;  he  collected  two  thousand  men,  Turks 
and  Arabs,  and  natives  of  Dilam,  and  Mamlchhar 
'bn-Kdbiis,  and  Bayaston-'bn-Kardoyah,  and  Abiil- 
Abb^&-'bn-J4hl,  and  Abdul-Malik-bn-Bd,kdn,  &c., 
proceeded  to  Jurjin,  to  join  his  standard.  And 
this  army  consisted  of  the  nobles  of  the  State  and 
nawwabs  of  the  people  of  Dilem.  When,  then, 
they  came  to  the  country  of  Shahriar,  Shams- Al- 
Mu4H  fixed  his  heart  upon  meeting  them,  and  his 
hope  upon  the  assistance  of  the  Almighty  and  His 
favour  to  the  fortunes  of  his  empire.  And  Abii- 
Ali-Hamillah  felt  uneasy,  on  account  of  Nasr-'bn 
Al-Hasan-Flniz4n,  and  his  aid  and  friendship  unto 
Kabiis,  and,  to  secure  his  favour  and  support, 
employed  subtlety  and  repentance,  and  said,  "  The 
various  relations  of  kindred  that  exist  between  you 
and  Majd-ad-doulah-Abii-Tahb  render  it  impera- 
tive that  you  should  resolve  to  preserve  his  well- 
being  and  his  dominions.  And  you  should  not 
make  a  difficulty  in  helping  and  aiding  him,  and  if 
you  thoroughly  come  into  this  design  and  exhibit 
a  wish  to  shrink  from  that  party  to  which  you  now 
adhere,  and  draw  off  from  the  string  of  his  service, 
whatever  may  happen  in  the  way  of  position,  ful- 
filment of  your  desires,  honours,  gifts,  dignities, 


304  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  QHAZNA. 

and  pre-eminences  may  be  acquired,  and  the  con- 
dition of  Koms  will  be  exalted  by  your  support,  so 
that  you  will  be  established  there,  and  the  ideas  of 
benefits,  with  regard  to  yourself,  will  be  perfected." 
With  this  glance  of  lightning  {i.  e.,  hint),  Nasr-'bn- 
Al- Hasan  became  a  mutilated  limb  (i.  e.,  a 
detached  member)  and  decamped.  And  when  he 
arrived  at  Sdriah  he  passed  Jurj^n  on  the  left,  and 
came  on  the  right  side  ;  and,  when  he  arrived  at 
Koms,  he  openly  declared  the  secret  of  his 
thoughts,  and  laid  before  his  followers  the  idea 
which  he  entertained  within,  with  respect  to 
embracing  obedience  to  Majduldoulah.  But  their 
voices  were  discrepant,  so  that  some  went  to 
Isfandiar  and  some  towards  Jurjan,  and  Nasr, 
with  the  rest  of  his  army,  proceeded  to  Koms. 
And  Abii-Ali-Hamillah  sent  a  person  and 
requested  a  fort  from  him,  that  he  might  protect 
himself  therein,  and  might  send  his  baggage  and 
his  heavy  furniture  and  money  thither.  Therefore 
he  gave  him  the  castle  of  Jomund,  and  he  went 
and  sent  his  packages  there.*  But  when  Abil-Ali 
heard  of  this  defection,  which  was  the  consummat- 
ing victory  of  his  usual  ills  and  hard  calamities,  he 
betook  hirnself  to  Sahiyah,  with  a  design  to  pass 
by  Jurjdn  ;  and,  when  he  arrived  at  that  place, 
Manuchhar  sent  one  secretly  to  him  and  expressed 

*  This  was  probably  before  Nasr's  treason  was  known. 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OP  GHAZNA.      305 

a  readiness  to  shun  the  exhibition  of  disobedience, 
and  neglect  of  duty.  And  Abii-Ali  felt  some 
apprehension  respecting  Bayaston-'bn-Bejdsab  and 
his  followers,  on  account  of  his  kindred  with  Kabiis 
and  their  having  been  brought  up  together,  as  well 
as  on  account  of  the  interwoven  relations  between 
them,  in  the  connexion  of  former  artfulness  and 
inclinations,  and  his  past  affection  to  K^biis,  so  he 
seized  him  and  sent  him  to  Eai.  And  he  went  on 
to  Jurjdn,  and  the  people  there  presented  a  strong 
heart  for  struggling  and  fighting,  and  from 
morning  to  evening  they  were  engaged  in  measur- 
ing the  garment  of  strength  and  pushing  the  cups 
of  perfect  (bravery).  Two  months  passed  in 
repeated  endeavours  to  transact  this  business  ;* 
and  a  famine  arose  in  the  trenches  of  Jurjdn,  and 
no  food  was  found,  and  the  allies  of  Kdbiis,  in  this 
distress,  contented  their  noble  souls  with  a  scanty 
portion,  and  whatever  they  had  succeeded  in 
obtaining  they  stored  up.  But  the  army,  on  the 
part  of  the  martyrdom -seeker,!  on  account  of 
their  straitened  condition  and  scarcity  of  provi^ 
sions,  and  the  intercepting  of  supplies,  sat  down 
before  Muhammadabad,  in  order  that  they  might 
be  able  to  fill  their  hands  from  the  magazines  of 
pay.  I     But,  by  reason  of  the  continual  rains  and 

*  i.  e.  To  take  Jurjan. 

t  The  martyrdom-seeker,  i.  e.,  of  the  besieger. 

J  i.  e.  Food,  allowances,  &c.,  as  part  of  pay. 

X 


306  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

the  difficulty  of  the  roads,  cares  and  anxieties 
replaced  the  search  for  pay  and  provision ;  but  a 
storm  arose,  and  they  became  too  weak  to  contrive 
or  arrange  the  means  of  conveying  maintenance  or 
fodder,  and  the  force  of  thunder  and  lightning,  and 
the  vehemency  of  the  west  and  north  winds,  over- 
threw the  tents.  And  when  the  partizans  of 
Kabiis  saw  them  in  this  confusion  and. distress, 
they  came  out  from  the  citadel,  and,  with  edges  of 
their  well  arranged  swords  cut  off  the  cheeks  and 
necks  of  this  multitude,  and,  vdth  furious  and 
repeated  strokes,  inundated  the  foimtains  of  their 
livers,  and  with  the  sickles  of  battle  cut  off  the 
members  of  these  wretches  from  their  united  frame, 
until  sixteen  hundred  men  became  bedfellows  of 
the  tombs,  and  food  for  vultures  and  crows.  And 
they  took  prisoners,  Asfahs4Mr-'bn-Gorangiz,  and 
Zarin-Ghol,  and  Saj4n-'bn-Askali,  and  his  brother, 
Hajder-'bn-S414r,  and  Muhammad-' bn-Masiid,  and 
they  obtained  as  booty  all  the  followers  and  horses 
of  the  army  of  Dilam,  which  the  finger  of  confisca- 
tion sufficed  not  to  estimate  ;  but  its  reality  was 
less  than  its  reported  value.  And  Shams-al-Mudli, 
in  attending  to  the  wounded  of  the  army,  and  in 
care  of  the  sick,  and  the  regulation  of  prisoners, 
and  the  liberal  distribution  of  generosities  and 
honours,  and  the  special  assignment  of  all  kinds  of 
gifts,  displayed  the  conjunction  of  the  footsteps  of 
generosity  and  the  lights  of  disposition  {i.  e.,  his 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OE  GHAZNA.  307 

inherent  generosity  and  enlightened  disposition) 
and  the  true  decree  and  foreknowing  order  of  the 
Almighty  was  displayed  in  the  most  beautiful 
manner,  in  ordaining  and  bringing  success  upon 
tbis  happy  event.  And  Abii-Mansiir-Thadlabi, 
in  commemorating  this  victory,  says — 

"  Oh  regulating  Victory,  oh  Fortune  !  causing  smiles, 
"  And  oh  Prince  Shams-al-Muali,  all  graciousness ; 
"  Oh  expansive  Justice  and  Eight,  that  receives  its  own, 
"  The  people  are  restored  and  violence  is  extirpated, 
"  The  keys  of  the  world  have  fallen  to  the  king, 
"  In  whom  energy  and  honour  never  ceased  to  confide," 
&c.,  &c.,  &c. 

And  when  Abii-Ali-Hamula  arrived  from 
that  defeat  at  Koms  be  wrote  a  letter  to  Nasr- 
'bn-Al-Hasan-'bn-Plrdzdn,  and  summoned  him 
to  come  by  the  road  of  celerity,  in  order  that  he 
might  occupy  himself  in  expediting  the  matter  and 
fulfilling  tbe  affair,  and  in  beginning  the  prepara- 
ticHi  for  battle.  And  he  invited  him  also  zealously 
to  stop  up  all  the  recent  fractures  (and  excisions)  ; 
but  he  could  not  do  so,  on  account  of  his  dread  of 
the  army  of  Kdbiis,  at  Koms,  so  he  decamped  and 
came  to  Rai,  and  Nasr-'bn-Hasan  came  as  far  as 
Basmandn.  And  when  he  arrived  at  Abi  there 
he  halted,  and  wrote  to  Majdaddoulah  and 
requested  support.  He  (Majdaddoulah)  however, 
postponed  the  effectuation  of  this  proposition  and 
remained  some  time  waiting,  until,   after  a  long 

u  2. 


308  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

period,  they  sent  the  son  of  Yaktagin,  the  Cham- 
berlain, with  six  hundred  Turkish  cavaky,  unto 
him,  who  succoured  his  position.  And  Kdbiis  sent 
Bdnl-'bn-Sald  to  join  in  the  war  against  them,  and 
wrote  to  Shahniar  that  he  should  set  himself  in 
array,  in  company  with  him.  And  IBini  marched 
against  Nasr,  but  was  persevering  and  cautious, 
and  was  never  slothfully  forgetful  of  the  most 
trifling  minutiae  of  circumspection  and  self-com- 
mand. And  Nasr,  perceiving  that  manceuvreing 
would  not  effect  his  object,  fell  back  and  observed 
the  roads  prepared  and  zealous  for  battle,  when  sud- 
denly Bdni  arrived,  and  the  army  which  was  with 
him  had  no  intelligence  of  the  halt  of  Nasr,  and 
was  careless  and  divided,  and  in  the  rear  confused 
and  broken,  so  his  army,  by  the  hand  of  Nasr  and 
his  chiefs,  came  to  ruin.  This  victory  made  a  deep 
impression  upon  Majdaddoulah.  But  the  position 
and  rank  of  Nasr  was  established,  and  Majdad- 
doulah sent  his  uncle,  Rustam-'bn-Marzbd,n,  with 
six  thousand  men  in  aid. 

And  Asafabad  obtained  the  possession  of  the 
country  of  Sharejar,  and  Nasr  came  to  meet  him, 
?is  far  as  Dam^ward,  opposing  and  resisting  him, 
so  that  the  country  was  taken  from  him.  But 
Asafabad  proceeded  to  Shahryar,  and  took  refuge 
with  Manuchabar-'bn-Shams-al-Mudli.  And,  in 
the  midst  of  the  people  of  Karim,  a  great  scarcity 
appeared,  on  account  of  the  passage  and  re-passage 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  309 

of  the  armies,  and  the  searching  and  plundering  of 
harvests  and  provisions,  without  money  and 
without  a  request.  And  for  this  cause  Nasr  held 
off  from  Rustam,  and  separated  himself  from  asso- 
ciation with  him  ;  and  Asphabad,  when  he  found 
that  Rustam  was  deprived  of  the  support  and 
assistance  of  Nasr,  began  to  turn  round  against 
him,  and  expelled  him  from  his  country.  He 
came,  afflicted  and  hurried,  to  Rai,  and  Asphabad 
possessed  himself  of  and  seated  himself  in  the  land 
And,  in  these  days,  Abil-Nasr-'bn-Mahmiid-'bn 
Hdjib,  for  one  reason  out  of  several,  had  betaken 
himself  to  the  country  of  Shams-al-Mudli ;  and 
Shams-al-Mudli,  in  dealing  with  him,  displayed 
eminent  artifice  and  bribery,  assisting  him  with 
much  wealth  and  many  bounties,  and,  in  circum- 
stances both  of  need  and  prosperity,  displayed  the 
thoughts  of  an  exalted  temperament,  and  sent  him 
to  oppose  Nasr ;  and  he  betook  himself  to  this 
emergency,  with  strong  heart  and  faithful  eager- 
ness,  and  several  times  ran  against  the  chief  troops 
of  Nasr,  until  he  dispersed  and  scattered  his 
soldiers.  And  he  took  prisoners  Hasdn-'bn-E,il 
and  Pisar  Hindii  (or  the  Hindu  son)  with  several 
of  his  nobles,  and  Nasr,  in  his  flight,  halted  at 
Samndn.  Now  Nasr-'bn-al-Hasan,  on  account  of 
the  splendour  of  his  ancestry,  and  the  antiquity  of 
his  rank,  and  the  number  of  the  bands  of  his 
comrades,  exercised  tyranny,  and  was  known  and 


310  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

noted  for  rebellion  and  inimical  conduct ;  and  his 
country  lay  in  the  road  of  the  Grand  Kaaba,  and 
the  honoured  Haram  (Temples  of  Hatlm  and 
Zamzam)  ;  and  he  every  year  oppressed  the  com- 
panies and  caravans  of  the  pilgrimage  by  various 
kinds  of  delaying  requisitions,  and  successive  im- 
posts, imtil  his  iU-name  became  dispersed  abroad 
throughout  all  the  lands  of  the  earth,  and  foul 
shame  was  written  upon  the  page  of  his  illustrious 
lineage  and  splendid  rank.  And  in  the  confusion 
and  tumult  of  his  affairs,  the  prayer  of  pilgrims, 
and  the  aversion  of  the  wronged,  became  a  marked 
cause  of  his  humiliation,  and  of  the  shame  of  his* 
empire's  flag.  But  after  this  failure  he  wrote  let- 
ters continually  to  E6,  and  implored  protection 
through  aid  and  support.  And  they  wrote  in  reply 
letters  of  great  length,  and  admonitions  of  exten- 
sions (Verse) 

"  Admonitions,  like  the  mirage  of  the  track-sought  desert, 
from  day  to  day  and  from  month  to  month." 

And  after  the  establishment  of  peace  between 
MajdaddovJdh  and  Kabiis,  the  subject  of  Nasr 
was  brought  before  them,  and  for  their  reconcilia- 
tion with  each  other  it  was  deemed  a  desirable 
device  that  they  should  seize  Nasr.  And  they 
arrived  at  a  complete  understanding  with  regard  to 

*  His,  i.  e.,  Majdaddoulah's  flag,  Nasr  being  a  vassal  of 
Majdaddoulah. 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  QHAZNA.      311 

his  affiiirs.  But  Nasr  was  observing  these  trans- 
actions, and  began  to  be  suspicious  of  their  faith- 
fulness. ,  But  in  the  midst  of  these  events,  news 
arrived  that  Arslan,  the  Hindi!,  son  of  the  Prince 
of  Kolustd,n,  who  was  one  of  the  lords  and  chiefs 
of  the  Sultan,  had  assaulted  the  head-quarters  of 
Abiil-Kasim-Simjilr,  and  had  cast  him  into  the 
country  of  Jundbudh.  Nasr  went  after  him,  and 
sought  aid  from  an  alliance  with  him,  and  incited 
him  to  march  in  the  direction  of  R6,  and  deluded 
him  with  an  idea  of  his  power  of  successfully  oppo- 
sing Majdaddoulat.  And  Abiil-Kasim  was  de- 
ceived by  this  crafty  arrangement,  and  gave  the 
reins  into  the  hand  of  Nasr,  and  so  came  to  ruin. 
He  marched  from  R^  with  a  complete  army  before 
him,  but  the  possibility  of  restraining  these  heroic 
servants  and  lion-cub  soldiers  by  his  own  will  was 
embairassed  and  hindered.  And  when  he  witnessed 
the  ranks  of  those  lions,  and  the  onset  of  those 
braves,  he  began  to  bite  the  finger  of  repentance, 
and  experienced  the  shame  and  remorse  of  the 
words  "pauperized,"  "injured."  And  Shams-al- 
Mu^li  sent  a  party  of  those  tracking  demons  and 
biting  devils  to  meet  him,  and  they  cut  them  off 
from  those  frontiers.  And  when  they  arrived  at 
the  borders  of  despair,  and  the  world  was  narrow 
to  them,  they  fixed  their  heart  upon  the  service  of 
the  Sultdn,  and  upon  preserving  themselves  by  the 
rope  of  his  strength,  and  therefore  betook  them- 


312      MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OP  GHAZNA. 

Selves  to  his  presence.  But  the  circumstances  of 
Abiil-Kasim,  in  the  service  of  the  Sultdn,  came  to 
that  point,  that  he  fled  from  the  presence,  for  a 
reason  which  will  be  given  in  the  sequel  of  this 
exposition.  Nasr  however  remained  long  attached 
to  the  service,  and  the  Sultdn  gave  him  Bidr  and 
Jundbudh.  He  went  to  his  fiefs,  but  found  the 
extent  of  the  country  confining  to  his  immense 
nobleness,  and  lofty  ideas,  and  could  not  be  content 
therewith,  and  through  this  aimless  notion  he  made 
a  disturbance,  until  they  of  Re  beguiled  him  with 
various  kinds  of  contrivance  and  deceit,  and  drew 
him  into  the  snare  of  treachery,  and  bound  him 
when  sentenced  by  the  rope  of  captivity,  and  sent 
him  to  the  fortress  of  Astondwand.  And  Shams- 
al-Mu^li  i)repared  to  recover  the  fortresses  of  those 
regions,  and  obtained  possession  of  the  whole,  and 
by  means  of  his  faithfal  ones  his  wish  was  accom- 
plished, by  seizing  the  head  and  the  forelocks  of 
those  citadels  into  his  grasp. 

And  Asphabad-Shahydr  in  the  midst  of  all 
these  affairs  began  to  pour  out  the  drops  of  the 
rivulet  of  strife,  and  became  deludedly  fascinated 
by  his  numerous  army  and  abundant  wealth,  and 
collected  numerous  sepoys.  To  engage  him  they 
sent  from  Re,  Rustam,  warden  of  the  Marches, 
with  the  Princes  of  Dilem ;  and  they  sent 
Byaston-'bn-Baj^sab,  who  had  before  been  taken 
as  being  well-affected  to  the  pretensions  of  Kabiis, 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMtJD  OF  GHAZNA.  313 

hi  the  body  of  this  army.  They  defeated  Aspha- 
had,  and  took  him  prisoner.  And  Rustam,  the 
March  Warden,  proclaimed  the  formularies  of  the 
acknowledgment  of  Kdbiis,  and  on  account  of  the 
savage  hatred  which  he  entertained  in  his  heart 
towards  the  people  of  Re,  he  interwove  the  Khut- 
bah  with  the  decoration  of  the  name  of  Shams-al- 
Mudli.  He  wrote  also  to  Kdbiis,  narrating  his 
proceedings  in  securing  obedience  to  him,  and  true 
fidelity,  and  by  these  affairs  Byaston  found  the 
pupils  of  his  eyes  gladdening  his  soul,  and  became 
happy  in  heart  by  his  return  to  his  native  land, 
and  the  restoration  of  his  people  and  citizens,  and 
his  association  with  the  service  of  the  prince  of 
generosity.  And  he  annexed  the  kingdom  of  the 
country  of  GMn  to  those  of  Jurjdn  and  Tabristin. 
But  Shams-al-Muali  gave  Gildn  to  Manuchhar,  his 
son.  After  this  the  province  of  Rumdn  and  SdWs, 
and  the  borders  of  Isfandiyah  were  entirely  reco- 
vered, and  became  adorned  by  justice,  generosity, 
and  peace  in  the  efficient  right  hand,  and  excellent 
government  of  Shams-al-Mudli.  And  Shams-al- 
Mu^li  occupied  himself  in  founding  an  edifice  of 
affection,  and  strengthening  the  motives  of  love 
with  the  Sultdn.  And.  he  sent  envoys  to  arrange 
a  state  of  friendship,  and  expressed  his  wish  to 
concur  and  aid  in  a  care  for  the  empire,  and  a 
reverence  for  the  honour  of  the  SuMn.  And  that 
the  bond  of  friendship  and  regard  might  be  firmly 


314  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

decreed,  he  transmitted  gifts  and  presents.  He 
thus  united  and  arranged  the  causes  of  confidence 
and  sincerity.  Thus  Jurjan  and  Tabristan,  and  the 
country  of  Dilem^  as  far  as  the  sea-coast,*  became 
subject  to  his  decree,  commanding  or  forbidding, 
binding  or  loosing.  And  Shams-al-Mudli-Kabiis 
in  his  days  was  highly  renowned  amongst  all  other 
princes  of  provinces  and  chiefs  of  territories,  on 
account  of  his  noble  soul,  generous  disposition,  en- 
larged intellect,  excellent  character,  perfect  virtues, 
and  brilliant  energy.  He  was  distinguished  for 
expanded  judgment,  and  abundant  religion.  And 
from  his  inclination  to  all  kind  of  pure  and  liberal 
notions  of  external  and  internal  (religion)  recog- 
nized the  truth  that  amusement  and  sovereignty 
are  opposed  to  each  other,  and  that  their  union, 
according  to  unchangeable  and  eternal  rules  cannot 
be  ideaUzed.  Abd-Bosti,  in  confirming  this  senti- 
ment, says  (Verse) 

"  Where  a  king  is  occupied  in  amusement, 
"  There  he  hath  pronounced  upon  his  kingdom  a  sentence 
of  sorrow  and  war. 

"  Dost  thou  see  when  the  sun  sets  in  Libra 

"  That  the  stars  of  the  zodiac  begin  to  sport  and  play." 

And  Shams-al-Mu41i-K4bils  was  adorned  with 
the  impress  of  justice,  kindness,  and  equity.  In  zeal 
in  the  welfare  of  his  ryots,  and  in  attention  to  the 

*  Caspian  Sea. 


MEMOJJiS  OF  MAHMUD  OP  OHAZNA.  313 

advantage  of  his  dependents,  he  was  eager,  and  in 
various  sciences  of  learning  and  morals  he  was  pro- 
found. He  was  unparalleled  for  uniting  skiU  with 
the  sword  and  skill  in  the  pen.  His  epistles  were 
famed  and  celebrated  throughout  the  regions  and 
coasts  of  the  world,  and  his  perfect  eloquence  and 
excellence  in  adorning  and  embellishing  his  words 
were  well  known,  &c.* 


ACCOTJNT  OF  THE  ALLIANCE  OE  THE  SuLtInWITH  IlEK-KhaN, 
AND  THEIB  SUBSEQUENT  EsTEANGBMENT. 

When  the  Sultdn  had  cleansed  the  Court  of 
Khurasin  from  his  adversaries,  and  had  reduced 
the  enemies  of  the  family  of  Simiia.  to  non-exist- 
ence, Ilek-Khdn  succeeded  to  Mdwardhnnahr,  and 
obtained  the  princes  of  the  family  of  Sdmdn,  their 
children  and  comrades.  And  these  regions  were 
entirely  stripped  of  aU  that  race  and  pearl-stock. 
And  he  wrote  to  the  SuMn,  and  congratulated 
him  on  his  inheritance  of  the  kingdom  of  Khurd- 
sdn,  and  proposed  a  reparation  of  good-will  and 
the  thread  of  friendship.  An  alliance  was  made 
between  them,  and  motives  of  good  inclination  and 
attachment  were  established.  And  his  discrimi- 
nating nature  advanced  from  a  sincere  affection  to 
a  sincere  unity  ;  and,  at  the  time  when  the  Sultfi,n 

*    An   elaborate  Arabic    epistle  bere  follows,  wbicb    is 
omitted. 


316  MEMOIRS  OF  MA-HMUD  OF  GHAZNA, 

went  to  repulse  the  attack  at  NisMpilr,  lie  had  sent 
the  Imdm  Abdl-Taib-Sahal-'bn-Sulaimdn-Assala- 
oki,  who  was  Imdm  of  Hadis  (or  of  the  sacred  tra- 
ditions) upon  an  embassy  to  Ilek-Khdn,  and  sent 
(also)  Tugdnjuk,  Prince  of  Sarkas,  to  hinj,  and 
expressed  a  desire  for  a  noble  alliance  with  his 
nobles  (or  noble  race)  and  presented  before  his 
greatness,  his  army  and  his  fortress,  curious  valu- 
ables of  pieces  of  pure  gold,  with  jacinths  and 
rubies,  and  chains  of  great  and  small  pearls,  and 
gifts  of  robes  and  eggs  of  amber,  and  vessels  of 
gold  and  silver  full  of  perfumes  of  camphor,  and 
other  productions  of  the  provinces  of  India,  made 
from  frankincense-bearing  trees,  and  Damascus 
scimitars,  and  war  elephants  adorned  with  many- 
coloured  trappings  and  jewelled  bits,  in  describing 
all  which  gems  the  mind  would  be  confused,  and 
in  specifying  all  which  incomparable  things  the 
eyes  would  become  turbid.  And  celebrated  horses, 
with  ornaments  and  head-trappings  of  gold,  and 
various  other  choice  and  desirable  things.  And 
when  the  Imam  Abiil-Taib  arrived  at  the  Turkish 
territory  they  exhibited  much  agitation  and  eager- 
ness at  his  approach,  and  expressed  extreme  readi- 
ness to  pay  homage  and  respect  to  his  dignity, 
partly  on  account  of  their  honour  toward  His 
Majesty  the  SuMn,  and  partly  on  account  of  the 
superabundant  and  excelling  virtues  of  (the  envoy) 
in    all  kinds   of   science,  he  being   the  singular 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  317 

scholar  of  his  age.  He  was  sound  in  controversial 
tact,  and  in  casuistical  divinity,  and  lunar  calcula- 
tions. He  thus  attained  to  the  object  desired,* 
caused  seeking  to  be  joined  with  finding,  and 
returned,  having  with  diligent  industry  fully 
accomplished  his  pilgrimage ;  and  he  presented  the 
unequalled  pearl,  which,  as  a  diver,  he  had  sought 
and  found  in  Turkistd,n,  before  the  SuMn's 
presence,  with  valuable  specimens  of  the  purchased 
articles  of  Turkistdn,  pure  gold  and  silver,  sweet 
musk,  high-bred  horses,  moon-faced  slaves,  well- 
featured  girls,  white  falcons,  packets  of  peacock- 
feathers,  ermines,  and  tawny  skins,  with  exquisite 
china  vessels,  and  many  other  beautiful  fabrics,  so 
that,  between  the  two  kingdoms,  an  interwoven 
aUiance  and  affinity  became  fastened,  as  with  nails, 
and  between  them,  as  between  artificers  and  , 
officers,  a  partnership  was  estabhshed  in  the 
adjustment  of  benefits  and  union.  For  a  long 
period  affairs  continued  to  be  fitly  ordered  and 
duly  arranged  between  these  Courts,  until,  through 
the  hateful  anger  of  fate,  the  straight  road  of 
affection  became  damaged  by  ill-will,  and  by  the 
interlopings  of  Satan  the  stream  of  the  fountains 
of  love  became  diminished,  and  the  bonds  of  that 
sincere  regard  became  untied.  Some  of  the 
beauteous  words  of  Abiil-Taib  have  been  cited,  and 

*  i.  e.  To  demand  a  daugliter  of  Ilek-Klian  for  the  Sultan, 
in  marriage. 


318  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

at  the  end  of  this  chronicle  several  of  the  subject- 
nobles  of  the  Sultan  (who  in  their  paths  were  like 
bright  stars,  and  in  their  fixed  (orbits)  like  con- 
stellations, each  one  being  a  star  of  the  stars  of  the 
age,  and  a  moon  of  the  moons  of  virtue,  and  a 
column  of  the  pillars  of  science)  will  be  commemO' 
rated.  And  these  words  are  from  many  of  the 
niceties  of  the  judgment  and  novelties  of  the 
language  of  Abiil-Talb  :  "He  who  offers  himself 
before  his  time  offers  himself  to  the  air,"  And 
this  apothegm  is  taken  from  "  The  Words"  of  Abu 
Mansur,  the  divine:  "Even  a  dog  has  high 
thoughts,  and  he  is  of  the  lowest  extremity  of 
baseness  in  whom  there  is  a  seeking  for  power 
before  the  times  of  power,"  Sec,  &c. 


AcCOrKT  OE  ABU-NASB-'BN-AHMAD-'Bir-ALI-'BN-BBGtATELf, 
ONE  OE  THE  PEINOIPAL  SUBJECTS  OE  THE  StJLtAn. 

The  Amir  Abii-Nasr  was  an  agent  of  the 
Sultan,  a  dignitary  of  the  State,  and  a  shaikh  of 
the  kingdom,  adorned  with  abundant  virtue,  illus- 
trious morals,  exalted  dignity,  and  expanded  emi- 
nence, and  well  supported  by  great  and  incalculable 
real  and  personal  estates,  and  possessed  of  the 
qualities  of  a  modest  mind,  vigilance,  penetration, 
and  efficiency,  who,  if  he  wished,  could  divide  and 
distinguish  substance  from  accident,  and  to  the 
acute  vision  of  whose  clear-sightedness  veiled  con- 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OP  GHAZNA.  319 

ceptions  and  secret  ideals  became  bright  and  clear. 
He  composed  verses  full  of  delicate  phrases, 
expressing  intelligent  meanings.  These  verses  are 
some  specimens  of  the  births  of  his  genius  and  the 
unique  productions  of  his  mind  (Verse) 

"  There  is  a  building  of   magnanimity,   and    glory,  and 
goodness,  and  virtue, 

"  Kjiown  as  the  building  of  the  generous  ; 

"  It  is  not  a  building  lined  with  mortar, 

"  It  is  a  structure  lined  with  kindnesses. 

"  Love  to  the  generous,  whose  purse  is  never  full ; 

"  Thanks  to  the  liberal,  whose  hands  never  collect,"  &e. 

It  was  one  of  the  glorious  boasts  of  Abii-Nasr- 
BegdyeM  that  he  had  two  sons,  each  of  them  a  star 
in  the  heaven  of  superiority  and  a  moon  in  the 
horizon  of  prosperity  :  one,  the  Amir  Abiil-Fazl 
and  the  other  the  Amir  Abu-Ibrahlm.  They  were 
as  two  bright  constellations  in  the  high  step  (of 
knowledge)  and  two  lights  in  virtuous  renown. 
And  Abill-Fazl  was  more  excellent  in  Arab  plea- 
santries and  of  more  distinguished  manners.  His 
verse  and  rhythm  are  like  the  paintings  of  skilful 
artists,  and  the  round  cheek  of  the  specially  beau- 
tiful. This  is  a  section  from  his  collection  of 
sayings  :  "  The  arrival  of  the  book  of  the  Shaikh  ! 
how  did  our  hearts  yield  to  its  beauty,  by  confess- 
ing and  following  its  (excellent)  words,  in  compar- 
ing it  to  the  rarest  representations.  One  may 
affirm  that  it  is  the  enchantment  of  meeting  (with 


320  1[EM0IES  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

the  loved  object)  it  is  the  purity  of  nature.  One 
may  show  that  it  is  the  necklace  of  the  new  moon, 
the  clasp  of  Aurora,  and  the  collar  of  Paradise," 
&c. 

Account  of  Said  Abuzzakat  Abt5  Jaapab  'bn  Mousa 
Abul  Kasim  Hamza  'bn  MorsA  'bn  Jaafae  'bn 
Muhammad  'bn  Ali  'bn  Al  Husain  'bn  Ai,f  'bn  Abi5 
TaIiIB.     (May  heaven  be  satisfied  with  them !)     (Verse) 

"  Their  race  is  illuminated  by  the  shining  sun, 
"  And  built  upon  the  morning  dawn." 

This  Said,  although  he  possessed  a  residence, 
property  in  land,  and  furniture,  at  Nishapiir,  was  a 
native  of  TtIs,  and,  in  the  time  of  the  princes  of 
the  family  of  Sd,mdn  was  of  the  number  of  the 
^elect  ones  of  the  Court  and  one  of  the  body  of 
state  nobles,  so  directing  himself  that  he  becanae 
admitted  to  sit  and  converse  with  their  viziers  and 
writers,  and  became  embued  with  the  impression 
of  their  brilliant  dignity  and  sentiments,  and  flou- 
rished in  the  orchard  both  of  serious  and  jocose 
acts,  and  in  the  verities  of  virtue  and  excellence, 
and,  from  his  gentlemanly  conduct  and  glistening 
pearls  (of  speech)  and  agreeable  subtleties,  and 
pleasing  gifts,  and  peculiar  skill,  obtained,  as  a 
result,  every  complete  happiness  and  a  perfect 
position,  which  he  procured  by  the  sharpness  of  his 
tongue  and  the  firmness  of  his  eye.  And  he 
excelled  in  readiness  and  in  discussions,  through 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA,  321 

his  possession  of  power,  and  great  fortune,    and 
strong  condition,  and  extended  means,  and  affluent 
estates,    and   extensive   rank,    and    his    complete 
attainment  of  all  kinds  of  elevation  ;  and  in  the 
"  book  of  pleasing  morals,"  from  the  compilations 
of  the  works  of  chief  historians  and  poets,  several 
of  his  works  are  described.     And  of  these,  several 
witticisms    of  his  verse  and  composition  confirm 
(this  opinion)  and  are  an  evidence  of  his  innate 
excellence  and  sweet  eloquence,  and  exalted  force 
•and  dignity".     These  words  are  an  example  of  his 
salt  pleasantry  :  "  The  state  of  a  simpleton  in  edu- 
action  is  like  the  state  of  the   ass,  who  has  no 
thought  except  for  his  feed,  for  his  straw,  and  for 
his   access   to   the  she-asses."      This   assemblage 
belonged  to  the  illustrious  ones  of  the  Court  of  the 
Sultdn.*      There    were    many    others,    excellent 
doctors   and  artistic  poets,  who  are  arranged  in 
numbers  in  books  and  lists,  to  explicate  the  aflFairs 
of  every  one  of  whom  would  be  alien  to  the  object 
of  this  book,  and  would  cause  tedium  and  weari- 
ness.   Let  us  now  resume  the  course  of  the  history 
and  conquests  of  the  Sultdn,  and  the  effects  of  his 
sword  and  spear  in  the  provinces  of  the  Turks  and 
Hindds,  at  successive  periods.    And  the  portion  of 
the  story  where  it  again  joins  on  to  the  wars  of 
Ilek-Kh^n  is  a  theme  which  we  will  fully    and 
amply  (hereafter)  treat,  if  God  will, 

*  Some  further  account  of  these  worthies  omitted. 

Y 


322  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

Account  oe  the  Conquest  of  BiHAxfH. 

When  the  Sultin  had  concluded  the  settlement 
of  the  affairs  of  Sistdn,  and  stilled  the  droppings  of 
dispute  whicli  flowed  in  those  regions,  and  had 
dispersed  all  the  incidents  of  that  emergency,  he 
determined  to  bring  to  fixed  conclusion  his  design 
respecting  the  conquest  of  Bahdtlh.  He  drew 
then  a  full  army  under  his  protected  standards  and 
brave  captains  to  those  parts.  He  passed  over 
tbe  Sihiin*  and  the  province  of  MiHt^n,  and 
encamped  before  Bahatlh.  This  city  had  a  wall 
whose  height  could  be  reached  only  by  eagles. 
Its  sentinel,  if  he  wished,  might  hold  converse 
with  the  stars,  and  its  watchman,  if  he  desired, 
might  give  kisses  upon  the  lip  of  the  planet 
Venus.  Its  top  was  equal  in  loftiness  to 
Heaven's  height  and  was  parallel  to  Pisces.  It 
had  a  moat  like  the  girdling  sea,  with  a  deep  and 
wide  abyss,  and  a  broad  border  was  drawn  around 
it ;  and  they  were  supported  by  men  of  energy 
and  war  elephants  for  the  defence  of  its  territory 
and  country.  And  the  Prince  of  these  accursed 
ones,  according  to  the  well-known  course  of  rebel- 
lious obstinacy,  relying  on  his  lofty  hill  and  drunk 
with  the  pride  of  his  numerous  followers,  came  out 
of  the  city  and,  trusting  in  the  might  of  his  heroes 
and   the    majesty   of  his   fortune,    stood   to   the 

*  The  Indus. 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.      323 

engagement.  For  three  days,  successively,  the 
Sultan,  with  the  splendour  of  the  lightning  of  his 
swords  and  the  flashes  of  his  well-aimed  spears, 
baked  them  in  the  fireplace  of  ruin  and  the  oven 
of  destruction,  and,  on  the  fourth,  by  means  of  his 
galling  arrows  and  hair-splitting  spears  and  scimi- 
tars, he  darkened  and  blackened  the  pages  of  the 
life  of  these  despicable  wretches,  and,  when  the 
ship  of  the  sun  arrived  at  the  midst  of  the  ocean 
of  the  sky,  the  cry  of  "  God  is  great !"  raised  by 
the  possessors  of  the  faithj  reached  the  ears  of  the 
family  on  high  (and  the  family  of  Ali)  and,  in  the 
name  of  truth  and  verity,  and  with  a  resolve  to 
win  victory  for  their  religion,  they  made  a  charge, 
such  that  the  blackness  of  those  infidels  was  wiped 
off  from  the  white  page  of  that  time,  and  on  the 
scene  of  those  onsets  and  attacks  not  a  vestige  of 
those  cursed  ones  remained.  And  the  Sultdn,  Uke 
an  enraged  male  (elephant)  and  a  tossing  sea, 
wielded  a  two-handled  scimitar  and  cut  a  man  in 
half,  together  with  his  casque  and  coat-of-mail,  and 
seized  several  elephants,  which  were  the  body- 
guard of  the  infidels.  Thus  the  gale  of  victory, 
from  the  kind  care  of  Providence,  began  to  flow, 
and  the  standards  of  the  SuMn  and  the  ensigns 
of  the  faith  attained  satisfaction  in  exaltation  and 
elevation;  and  the  means  of  gratification  and 
satisfaction  were  thus  prepared.  But  most  of  the 
enemy  fled  into  the  fortress,  and  sought  protection 

t2 


324  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

and  security  in  the  walls  of  their  castle.  Then  the 
champions  of  religion  withdrew  the  reins  of  volition 
from  their  hand,  and  seized  upon  the  passages  to 
the  fort.  And  the  young  men  of  the  army  filled 
up  the  moat,  and  assisted  each  other  in  widening 
the  narrow  passages  and  ope'ning  the  bolts;  and 
Bijera,  during  the  heat  of  the  battle  and  the 
lightning  and  eye-striking  fire  of  the  spears  (whilst 
his  followers  were  suft'ering  their  punishment 
before  his  very  eyesight)  by  means  of  a  rope  from 
his  harness,  betook  himself  to  an  intervening 
(chasm)  of  the  mountain,  and  sought  a  refuge  in  a 
certain  wood,  The  Sultan  sent  a  star  of  the  stars 
of  his  army  to  track  his  footsteps,  that  they  might 
environ  him  like  a  collar,  and  fix  a  scimitar  in  him. 
But  he,  in  alarm  at  that  lightning  death,  and  terror 
at  what  had  happened,  drew  his  piercing  khanjar, 
and  falling,  resigned  his  fearless  life  and  impure 
soul,  and  went  to  receive  the  retribution  of  denying 
ones  and  the  portion  of  inhuman  infidels  for  all 
eternity,  and  amidst  the  ranks  of  hell  and  the 
orders  of 'Gehenna  was  punished  with  the  scalding 
water  and  miserable  pain  of  the  verse,  "  This  is  the 
portion  of  the  infidels."  As  for  the  rest  of  the 
army  the  greater  part  passed  through  the  sword. 
A  hundred  and  sixty  elephants  augmented,  in  this 
victory  the  stables  of  the  royal  stud,  with  an  enor- 
mous booty  in  money  and  weapons.  And  the 
SultS.n  made  that  place  a  station,  that  the  country 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  &HAZNA.  325 

might  be  cleansed  from  the  odiousness  of  that 
idolatrous  people ;  and  he  spread  the  carpet  of  the 
Muhammadan  religion  and  law,  and  drew  the 
people  of  those  provinces  into  the  bond  of  Isldm, 
and  arranged  the  construction  of  mosques  and , 
pulpits,  and  appointed  imdms,  for  the  purpose  of 
instructing  them  in  the  precepts  of  religion  and  the 
laws  of  Isldm,  and  in  the  method  of  distinguishing 
and  seeing  what  is  lawful  and  forbidden.  And, 
with  his  victorious  flags  and  prosperous  banners, 
he  turned  his  face  to  Ghazna.  And  thus  began 
the  season  of  his  rain  (of  glory  and  multiplied 
perils)  and  a  long  road  of  mischances  lay  before 
him,  when  men  and  baggage  were  destroyed.  And 
many  of  his  servants  and  armies  perished  in 
disgrace  and  fear  (although)  Heaven  guarded  the 
noble  being  and  precious  life  of  the  SuMn  from 
the  misfortune,  reproach,  and  ruin  of  that  thread 
of  events.  "  He  is  the  friend  of  the  guileless 
good."  Abiil-Fath-Bosti,  his  confidant,  gave  him 
excellent  counsel  and  refused  (his  approval)  to  his 
passion,  which  led  him  to  such  aims  and  directed 
him  to  such  resolves,  and  with  decorated  mind  and 
firm  solidity  directed  his  words,  according  to 
Heaven-decreed  justice,  and  by  the  shuttle  (or 
loom)  of  equity.  However,  having  turned  his  face 
to  a  point  worthy  of  his  mighty  sword,  of  the  fury 
of  Mars  and  of  the  imagination  of  a  Hon,  he 
inclined    not    to    deceiving    words,    advice    that 


326  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

blamed,  and  the  full  pages  from  pens.  Abiil-Fatli, 
in  confirmation  and  corroboration  of  this  hint,  says 
(Verse) 

"The  most  faithful  advice  from  men  hath  been  fully 
imparted  to  the  Sultan  ; 

"  Love  and  an  experienced  judgment  hath  (invited  him  to) 
follow  it. 

"  Thou  hast  passed,  in  rank  and  glory,  the  sun's  altitude  ; 

"  Thou  hast  in  violence  humiliated  all  who  have  reigned. 

"  Thy  (onward)  motions  will  no  longer  continue  to  foUow, 

"  For  when  the  sun  is  at  his  altitude  he  moves  not." 

For  this  question  had  been  a  matter  of  dispute 
with  the  first  men  of  science.  Some  said,  "  There 
is  no  motion  in  the  point  of  the  ascendant  altitude 
of  the  sun ;"  the  truth  of  which  position  they 
endeavoured  to  establish  by  proofs  from  the 
schools  ;  and  some  in  establishing  its  motion  dwelt 
upon  the  measure  of  other  altitudes.  Heaven 
however  knows. 


AoOOirifT  OF  THE  CAPTrEE  OE  MuLTAIf. 

AbiilFutah,  Prince  of  Multan,  was  notoriously 
characterized  as  one  of  malignant  craftiness,  deceit- 
ful treachery,  dubious  fidelity,  and  detestable  incli- 
nation. He  set  up  a  claim  over  the  people  of  the 
Khutbah,  {i.  e.,  the  chief  sovereignty)  of  Multan, 
to  deal  with  them  according  to  his  will  and  plea- 
sure, and  cast  the  people  into  the  lubricity  of  his 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  327 

error,  and  the  ruin  of  his  folly.  They  signified  the 
case  to  the  SuMn,  whose  reverence  for  Isldm*  and 
jealousy  for  the  faith  stirred  up  and  excitfed  him 
to  a  sufficient  examination  into  this  crime,  and  into 
the  subject  matter  of  this  error.  And  in  this  point 
he  sought  God's  direction,  and  consigned  all  his 
thoughts  to  this  religious  consideration,  and  pre- 
pared for  the  affair.  And  he  assembled  a  nume- 
rous company  and  brave  army  of  the  first  men  of 
the  faith  and  obedience  of  Isl^m.  And  when  that 
artist  Spring  had  delineated  her  paintings  upon 
the  tracts  of  mountain  and  plain,  and  the  emperor 
Sun  had  clothed  all  the  districts  of  the  earth  with 
precious  dresses  and  embroidered  robes,  taken 
from  the  treasury  of  his  glorious  palace,  he  raised 
the  cry,  "  To  MilMn  !"  And  because  the  river 
torrents  and  superfluous  rains  had  filled  the  ferry- 
ing places  of  the  Jlhiln  with  divers  fuU  channels 
and  overflowing  torrents,  and  the  road  was  thus 
obstructed  and  affording  room  for  excuses,  he  sent 
to  Andbal,  who  was  King  of  India,  a  person 
to  request  of  him  that  he  would  permit  a  passage 
through  the  midst  of  his  kingdom  that  the  army 
of  Islam  might  pass.  He,  however,  placed  the 
hand  of  repulse  upon  the  face  of  the  SuMn's 
request,   and  took  the  road  of  stubbornness  and 

*  The  Sultan  regarded  it  as  a  religious  question,  since  he 
had  himself  receired  the  sovereignty  and  right  of  Khutbah  from 
the  Khalif. 


328  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA, 

obstinacy.  For  this  cause  the  SuMn  was  enraged, 
and  conceived  the  design  of  a  double  conquest,  and 
began  to  assign  two  voices  to  sing  one  theme,  and 
was  resolved  that  before  he  concluded  his  first  in- 
tentions he  would  by  the  shout  of  victory  give  to 
the  winds  the  substance  of  that  King's  kingdom 
and  the  nest  of  his  empire.  So  he  commanded 
that  they  should  extend  the  hand  of  plunder,  and 
levelling,  and  destruction,  and  burning  unto  his 
villages  and  cities.  And  they  cast  Jaibal  or 
Andbal  forth  from  one  strait  unto  another,  and 
from  one  path  to  another ;  and  they  stripped  all 
the  provinces  of  his  country,  and  cut  off  the  roads 
and  resources  of  his  kingdom,  until  they  expelled 
him  to  the  province  of  Kashmir.  And  when  Abiil 
Fut&h,  Prince  of  Multin,  witnessed  that  with 
Jaibdl,  who  was  his  high  mountain  and  blocking 
pass,  that  hope  had  departed,  he  learnt  that  he  had 
entered  a  well*  {whence  he  could  not  extricate  him- 
self), and  that  it  was  impossible  for  flying  hares  to 
compete  as  travellers  with  foxes,  and  that  he  ought 
not  to  frame  an  imagination  of  the  possibility  of 
resistance  (Verse) 

"  The  experienced  knows  when  the  moonlight  flashes  upon 
the  sword  striking  hand,  that  the  sword  is  not  distant  from  his 
breast  more  than  the  measure  of  a  cubit." 

He  therefore  packed  up  his  treasures  and  hiB 
hoards,  and  transported  them  on  the  back  of  camels 

*  Conjectural  reading,  MIS.  illegible. 


MEMOIRS  OP  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  329 

io  Sarandib,  and  relinquished  Mult^n.  The  SuMn, 
when  he  had  arrived  at  tliose  provinces,  and  had 
made  a  full  discovery  of  the  articles  and  attributes 
of  the  point,  seeing  that  all  were  involved  in  this 
mad  error  and  vain  folly,  confined  those  citizens 
who  were  inhabitants  and  natives,  in  the  fort,  and 
treated  them  with  rigour,  and  pinched  and  cor- 
rected them  with  the  food  of  punishment,  (fining) 
them  twenty  thousand  loads  of  a  thousand  direms, 
and  placed  upon  their  neck  the  redemption  money 
of  foes,  and  the  tax  of  the  rebellious.  The  account 
of  his  stand  for  religion  and  for  the  illustration  of 
the  knowledge  of  the  (orthodox)  demonstrations 
passed  to  all  cities,  and  even  arrived  at  Egypt. 
And  the  dread  of  his  sword  was  of  effectual  advan- 
tage in  the  land  of  Hind  and  Sind,  and  the  main 
source  of  heresy,  and  infidelity,  and  perversity  in 
those  parts  was  intercepted  and  cut  off,  and  some 
verses  of  Abu-Tam^ni-Tdlnl  are  suitable  to  this 
event,  and  correspond  with  this  period  (Verse) 

"  Thy  victory  and  thy  cavalry  hath  yesterday  made  thee 
glorious. 

"  This  is  but  a  trifle,  but  the  Khutbah  is  not  a  trifle, 

"  (Which  thou  didst  vindicate)  when  the  skin  of  the  sky 
was  not  green, 

"  And  the  aspect  of  winter  not  cheerful,'    &c.,  &c. 


330  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

ACCOTJITT  OF   THE   PASSAGE   OE  THE   JfHlJlT  BT  IlEK-KhaN. 

The  state  of  a  sincere  alliance  between  the 
Sultan  and  Ilek-Khin  remained  firm,  until  the 
creeping  scorpions  of  iU-wiU,  and  the  disturbing 
manoeuvrers  of  hatred,  cut  off  the  progress  of 
affection,  so  that  the  flames  of  dispute  blazed 
up.  And  Ilek  watched  an  opportunity  of  with- 
drawal and  flight,  and  when  the  standards  of  the 
Sultan  were  far  distant  he  made  an  expedition  into 
the  frontiers  of  Multin,  and  the  extent  of  Khura- 
sdn  was  destitute  of  the  protection  of  the  State, 
and  the  guardianship  of  government,  and  he  sent 
Sabfi,shltagin,  who  was  general  of  his  army,  with  an 
abundant  force  to  Khurasan,  and  entrusted  the 
capital,  Balkh,  to  Jaafartagin,  with  a  band  of 
warriors.  And  Arsl^n-Jazib,  Prince  of  Tds,  was 
estabhshed  at  Her4t,  having  received  orders  before 
from  the  Sultan,  that  if  any  new  attack  should 
occur  on  his  weak  part,  and  if  loss  should  be  pro- 
duced on  both  sides,  he  should  take  up  his  posi- 
tion at  Ghazna,  march  from  Her4t,  and  come  to 
Ghazna.  And  Sabd,shltagln  came  to  Herdt,  and 
sent  Hasan-'bn-Nasr  to  Nishapiir,  to  enquire  into 
the  property,  and  to  value  the  sources  of  wealth. 
And  the  majority  of  the  nobles  of  Khurasdn 
encouraged  them  with  friendship  and  aid,  on  ac- 
count of  the  prolongation  of  the  days  of  the 
Sultan's  absence,  and  the  interception  of  intelli- 


MEMOIRS  OP  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.      331 

gence,  and  the  concbalment  of  his  footsteps,  aud  on 
account  of  the  trembling  of  earthquakes  (confu&ed 
rumours),  and  contracted  feelings,  and  daily  re- 
ports, and  vain  words.  And  Abiil-Abds-Fazl-'bn- 
Ahmad,  in  order  to  guard  the  paths  and  govern 
the  provinces  of  the  kingdom,  arrived  from 
Ghaznd,  as  far  as  the  frontiers  of  Bamian,  with  the 
preparation  for  a  complete  intercepting  cordon. 
And  he  committed  the  passes  of  ingress  and  egress 
of  that  country  to  men  of  action,  and  a  cautious 
corps  of  observation.  And  quick  messengers  ran 
through  the  whole  extent  of  the  kingdom  to  the 
Sultan  with  tidings  of  the  conduct  of  Ilek.  And 
the  Sultan  laid  aside  all  care  for  other  regions,  and 
like  striking  lightning  and  a  furious  wind  travelled 
that  expanse  over  the  plains  and  through  the  war- 
riors, over  the  deserts,  and  through  the  tribes  of 
people,  and  in  a  short  time  arrived  at  Ghiizni,  and 
aiforded  aid  to  the  sons  of  the  Empire,  and  the 
nobles  of  His  Majesty,  by  his  horses,  mules  and 
riders,  and  assembled  from  the  great  spearmen  a 
body  of  glorious  soldiers  (Verse) 

"  Angels  upon  angels,  or,  if  they  were  human,  such  as 
embroidered  by  the  needle." 

And  came  like  a  raging  sea  to  Balkh,  and 
Jaafartagin  went  out  from  this  contingency,  flying 
like  a  devil  from  exposure  to  the  storm  of  ashes. 
But  the  Sultan  sent  Arslan-Jazib  with  ten  thou- 


332      MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

sand  cavalry  on  his  road.  And  Sabdshltagln  when 
he  arrived  at  the  bank  of  the  Jihiin,  and  beheld 
that  foaming  sea  and  roaring  torrent,  turned  aside 
and  came  to  Merd,  in  order  to  march  through  the 
desert.  But  the  summer  was  hot,  so  that  the  wells 
were  filled  up,  and  the  roads  obhterated,  and  the 
path  difficult  to  determine ;  therefore  he  began  to 
move  towards  Sarkhas,  But  Muhsin-'bn-Tabak, 
who  was  one  of  the  Gozz  chieftans,  seized  the  road, 
and  bestirred  himself  to  resist  him.  Sabdshitagin, 
therefore,  finding  no  possibility  of  making  a  stand 
against  the  army  of  Arslan,  and  not"even  an  oppor- 
tunity of  bathing  (i,  e.,  from  the  hot  pursuit),  was 
deprived  of  the  power  of  proceeding  (literally, 
diropos')^  and  went  therefrom  to  Nisd.  And  as  he 
was  about  to  collect  his  baggage  and  march,  upon 
occasion  of  one  of  his  marches,  ArsMn- Jazib  came 
down,  and  on  account  of  his  baggage,  and  the  enor- 
mous weight  of  treasure  and  of  goods  which  he  had 
derived  from  the  provinces  of  Herit,  he  was  unable 
to  retain  those  appendages,  or  to  cope  with  those 
heroes.  In  order  to  preserve  (this  property)  he 
wandered  right  and  left  until  the  conclusion  of  the 
affair  was  that  he  made  it  all  the  means  of  preserv- 
ing his  existence  and  a  matter  of  life.  Therefore 
he  cast  all  this  transported  burden  and  heavy  load 
from  his  back,  and  struck  in  towards  Nishapiir. 
The  other  army  kept  close  after  him  until  he  halted 
at   the   frontiers  of  Jurjan.      He   threw   himself 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  333 

amonjjst  the  cliifs  and  thickets  of  that  land,  and 
the  surrounding  people  of  Gildn  struck  him  with 
the  hand  of  slaughter  and  plunder,  and  brought  to 
bear  their  killing  strength  upon  his  comrades  and 
his  troops.  Several  of  his  army  fled  to  the  safety 
of  the  protecting  shadow  of  Shams-al-Mu41i.  He, 
by  the  route  of  Damistan,  came  as  far  as  Nis^,  and 
sent  the  remainder  of  his  baggage  to  Ali-'bn- 
Mamiln-Khw^rism-Shah.  And  on  the  part  of  Ilek- 
Khdn  he  entrusted  him  with  the  charge  thereof, 
and  enjoined  him  to  preserve  it,  and  earnestly  re- 
commended him  to  guard  it  from  the  impurities  of 
treachery.  And  with  respect  to  all  the  camp-fol- 
lowers and  the  relics  of  the  force,  he  dismissed  them 
to  the  service  of  that  Prince,  and  started  for  Meni, 
by  way  of  the  desert.  The  Sultdn  halted  at  Tils, 
for  the  inspection  of  the  booty  of  Arsld.n-Jazib,  and 
upon  the  arrival  of  intelligence  that  Sab^shitagin 
came  out  by  way  of  the  desert,  he  turned  on  the 
road  by  which  he  might  meet  him,  in  order  that  he 
might  perchance  overtake  him,  and  draw  him  into 
the  snare  of  vengeance.  But  when  the  SuMn 
arrived  he  had  passed  to  the  desert.  Upon  this 
the  SuMn  despatched  after  him  Abdullah-Td,ln, 
with  an  army  of  Arabs  which  was  in  his  care ;  and 
his  condition  was  such  as  Said-'bn-Hass^n  describes 
(Verse) 

"  I  fled  from  a  flowing  rivulet  and  its  scantiness 

"  Unto  a  superabundant  water  and  its  confused  streams ; 


334  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

"  And  I  was  like  one  who  eagerly  rushes  into  a  canal, 
"When  desiring  to   escape  the  thunder-rain."    (i.e.,  the 
gentle  summer  rain  ?) 

And,  in  the  midst  of  a  desert  wherein  there 
was  no  water,  except  Satan's  sahva,  and  nothing 
brightly  green  (sheen)  except  the  flat  of  swords, 
they  laid  the  sword  upon  his  company  and  they 
took  prisoners  his  brother,  with  seven  hundred  of 
his  distinguished  chiefs  and  captains.  And  the 
Sultan  commanded  that  they  should  tie  each  one's 
sword  below  him,  and  place  it  upon  his  heel,  and 
carry  all  to  Ghazna,  that  all  the  world  might  take 
example  from  their  misfortune  and  distress,  and 
the  fallaciousness  of  their  confidence  (Persian 
Verse) 

"  I  have  often  contemplated  and  still  no  thought  arrived, 
but  this  good  one, 

"  Happy  he  who  directs  himself  (to  serve)  this  Lord. 

"  Let  him  who  would  be  at  ease  implore  Grod  to  make  his 
burden  light. 

"  The  head  of  every  one  will  be  cheerful  whose  foot  is  on 
that  threshold." 

Sabdshitagin,  with  a  few  individuals,  saved  his 
life,  and  passed  the  Jihiin,  and  appeared  before 
Ilek-Kh^n,  who  had  already  sent  Jaafartagin,  with 
six  thousand  horse,  towards  Balkh,  in  order  to 
divert  the  Sultdn  from  the  pursuit  of  Sabdshltagin. 
But  the  Sultan  regarded  them  not,  until  he  had 
concluded  his  immediate  engagement.     Then  he 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  335 

turned  his  reins  towards  them  and  suddenly- 
assaulted  them,  and  sent  the  Amir  Abdl  Muzaffar 
Nasr,  with  his  hunting  forces  and  reaping  troops, 
who  held  on  to  tjiem  until  they  were  all  expelled 
from  the  territory  of  Khurasdn. 

As  for  Ilek  Kh£n  he  could  not  rest  from  this 
calamity,  and  despatched  a  "  letter  of  succour"  to 
Kadir-Khan,  King  of  China,  imploring  aid.  And 
a  sea  of  Turkish  forces  came  like  a  torrent,  and 
occupied  the  utmost  parts  of  his  kingdom  and 
cities.  And  the  army  of  Miwarannahr  came,  in  a 
body  to  join  them,  and  five  thousand  bridles  passed 
the  Jihiin,  madly  proud  of  the  resources  and 
strength  of  Kadir-Khdn,  of  his  great  numbers, 
extreme  bravery,  established  abihty,  and  extensive 
power  (Verse) 

"  Around  him  is  a  sea,  which  dashes  with  its  billows  and 
wears  out  the  margin  of  the  cliff. 

"  The  stone  from  a  small  hill  comes  to  them, 

"  It  smooths  thereby  the  shore, 

"  Until  it  joins  the  fragments  of  misfortune  and  arranges 
them  in  order." 

The  news  of  their  arrival  reached  the  Sultan,  at 
Takhristan  :  he  packed  up  and  went  to  Balkh,  that 
the  food  of  their  covetousness  might  be  cut  off  from 
those  regions,  and  the  road  of  provisions  and  pay 
might  be  closed  ;  and  the  Sultdn  was  occupied  in 
arranging  the  means  of  war,  and  he  collected  a 
numerous  army,  of  various  tribes  of  Turks,  Kha- 


336  MEMOIRS  OP  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

lajes,  and  Hindiis  and  Afghans,  and  the  -  Uozz 
troops,  and  they  met  at  a  wide  place,  four  farsangs 
from  Balkh  (Verse) 

"  The  fifth  of  the  east  of  the  earth  and  the  west  responds, 
"  And  their  murmur  reaches  the  ear  of  Gremini. 
"  Therein  are  assembled  all  people, 

"  Nor  can  they  understand  the  news  without  an  inter- 
preter. 

"  Oh  G-od,  at  the  time  of  the  way  of  sorrow  thou  seest  it, 
"  And  (when)  the  warriors  and  lions  survive  not." 

Ilek  then  marched  down  with  his  army  to 
battle,  and  for  that  day  the  young  men  of  the 
army  only  boasted  and  swaggered,  until  the  carpet 
of  night  was  spread,  when  they  separated,  with  the 
promise  to  fight  with  each  other  on  the  morrow. 
And  the  Sultan  was  occupied  in  arranging  the 
order  of  battle.  He  assigned  the  centre  to  the 
Amlr-Nasr,  brother  of  the  Prince  of  Jurjdn,  Abu- 
Nasr-Farighonl,  and  Abii- Abdullah -Taini,  with  a 
body  of  his  picked  Curds  and  brave  genii.  He 
sent  the  right  to  the  great  S4hib,  the  Amir  Alton- 
tash,  and  charged  ArsMn  Jazib  with  the  left,  and 
strengthened  the  force  of  the  centre  with  five 
hundred  elephants.  And  as  to  Ilek  Khdn,  he, 
having  stationed  himself  in  the  centre,  had  Kadir- 
Kh4n,  with  the  army  of  Chin,  on  the  right,  and 
Jaafartagin  on  the  left.  Thus  they  engaged,  and 
the  earth  resounded  with  thunder -like  shouts  and 
blows,    and   was   in   a    blaze,    from    the    terrible 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  OHAZNA.  337 

lightning  of  swords,  and  they  sewed  patches  of 
dust  upon  the  blue  lining  of  the  heavenly  vault^ 
and  rendered  the  field  of  battle  brilliant  with  the 
torches  of  arms  and  the  tapers  of  spears,  and 
sprinkles  of  blood  began  to  rain  from  those 
lightning  scimitars.  And  Ilek-Khd,n,  with  five 
hundred  Turkish  ghulams  (quasi  grenadiers)  fought 
so  skilfully  that  in  the  front  of  the  army  they  could 
split  a  hair  with  their  arrows,  and  could  take  a 
mountain  from  its  place  by  the  strokes  of  their 
swords.  Then  the  sea  of  war  was  raised  to  a  storm 
and  the  ground  of  the  field  was  shaken  as  by  an 
earthquake.  And  the  SuMn,  when  he  witnessed 
the  mighty  strength  and  terrible  power  of  that 
body,  came  down  to  a  small  hill  and  implored  the 
Almighty  to  strengthen  his  right  hand  and  forgive 
(his  errors  ?)  and  he  placed  his  hand  upon  the  end 
of  the  skirt  of  Heaven  and  trusted  in  God's 
guardianship,  and  asked  victory  from  Him  ;  and  he 
made  vows  of  offerings  and  engaged  himself  to 
give  pious  alms,  and  humbly  submitted  himself  to 
God  (imploring)  that  He  would  speed  on  victory 
and  conquest.  Then  he  mounted  his  own  special 
elephant,  and,  with  clear  mind  and  sincere  assur- 
ance, made  a  charge  upon  Ilek-Khdn's  centre  ;  and 
his  elephant  seized  the  standard-bearer  of  Ilek- 
Kh&n  and  tossed  him  into  the  air,  and,  with 
weighty  fury  and  extreme  might  humbled  the 
men  under  his  foot,   and  with  his  trunk  hurled 


338  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

them  from  the  back  of  horses,  and  tore  them  to 
pieces  with  his  teeth.  Upon  this  the  chiefs  of  the 
Sultan  boiled  with  the  eagerness  of  opportunity 
and  the  gladness  of  victory,  and  bestirred  their 
scimitars  to  strike  the  mass.  Then  came  the  tongue 
of  reproach  and  cursing,  and  they  compelled  the 
troops  of  the  Turks  to  leave  (original,  Tarh)  their 
position,  and  to  take  the  path  of  flight,  and  the 
Sultan's  army  with  fury  and  madness  cast  them 
back  to  Mdnardnnahr,  and  not  a  trace  of  them  re- 
mained in  Khurasan.  And  again,  these  verses  of 
Salami  contain  a  description  of  the  event,  and  a 
delineation  of  the  impress  of  the  Sultan's  deeds 
( Yerse) 

"  Oh  sword  of  the  religion  of  Grod  {i.  e.,  the  Sultdn)  thou 
art  not  pleasing  to  the  enemy,  even  although  thy  sword  like 
thy  rectitude,  cuts  rightly"  &c.,  &c. — opdoTOfiet. 

And  when  the  Sultd,n  had  concluded  this  great 
victory,  and  had  allayed  the  heat  of  his  anxiety, 
and  had  put  an  end  to  the  series  of  these  accidents, 
he  determined  to  carry  out  his  design  of  attacking 
Nawastah-Shdh,  (or,  Zab-Sais).  This  Prince  was 
one  of  those  sons  of  some  Kings  of  India,  unto 
whom  the  Sultdn,  having  displayed  to  them  the 
profession  of  Isldm,  had  intrusted  several  of  the 
provinces  which  he  had  won  from  the  infidels,  and 
had  given  the  reins  of  the  government  of  regions 
unto  the  hand  of  his  fidelity,  and  had  confidence  in 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  339 

him,  and  had  left  him  deputy  and  viceroy  in  those 
countries.  But  he  divested  himself  of  the  collar  of 
religion  and  the  robe  of  IsMm,  and  put  on  the 
cloak  of  infidelity,  and  became  an  apostate.  The 
Sultdn  twisted  him  from  his  position  by  one  direct 
attack,  and  expelled  him  broken  and  discomforted 
from  those  limits,  and  a  second  time  adorned 
Bahjat-Milik  with  that  kingdom,  under  his  own 
sovereignty.  These  two  great  victories,  and  im- 
portant affairs,  presented  a  clear  demonstration  and 
a  cutting  proof  of  the  exalted  dignity  of  the  Sultdn, 
of  his  perfect  fortunes,  of  the  support  of  God,  and 
of  the  aid  of  heavenly  kindness.  And  thus,  beneath 
the  canopy  of  empire  and  of  victory  he  turned  his 
face  towards  Ghazna.  "  For  this  grace  of  God 
makes  to  believe  whom  He  will,"  for  God  has 
great  grace. 


ACCOTJNT  OF  THE  CaPTUEB  OP  THE  FoBT  OF  BAHfM  BY 

Stoem. 

After  these  two  famous  victories  he  came  to  his 
capital,  Ghazna,  with  a  view  to  enjoy  repose  and 
refreshment,  in  order  to  give  some  days'  relaxation. 
Then,  however,  when  he  found  that  the  pole  of  his 
quiescence  began  to  be  in  motion,  and  when  he  saw 
the  star  of  his  repose  begin  to  travel,  then  his  mind 
turned  to  the  choice  of  expanded  boundaries,  in- 
stead of  limited  ones,  to  the  deeds  of  swords  and 

z  2 


340  MEMOIRS  or  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

glory,  instead  of  self-pleasure,  and  rebellion,  to  a 
repulse  of  every  attachment  to  amusement,  and 
unto  God's  will,  instead  of  a  perverse  disposition. 
And  all  his  times  being  thus  devoted  and  conse- 
crated unto  the  building  up  of  perfect  renown,  and 
gaining  an  abundant  recompense  ;  he,  by  reason  of 
this  gracious  resolution,  determined  upon  another 
conquest,  whereby  the  colours  of  IsMm  might  be 
exalted,  and  the  flags  of  idolatry  and  denial  of 
religion  might  be  subverted  and  overset.  When, 
therefore,  the  month  Rabi'al-Ackhir  of  that  year 
had  passed  he  marched  forth.  And  when  he 
arrived  on  the  bank  of  the  W^mund,  W4b41-'bn- 
Abdbil  came  to  confront  him  with  a  numerous 
army.  And  from  the  time  that  the  falcon  of  morn- 
ing took  his  flight  from  the  nest  of  the  horizon, 
until  the  crow  of  darkness  closed  her  wing,  the  fire 
of  battle  burnt,  and  the  pieces  of  men's  bodies 
hacked  by  the  sword  coloured  the  earth  as  if  by 
anemones.  And  it  had  nearly  happened  that  the 
army  (of  the  Sultin)  were  wounded  (worsted),  and 
that  the  infidels  had  obtained  the  high  hand. 
However  the  promise  respecting  victory  to  the 
words  of  Isldm  were  fulfilled,  and  the  Sultd,n  with 
his  own  guards  made  a  charge,  under  which  the 
feet  of  the  infidels  were  unable  to  stand.  They 
were  therefore  routed,  and  sixty  head  of  elephants, 
which  were  the  guard  of  that  mountain-like  temple, 
by  the  river  passage  of  those  infidels,  fell  into  the 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  341 

SuMn's  hands,  and  they  drove  them  amongst  the 
black  hills  and  deep  passes.  And  the  Sultdn 
moved  his  soul  in  seeking  those  vile  wretched  ones, 
and  cast  to  the  ground  many  of  those  false  felons. 
And  then  he  arrived  at  the  base  of  the  fort  of 
Bahin  Bara  (Baghra,  or  Naghra)  .*  This  is  a  castle 
in  the  midst  of  the  water,  very  moist,  high  as  a 
mountain,  and  an  inaccessible  pit  (keep  ?)  con- 
structed there.  And  the  people  of  India  made  it 
a  treasury  for  their  great  idols,  and  load  upon  load 
of  precious  goods  and  jewels  had  been  transported 
there,  for  the  purpose  of  obtaining  salvation,  and 
for  the  sake  of  a  nearer  approach  to  Heaven,  and 
for  oblations  to  the  Almighty.  The  Sultdn  closely 
surrounded  this  fortress.  And  they  began  to  fight 
in  defence  of  this  castle  with  devoted  strength  and 
resolute  fierceness.  But  when  those  people  beheld 
the  power  of  those  stirrers-up  (lit.  pokers)  of  war, 
and  the  majesty  of  those  exciters  of  burning  fuel, 
fear  and  horror  grasped  hold  of  them,  and  dread 
and  terror  seized  the  expanse  of  their  breasts,  and 
their  enemies'  exploits  bound  the  bandage  of  dis- 
grace over  their  eyes.  And  the  Sultin  threw  the 
snaring  rope  of  conquest  over  their  head,  so  that 
they  capitulated,  and  consented  to  serve  in  war 
under  the  banners  of  the  Sultdn.  Then  they 
opened  the  gate,  and  humbly  offered  service  to  the 

*  Bahim  Baghra,  or  Naghra,  near  Naghrakut,  iii  Lahore, 


342  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OP  QHAZNA. 

SuMn's  stirrup,  and  cast  themselves  upon  the 
ground.  And  from  the  benefits  of  this  possession 
prodigious  fruits  and  abundant  flowers  accrued  to 
the  Sultan,  and  he  found  such  an  amount  of  exqui- 
site gems,  brilUant  jewels,  and  precious  stones,  and 
rare  treasures,  that  the  fingers  of  the  scribe,  and 
the  account  books  of  the  calculators,  would  be  un- 
equal to  the  task  of  catalogueing  and  numbering 
them,  and  with  the  Prince  of  Jurjin  and  his  private 
attendants,  he  went  within  the  castle.  And  he 
committed  the  guardianship  of  the  gold  and  silver 
and  other  (like)  valuables  to  his  two  Chamberlains, 
Altontdsli  and  Istargin,  but  determined  that  he 
would  himself  undertake  the  care  of  the  treasure  of 
jewels,  and  transport  the  whole  on  the  back  of  men 
and  camels.  And  as  far  as  it  could  be  brought  to 
computation  and  account,  the  treasure  consisted  of 
1,070  packets  of  royal  dirhims,  and  700,400  mans 
of  gold  and  sUver  bullion.  And  as  to  the  robes, 
and  cups  (or  basins),  silk  and  cloth,  &c.,  they  were 
so  many,  that  the  seniors  of  the  empire  and  clerks 
of  State  were  quite  unable  to  arrange  them,  and 
acknowledged  that  they  had  never  beheld  such 
robes,  both  as  regarded  the  beauty  of  the  workman- 
ship, and  its  delicate  excellence.  And  amongst 
other  discoveries  they  found  a  large  house  made  of 
silver,  sixty  cubits  long,  and  fifty  wide,  with  broad 
flooring,  so  arranged,  and  so  contrived  with  ropes, 
that  the  whole  could  be  thrown  together,  or  could 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  QHAZNA.  343 

be  separated  into  divisions ;  that  it  could  be  folded 
up  or  expanded,  let  down  or  raised  up  with  ease  ; 
with  curtains  of  Grecian  brocade,  and  two  golden 
statues,  and  twb  silver  statues.  The  SuMn  then 
left  several  of  the  gravest  and  most  trust-worthy 
of  the  State  to  protect  that  fortress,  and  with  the 
pledges  of  victory,  and  beneath  the  canopy  of 
power,  turned  towards  Ghazna.  And  when  safely 
settled  in  his  glorious  abode  and  expanded  Court, 
he  ordered  that  a  carpet  should  be  spread  in  the 
midst  of  the  serai,  and  that  they  should  ponr  upon 
it,  those  pearls  bright  as  stars,  those  jacinths 
coloured  like  flames,  those  fresh  green  emeralds,  arid 
those  packets  of  perfect  crystal  stones.  The  chiefs 
of  countries  arid  deputies  of  provinces  were  there, 
who  took  the  finger  of  astonishment  into  their 
mouth.  And  the  envoys  of  Togha-Khdn,  King  of 
the  Turks,  were  present,  and  all  confessed  that  a 
sight  of  this  kind  could  not  be  contained  within  the 
compass  of  thought,  and  that  the  treasures  of 
Kardn  could  not  have  amounted  to  a  tenth  part 
thereof     Heaven  knows,  however. 

Accorsx  OF  THE  Family  or  PAEfauK. 

The  country  of  Juzjdn  had  for  a  long  time  of 
the  reign  of  the  family  of  SdmSn  appertained  unto 
Farigun,  the  inheritance  descending  from  grand* 
father  to  father,  and  brought  down  from  predeces* 


344      MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

sor  to  successor.  Their  beneficent  and  generous 
dispositions  had  deserted  the  path  of  ill-will  (or 
suspicion)  with  regard  to  people,  and  the  poor 
and  good  of  those  regions  sought,  as  an  object 
to  be  attained,  their  protection  and  favour. 
Hence  their  wealth  was  an  opportunity  for  hope 
(to  dwell  upon).  Their  land  became  the  plain  and 
meadow  for  the  relaxation  of  all  noble  hearts, 
and  the  reward  of  poetry  bore  a  high  price 
in  the  market  of  their  humanity,  whilst  their 
liberality  was  always  forward  and  engaged  in 
mending  that  which  was  broken,  and  in  freeing 
that  which  was  captive  ;  and  the  virtuous  examples 
of  the  world  were  eager  to  receive  the  beauty  and 
ornament  of  their  benefits.  And  Abil-Harith-'bn- 
Muhammad  was  one  of  the  most  illustrious  princes 
of  his  dynasty,  and  the  glory  of  aU  the  race,  and 
in  their  very  embroidered  border  he  possessed 
saintly  beneficence,  a  broad  canopy  of  protection, 
and  a  well  ruling  sceptre.  The  Amir  Sabaktagin 
had  requested  favour  after  favour  in  behalf  of  his 
son,  and  for  his  son  Abii-Nasr  he  had  procured  an 
incomparable  pearl  (one  of  his  daughters  in  mar- 
riage ?)  from  the  glorious  ocean,  Nasir-Addin,  so 
that  the  ground  (the  existence)  of  a  union  in 
temperament  had  been  established  between  their 
two  Highnesses.  Moreover  bonds  of  kindred  and 
confidences  of  affinity  had  been  fixed  and  inter- 
twined  between  them.     And  when  Abii-Harith 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  345 

died,  the  Sultdn  confirmed  his  son  in  the  possession 
of  that  territory,  and  specially  aided  and  tended 
him,  until,  in  the  year  401,  he  migrated  from  the 
house  of  earth  to  the  house  of  retribution.  And 
Badi-Hamadd,nl  when  he  presented  himself  to 
their  Majesties  threw  this  fragment  of  poetry,  when 
he  was  introduced,  before  them  (Verse) 

"  A  book  and  the  sea,  if  I  have  never  seen  them  I  hare 
heard  an  account  of  them  ; 

"  A  lion !  if  I  have  not  met  with  him  I  can  imagine  and 
portray  his  nature ; 

"  A  just  king !  if  I  have  not  fallen  in  with  him  his  character 
hath  fallen  in  with  me,  and  whoso  hath  seen  the  effects  of  his 
sword  hath  seen  his  greatness,"  &c.,  &c.,  &c. 

And  when  he  left  the  presence  he  composed 
the  following,  as  an  offering  of  thanks  for  his 
reception  (Verse) 

"  Dost  thou  not  see  that  in  my  journey  I  met  with  my  wish, 
■with  riches,  with  the  Amir  ; 

"  And  whilst  thou  beholdest  I  was  light  and  cheerful  upon 
the  earth, 

"And  I  was  an  important  person,  who  smells  perfumes," 
Ac,  &c. 


346  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

Account   of  the   CoMMAiirDEE  of  the  Faithful,  Kadie- 

BlLLAH,  AND    HIS    KhilIfAT  AFTER  Tit,  AKD  HIS  InAUGIT- 

eation,  and  the  Teansaotions  that  occueeed  with  him 
AND  the  Sultan  Yamin-Addoulah  and    Biha-Addou- 

LAH. 

*The  Amir  Biha-Addoulah-wa-Zi4-Al-Millat, 
considering  that  tlie  Commander  of  tlie  Faithful 
Al-T4i-Billah  evaded  his  just  counsels  in  the  ad- 
ministration of  the  affairs  of  the  empire,  and  in 
various  matters  acted  in  opposition  to  his  satisfac- 
tion and  consent,  and  that  from  this  cause  ruin 
presented  itself,  and  dissensions  originated  on  all 
sides,  applied  all  his  thoughts  to  the  proposition, 
that  he  should  choose,  for  the  throne  of  Khilafat, 
and  for  the  investiture  with  the  faithful  Imimship, 
some  one  whose  fitness  for  this  great  business,  and 
weighty  matter,  he  himself  knew,  and  who  would 
acknowledge  it  to  be  an  absolute  duty  to  govern  in 
a  salutary  manner  the  high  and  the  low ;  one  who, 
in  guarding  the  apple  of  the  eye  of  Isldm,  and  in 
faithful  regard  to  the  centre  of  religion  would  be 
far  from  following  his  own  passions,  or  from  the 

*  De  Sacy  remarks  that  this  account  of  a  revolution  in  the 
Khilafat  is  unconnected  with  the  history  of  Mahmfid  of 
Grhazna  ;  but  perhaps  Utbi  inserted  it  for  the  following  reason  : 
Biha^Addoulat  was  one  of  the  princes  of  the  family  of  Boyah, 
or  Buwwoyah,  over  which  Mahmud  was  Suzerain,  and  the 
author,  therefore,  probably  designed  to  indicate  the  influence 
of  Mahmud,  as  superior  lord  of  one  who  could  depose  and 
nominate  a  khalif  at  his  pleasure. 


MEMOlJtS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  347 

choice  of  the  will  of  self  He  watched  his  oppor- 
tunity for  carrying  out  this  design,  until  the  month 
Shaabdn,  in  the  year  381,  he  deposed  him  from  the 
Khilafat,  and  transferred  his  property  and  trea- 
sure. And  having  sent  to  Tdih,  he  summoned  the 
Commander  of  the  Believers  Al-Kadir-Billah,  Abii 
Ishak-'bn  -Ahmad-'bn  -  Ishak  -  Almuktadir  -  Billah, 
Commander  of  the  Faithful,  who  resided  there,  to 
Bagdad,  and  invested  him  with  the  Empire.  Thus 
the  task  of  mending  the  broken  affairs  of  the  State, 
and  reestablishing  the  people  was  settled  upon  him. 
He  arrived  at  Bagdad  in  Eamadh^n  of  that  year. 
All  classes  of  men,  on  account  of  the  veritable  evi- 
dences of  his  character,  and  their  unmixed  confi- 
dence in  him,  were  eager  for  his  inauguration,  and 
invoked  blessings  and  prosperity  upon  his  Imdm- 
ship,  and  Khilafat,  since  his  virtues  were  hke 
stars  shining  brightly  upon  the  whole  earth,  and 
his  deeds  like  flowers  displayed  upon  the  surface  of 
time.  And  he,  in  the  burden  of  that  stewardship 
and  obligations  of  that  office  of  Imdm,  resolved 
upon  such  a  course  of  conduct  that  all  who  knew 
him  allowed  that  such  an  Imdm  as  he,  both  in  full- 
ness of  intellect,  and  gravity  and  dignity  and 
superabundance  of  sedateness,  and,  purity  of  man- 
ners, had  never  sat  upon  the  throne  of  the  Khila- 
fat. For  his  modesty,  and  decision,  strength  of 
heart,  liberality  of  disposition,  his  splendid  dignity, 
the  terror  of  his  sword  find  spear,  his  eloquence  of 


348  MEMOIRS  OF  MiHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

language,  and  the  regular  generosity  in  distinguish- 
ing merit  and  desert  which  was  a  peculiarity  of  his 
noble  nature,  were  qualities  which  had  never  be- 
fore been  united  in  any  one  of  the  race  of  Abbess. 
And  on  account  of  their  kindred  origin,  and 
through  the  influence  of  the  affinity  of  Tdl  to  him, 
he  alleviated  his  deposition,  a.nd  took  him  beneath 
the  canopy  of  his  care  and  kindness,  and  honoured 
him  specially  with  his  association  and  companion- 
ship, and  introduced  him  as  a  particular  comrade 
into  the  chamber  of  his  favours  and  generosity, 
and  forgot  not  that  during  his  festival  of  power 
and  season  of  autocracy  he  had  suffered  misfortune 
and  wounds,  until  Fate  who  cuts  off  sport,  and 
tears  up  sociability  sat  down  between  them,  and 
dissevered  them.  Abii-  Alhussain-Muhammad-Ibn- 
Hussainl-Al  Musa,  in  his  elegy  upon  Tdi,  says 
thus  (Verse) 

"  If  this  was  a  great  rock  it  hath  fallen,  after  having  been 
raised  high  and  widely, 

"  Though  in  height,  and  width,  and  length  it  was  a  mansion 
for  the  vault  of  the  stars  in  motion,"  &c.,  &c. 

Moreover  the  orators  of  Irak,  and  poets  of 
those  countries  came  troop  after  troop  fco  present 
themselves  to  His  Highness  the  Khalif,  and  offered 
compositions,  and  verses,  and  encomia  of  the  Com- 
mander of  the  Faithful,  Alkadir-Billdh,  his  noble 
sentiments,  and  his  illustrious  kindred  who  were 


IIEMOIRS  OF  MAIIMUD  OF  GHA.ZNA.  349 

the  fountains  of  right,  the  corner-stones  of  gene- 
rosity, the  lanterns  in  darkness,  and  the  convincers 
of  the  people.  Their  long  and  short  poems  were 
collected,  and  their  narratives  personal  or  designa- 
tive,  clearly  explicated  and  declared.  And  Abii- 
Muhammad-'bn-Abdiil-IsMm-'bn-Muhammad-'bn- 
Al-Halzam,  who  was  one  of  the  Im4ms  of  Khurd- 
s^n  relates,  when  the  Commander  of  the  Faithful, 
Al-Kadir-Billah,  was  inaugurated  as  Khalif,  T  rose 
up  at  his  feet,  and  composed  this  oration  (Oration) 

"  Praise  to  God,  ]jossessed  of  might  and  victory,  whose 
reproofs  are  undeniable  and  his  bounties  evident,  vrhose 
goodness  is  common  to  all,  whose  kingdom  is  eternal,  whose 
glory  is  gentle,  whose  decree  can  never  be  repelled,  and  whose 
gifts  cannot  be  hindered,"  &c.,  &c. 

"  And  lo  !  Grod's  favour  hath  given  us  the  happiness  to 
tread  the  carpet  of  the  Commander  of  Believers,  praising  God 
for  the  benefits  he  hath  given  us,  by  (recognizing)  the  royalty 
of  the  Commander  of  Believers,  Mahmud-'bn-Sabaktagin, 
whose  conduct  is  as  his  name  (i.e.,  laudable,  illustrious). 
And  we  pray  (jod  that  the  peace  of  the  Commander  of  the 
Believers  may  be  everlasting,  and  that  his  hopes  may  be  ful- 
filled in  Abul-Fazl,  Prince  of  the  Law  of  Muslims,  he  who 
conquers  in  God,  son  of  the  Commander  of  Believers,  and  that 
God  may  cause  to  follow  upon  him  the  happiness  of  his  just 
fathers,  and  good  and  pure  ancestors.  So  praise  to  God,  Lord 
of  both  "Worlds,  and  benediction  upon  his  Prophet  Muhammad 
and  all  his  family." 

Now  when  this  oration  had  come  to  an  end, 
the  Commander  of  Believers  ordered  that  they 
should  make  a  copy  of  it,  and  preserve  it  in  his 
treasury.    And  when  the  pulpits  of  Khurasdn  were 


350  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

adorned  and  decorated  with  the  inspection  of  the 
august  succession  of  Alkadir-Billdh,  the  Sultdn 
displayed  marks  of  obedience,  and  peculiar  affec- 
tion, and  special  proofs  of  confirmed  fidelity,  and 
the  Commander  of  Believers,  Al-Kadir-Billah, 
gave  a  supreme  diploma,  ordaining  that  in  the 
commendatory  commemoration  of  the  country  they 
should  recognize  the  right  of  his  son,  Al-Ghalih- 
Billdh,  and  signified  his  wiU  that  his  surnames 
should  be  conjoined  with  those  of  his  father  in  the 
pulpits  of  Islam.  And  the  Sultan  strictly  imposed 
this  diploma,  by  a  similar  one,  and  made  it  a  mat- 
ter of  obligation,,  and  on  all  days  of  festivals  and 
congregations  caused  the  Khuthah  to  be  illumi- 
nated and  adorned  with  both  these  two  surnames. 
And  now  let  us  again  turn  our  narrative  to 
Biha-Addoulah,  and  the  exposition  of  his  adven- 
tures. With  respect  to  his  affairs  subsequent  to 
the  decease  of  Azduddouldh,  they  are  so  fuUy  con- 
tained in  the  book  entitled,  "  Connected  Compila- 
tions respecting  the  transactions  of  AzduddouMh, 
with  the  son  of  his  uncle  Bakhtyar,  until  (he?) 
took  and  killed  him,  and  sent  his  head  to  Azdud- 
douldt,"  that  it  would  be  profitless  to  repeat  it. 
The  Amir  AzdaddouMh  died  in  the  year  327. 
And  in  those  days  his  brother  Muyyad-Addouldh 
was  fully  occupied  in  the  war  with  Hasdm-Addou- 
Mh-Tdsh,  and  Fdik,  and  the  army  of  Khurasdn, 
therefore  the  sons  of  the  Empire  and  chiefs  of  his 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  351 

Court  invested  his  son  Sams^m-Addoul4h-wa- 
Shams-Al-Millat  with  the  government,  and  girded 
themselves  to  obey  and  follow  him.  And  the 
Commander  of  the  Faithful,  Al-Tdi-Billdh,  with 
warm  regard,  commanded  the  ceremony  of  condo- 
lence (tazit)  to  be  performed  (for  the  late  Prince), 
on  the  banks  of  the  Tigris,  the  people  of  Bagdad, 
being  spectators  of  that  concourse  and ,  assembly. 
And  when  Tdi  came  near  Samsdm-Addouldh  ran 
from  his  pavilion,  and  exhibited  every  indication  of 
humility  and  allegiance.  And  T4i  said,  "  May  God 
aid  the  face  of  the  departing  one.  May  God  grant 
thee  a  succession  that  is  durable !  May  condolence 
be  offered,  after  that  succession,  to  thee,  not  for 
thee,  and  a  succession  devolve  upon  thee,  not  from 
thee."  Upon  this  tears  came  into  the  eyes  of 
Samsim-Addoulah,  and  he  kissed  the  ground  of 
respect.  And  when  the  days  of  mourning  were 
accomplished  he  took  his  seat  in  the  room  of  his 
father,  and  occupied  himself  in  arranging  his  king- 
dom and  ruling  his  subjects  (literally,  feeding  his 
flock).  But  Abul-Fawaras-Sharzi,  who  was  his 
elder  brother,  was  settled  at  Karm^n,  in  the  city 
"W^shlr.  When  intelligence  of  the  decease  of  his 
father  reached  him  he  came  to  Fars,  and  seized 
All-'bu-Nasr-Hardn,  who  had  been  Vizier  of  Az- 
duddoulah,  and  took  possession  of  all  the  treasure, 
and  of  the  residue  of  the  revenue  which  wa;S  at 
his  disposal.     Then  he  came  to  Haw4z,  and  dis- 


352  MEMOIRS  0¥  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA, 

possessed  his  brother  Abiil-Hasdn-'bn-Ahmad-'bn- 
Azdaddoulah  of  that  province.  He  then  came  to 
Basra,  and,  in  Kajib  of  the  year  375,  took  Basra 
by  capitulation.  He  then  proceeded  to  Bagdad  to 
obtain  his  father's  place.  And  when  intelligence  of 
his  approach  arrived,  Sams^m  -  Addoulah,  by  dint  of 
his  great  finesse,  began  to  go  round,  to  go  from  side 
to  side,  to  vacillate,  to  endeavour  to  evade  the  savage 
temper  and  to  shift  from  the  hatred  of  his  brother. 
Yet  he  learned  that  the  sheath  and  repository 
cannot  hold  two  swords,  and  that  he  ought  not  to 
conceive  the  idea  of  shooting  two  arrows  from  one 
bow  ;  for  Abul-Fawdris  abused,  and  insulted  him. 
Then  he  seized  him,  and  sacrificed  his  eyes,  and 
sent  him  to  the  fort  of  Karusan  to  his  uncle,  and 
took  quiet  possession  of  the  kingdom.  And  the 
Commander  of  the  Believers,  At-T41-Bill4h,  con- 
ferred upon  him  the  title  of  Sharaf-Addoulah-wa- 
Zain-Al-Millat.  He  reigned  two  years,  and  in 
JamMl,  Al-Achir,  of  the  year  399  ( ? ),  he  died 
suddenly.  And  Shdlnsh4h-Biha-Addoulah-wa-Zia- 
Al-Millat-Abii-Nasr'-bn-Azdaddoulah  seized  the 
kingdom,  and  displayed  a  white  hand  in  retaining, 
administering,  and  governing  all  things,  in  adjust- 
ing the  carpet  of  justice,  and  in  settling  the  king- 
dom advantageously.  He  displayed  good  features 
(of  character^,  possessed  perfect  intelligence  in  mer- 
cantile affairs,  and  an  extreme  far-sightedness  as  to 
the  issues  of  events.     But  a  body  of  the  army  of 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  QHAZNA.  353 

the  Turks  coming  to  the  fortress  of  Fars,  released 
Sams^m-Addoulah  therefrom,  and  proclaimed  him 
Amir.     And  thus  his  memorable  happiness,  con- 
veyed him  from  amongst  slaves,  and  exalted  him 
to  high  rank,  from  the  castle  where  he  had  been 
imprisoned.     Thus  he  became  chieftain  over  the 
kingdom  of  Fars,  and  seized  the  wealth  and  reve- 
nues, and  availed  himself  of  the  treasure  which  had 
been  provided.     Afterwards  all  the  Turks  rebelled 
against  him,  and  brought  out   Abii-Ali-'bn-Abill- 
Fardwiz,  and  entitled  him.  Sun  of  the  State  and 
Moon  of  the  Faith   (Shams- Addoula-wa-KdmrAl- 
Millat)  and  proceeded  to  claim  the  kingdom  by  way 
of  force.     Sams^m-Addoulah  addressed  himself  to 
repulse  them,  and  defeated  them,  so  that  they  fell 
back  with  loss  and  distress  to  BagdM.   And  Blha- 
Addoulah  resolved  to  oppose  Samsdm-Addoulah, 
and  some  warlike  meetings  fell  out  between  them, 
and  during  the  time  of  these  confusions  Basra  was 
reduced  to  ruin,  and  the  greater  part  of  the  terri- 
tory of  Hawdz  was  exposed  to  destruction.     And 
the  sons  of  Baktyar  were  in  the  fortress  of  Majds, 
and  a  body  of  royal  Curds,  in  order  to  stir  up  the 
flames  of  discord,  and  from  their  bias  unto  crime 
and  malice,  brought  them  out.    Sams^m-Addoulah 
occupied  himself  in  repelling  them,  and  gave  them 
general  repulses.     But  in  the  end  he  was  killed  in 
one  of  those  battles,  and  became  a  martyr.     And 
Biha-Addoulah,  from  motives  of  affectionate  kin- 

2  a 


354  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

dred  and  near  affinity,  drew  the  sword  of  vengeance 
against  those  forces,  and  expelled  them  all  from  his 
kingdom.  And  their  General  and  Amir  Niir-Ad- 
doulah  was  a  son  of  Baktyar,  and  his  affairs  came 
to  that  extremity  that  he  was  reduced  to  levy  pay- 
ments for  protection,  and  to  stop  merchandize  on 
the  road,  and  by  payments  therefrom  hoped  for 
wealth  {or*  caused  fear  to  them).  And  Blha- 
Addoulah  sent  an  army  after  him,  which  came  up 
with  him  at  the  city  gate  (of  Daru  ?)  and  killed  him. 
And  of  the  corps  of  guards  of  Blha-Addoulah 
there  was  one  who  took  possession  of  his  head,  and 
bringing  it  presented  it  to  that  Prince,  who  was 
extremely  angry,  and  commanded  that  they  should 
flay  that  soldier  from  head  to  foot,  that  others 
might  take  example,  nor  display  such  zeal  in  killing 
kings.  And  he  sent  the  General  of  the  Army  to 
Bagddd,  that  he  might  settle  the  collection  of  the 
imposts,  and  the  salutary  direction  of  revenue,  and 
the  preservation  of  the  affairs  of  the  empire,  and 
the  fitting  order  of  the  kingdom.  And  in  this  busi- 
ness he  displayed  agreeable  conduct,  and  by  his 
mild  proceedings  in  his. government  carefully  re- 
garded measures  of  prosperity,  and  means  of  full 
justice,  and  gained  an  enviable  name  and  fame. 
Thankful  acknowledgments  to  him  were  published 
and  proclaimed  in  the  mouth  of  the  select  and  the 

*  MS.  doubtful. 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUB  OP  GHAZNA.  355 

popular  ranks,  until  his  life  came  to  an  end.  His 
successor  was  the  7izier  of  Viziers,  who  surpassed 
even  the  General  of  the  army  in  gaining  good 
deeds,  and  in  laying  up  generous  actions,  and  in 
guiding  his  people,  in  his  manner  of  taxing,  in  his 
opposition  to  falsehood,  in  his  exaltation  of  the 
custom  of  gifts,  in  stopping  the  avarice  of  de- 
vourers,  in  his  goodness  to  the  body  of  the  people, 
and  in  his  zeal  for  healing  the  crudities  of  wicked- 
ness, and  in  setting  right  the  followers  after  confu- 
sion. And  the  kingdoms  of  Fars  and  Karmdn, 
with  other  provinces,  were  annexed  to  the  dominion 
of  Biha-Addpulah,  and  the  fires  of  discord  went 
down,  and  afiairs  were  joined  in  due  order,  and 
universal  peace  and  perfect  tranquillity  appeared, 
and  the  people  found  the  days  of  an  interval  of 
deliverance  from  the  hardships  of  oppression  and 
wrong.  Thus  during  the  life  of  Azduddoulah- 
-^bd-Ali-'bn-Alife,  and  his  possession  of  the  coasts 
of  Karmdn,  that  country  through  the  power  of  the 
Samanides  and  their  supremacy  in  those  frontiers 
could  hold  itself  firm,  without  sufiering  or  repulsing 
attack. 

And  because  he  beheld  a  determined  disposi- 
tion in  his  son,  and  remarked  the  evidences  of 
ambition  in  his  understanding  and  imagination,  he 
sent  him  to  one  of  the  fortresses  of  Karm^n.  Here 
he  was  imprisoned  for  some  time.  And  in  this 
castle  were  several  of  the  family  of  his  father's 

2  a2 


356  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OP  GHAZNA. 

Court :  they  cast  an  eye  upon  tlie  imprisoned 
Prince,  and  pitied  his  condition.  Therefore  they 
tied  their  veils  together  and  let  him  down  from  the 
top  of  the  castle.  And  when  the  army  became 
aware  of  the  escape  of  the  Prince  they  all 
assembled  and  joined  him,  and  during  all  the  days 
of  his  father  they  wearied  him  with  measures  (and 
propositions)  of  trouble.  And  Abd-Ali  sent  a 
message  to  the  chiefs  of  the  army  and  notables  of 
the  people,  and  desired  to  know  the  cause  of  their 
hatred  and  ground  of  their  fierceness,  and  em- 
ployed gentle  and  friendly  words.  But  he  received 
no  healing  reply  and  saw  no  result,  except  the 
necessity  of  propitiating  His  Highness.*  For  all 
released  him  from  governing,  and  absolutely 
required  that  he  should  separate  himself  from  the 
country  and  towns  of  Karmdn,  and  divest  himself 
of  all  desire  for  those  regions.  And  when  he  saw 
the  vehemence  and  obstinacy  of  these  forces  he 
perceived  that  there  was  no  remedy,  but  in  gentle- 
ness and  in  quitting  his  lordly  tone.  Therefore  he 
collected  the  property  and  moveables  which  he  had, 
and  took  the  road  to  Bukhdrd  ;  and  he  sent  his 
son,  'bn-Mahdi,  and  Barmash,  the  Chamberlain, 
to  the  other  son,  in  order  that,  by  the  aid  of  their 
perfect  intellect,  they  might  expedite  his  affairs. 
And  when  Abii-Ali  arrived  at  Bukhara  he  used 
the  utmost  endeavour,  by  seeking  and  visiting,  to 

*  His  Highness,  i.  e.,  of  Bukhara :  the  dates  are  confused. 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  357 

obtain  splendour  and  distinction  for  his  rank,  and 
was  a  constant  attendant  at  the  presence  of  the 
King,  until,  in  the  month  Shaivdl  and  the  year 
356  (?)  he  was  committed  to  the  grave.  And  his 
son  Allsa  obtained  possession  of  the  kingdom  of 
Karman  ;  and  his  affairs  met  with  perfect  success, 
and  his  authority  was  consolidated  and  advanced. 
His  brother  Sulimdn  was  settled  at  Jarjdn,  for 
the  viceroyalty  of  that  place  had  been  committed 
to  him.  He  stirred  up  his  son  'bn-Mahdi- Allsa 
to  attack  him,  and  said  that  he  ought  to  lay  hands 
upon  him  before  his  disjointed  affairs  were  fully 
put  in  order,  and  his  condition  settled.  Alisa  then 
summoned  his  brother  from  Jirjdn,  under  pretext 
of  consulting  him  upon  some  weighty  business. 
He  however  sought  to  hold  back,  by  means  of  false 
excuses  and  deceitful  words.  And  Allsa  became 
grieved  at  this  refusal,  and  conceived  a  suspicion 
of  him.  He  therefore  attacked  and  defeated  him, 
and  seized  all  his  property  and  baggage,  heavy  and 
light,  and  Sulim^n  went  to  Bukhdrd.  But  the 
history  of  AHsa  turned  out  eventually  according  to 
the  saying,  "The  ass  seeking  two  horns,  lost  his 
two  ears."  The  explication  of  which  proverb  is  this, 
when  he  arrived  on  the  frontiers  of  the  country 
of  Fars,  a  detachment  of  the  army  of  Azduddoul^h 
went  to  offer  service  to  him.  He  caressed  them 
greatly,  and  gave  them  dresses  of  honour.  But 
then  several  of  this  body  fled,  and  came  into  the  ser- 


358  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZWA. 

vice  of  Azduddoulah.  For  this  cause  Alisa  became 
suspicious  of  the  fidelity  of  the  remainder,  and  made 
them  all  an  example.  Then  most  of  his  army  went 
into  the  service  of  Azduddoulah,  who  abundantly 
honoured  them.  And  the  army  witnessing  the  dis- 
ruption of  these  two  bodies  became  alienated  from 
Ahsa  and  hated  him,  and  at  one  stroke  a  thousand 
men  of  the  chiefs  of  Dilem  severed  themselves 
from  his  troops,  and  attached  themselves  to  His 
Highness,  Azdaddoulah,  in  the  province  of  Istak- 
har.  After  this  company  after  company  attached 
themselves  to  him,  until  the  whole  of  the  people  of 
the  army  were  dissevered.  And  he,  with  his  slaves 
and  body  guard,  went  to  Washar,  and  twisting  to- 
gether his  light  and  heavy  baggage,  went  to 
Bukhird.  Upon  this  Azduddoulah  was  soon  at 
Washar,  and  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  of  Karniidii- 
He  removed  Gorangirln-Hassan  to  become  his 
vicegerent  and  lieutenant  of  that  place,  and  betook 
himself  to  the  direction  of  Fars.  As  for  Allsa 
when  he  arrived  at  the  confines  of  Kohistdn;,  he 
left  aU  his  baggage  at  Hawin,  and  in  the  hope  of 
succour  went  to  Bukhdrd,.  His  exalted  rank  and 
honoured  dignity  was  highly  regarded  in  the  royal 
presence,  and  favoured  in  the  Court,  and  he  was 
specially  admitted  into  familiar  intercourse  and 
society  with  the  King.  But  on  a  certain  day, 
during  a  social  meeting,  when  the  course  of  wine 
had  seized  the  reins  of  self-command  from  his  hand. 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  359 

he  introduced  a  freedom  of  speech  beyond  that 
which  his  rank  authorized,  and  uttered  the  follow- 
ing expressions :  "  If  I  had  known  that  the  disposi- 
tion of  the  house  of  S^mdn  shrank  from  aiding  the 
grieved,  and  succouring  the  anxious,  and  that  my 
hope  of  obtaining  the  prospect  of  encouragement, 
and  an  asylum  from  their  Highnesses,  would  have 
been  disappointed  and  belied,  I  would  have  sought 
refuge  in  some  other  direction,  and  requested  sup- 
port from  some  other  quarter."  The  harshness  of 
these  words  moved  the  King,  and  they  seized  him, 
and  sent  him  to  Ehwdrism.  ,And  Abii-AlI-'bn- 
Simjiir  sending  to  Ha  win,  took  possession  of  all  his 
baggage,  light  and  heavy,  and  all  his  bedding, 
coloured  clothes,  and  changes  of  raiment. 

This  loss  constituted  bitter  intelligeiice  to  Alisa, 
at  Khw^rism,  and  he  could  not  patiently  endure 
that  measure  of  affliction.  And  in  his  extreme 
anguish  and  disgust  lifted  up  his  finger  and  tore 
out  the  pupils  of  his  eyes,  and  by  this,  in  the  issue, 
he  laid  down  his  life.  As  to  the  sons  and  followers 
of  AHsa,  they  afterwards  chanted  the  pages  of 
misery,  and  none  of  them  saw  Kirmdn  except  in  his 
sleep.  Kirmdn  then  was  fully  settled  upon 
Azduddoulah,  until  he  went  to  the  home  of  mercy, 
and  Biha-Addoulah  inherited  the  kingdom.  These 
regions  were  adorned  by  his  justice  and  equity. 
And  when  the  SuMn  seized  Sistd,n,  and  the  duty 
of  neighbourhood  and  contiguity  of  dominion  was 


360  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

observed  between  them,  he  openly  declared  and 
uttered  an  assertion  of  his  noble  attachment  and 
eager  aifection  towards  the  Sultin,  and  sent  to  him 
gifts  and  presents,  worthy  of  his  exalted  mind  and 
illustrious  descent.  And  the  Sultan  reciprocally 
commanded  that  double  kindnesses  should  be  ren- 
dered to  him,  so  that  the  source  of  mutual  hospi- 
tality, and  the  fabric  of  friendship,  was  settled 
between  them.  And  the  senators  of  the  two  empires, 
by  means  of  their  compositions,  exerted  themselves 
to  interweave  as  the  motives  for  constancy,  the 
bonds  and  claims  of  neighbourhood,  and  to  nail  the 
foundations  of  affection  by  the  nails  of  alliance  and 
affinity,  so  that  unity  and  intimacy  resulted  between 
these  two  sovereigns,  and  the  advantages  of  their 
union,  and  the  fruits  of  their  alliance,  extended  to 
the  people  of  Islam,  and  to  the  whole  world. 

ACOOTJNT  OF  THE  StOBMING  OF  NAEDftf. 

The  Sultdn,  in  order  to  fulfil  his  previous  vow, 
commanded  a  brisk  march  unto  another  conquest, 
which  might  be  the  margin  of  the  ornamented 
title  page  of  other  victories  and  settlements,  the 
record  of  which  might  adorn  the  page  of  time,  the 
weight  of  whose  glory  might  be  a  heavy  load  (of 
merit),  and  might  be  a  cause  of  confirming  the  ad- 
vancement and  approximation  of  His  Highness  to 
glory,  and  of  exalting  his  greatness.  He  therefore 
set  off  unto  the  lands  of  Hind,  with  the  supporters 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  361 

of  truth,  and  chiefs  of  IsMm,   who  are  the  stars 
of  rehgion,  and  the  stoners  of  devils  (Verse) 

"  In  their  (the  Hindu's)  tumults  the  sword-edge  stopped 
their  fury ; 

"As  to  their  people  indigestion  was  appended  to  their^ 
wholesome  food. 

"  The  lion  eats  not  of  the  limbs  of  their  herd, 

"  On  account  of  his  gain  of  broken  bones"  {of  men). 

And  upon  arriving  at  the  provinces  of  India, 
they  began  with  open  hand  to  devastate  the  lands, 
to  punish  the  infidels,  to  overturn  the  idols,  and  to 
make  an  example  of  high  and  low;  and  as  to  the 
prince  of  those  doomed  ones,  and  the  chief  of  those 
insignificant  ones,  they  sent  him  abject  and  prostrate 
to  hell,  and  for  his  viler  followers  scattered  and  dis- 
persed them  like  leaves  exposed  to  the  wind.  Thus 
he  returned  to  Ghiizna,  safe  and  rich.  And  when 
the  King  of  Hind  witnessed  the  marks  of  the  wound 
of  the  Sultan's  standard  in  the  nearest  and  most 
distant  part  of  his  kingdom,  and  ascertained  his 
weakness  in  resisting  the  army  of  Islim,  he  sent 
the  chiefs  of  his  kindred  and  the  flower  of  his 
guards  on  an  embassy  to  ofter  submission  to  the 
Sultin,  and  humbled  himself,  and  bound  himself  to 
tribute  and  fidelity,  and  appointed  sixty  yokes  of 
elephants  to  be  sent  by  him  as  a  service  to  his 
beloved  fortune,  and  assigned  a  payment  to  be 
mutually  arranged,  which  should  be  sent  yearly  by 
the  nobles  (freeholders)  of  that  province,  and  the 


362  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHM0D  OF  GMaZNA. 

people  of  that  district,  to  his  treasury.  And  that 
by  way  of  acting  as  Viceroy,  he  should  keep  two 
thousand  men  at  his  Court,  and  that  at  all  recurring 
days,  and  returning  months  and  years,  he  should 
express  fidelity  to  these  conditions,  and  that  the 
successors  and  sons  of  every^one  who  should  occupy 
royalty,  and  obtain  command  in  India,  should  pro- 
ceed upon  this  decree,  and  should  obey  and  follow 
this  law.  The  Sultdn,  for  the  glory  of  the  faith  and 
honour  of  Islim,  was  content  with  these  conditions 
of  pacification,  and  dispatched  trustworthy  persons 
to  collect  these  revenues  ;  and  this  secured  tax  be- 
came a  fixed  source  of  revenue  in  the  book  of  the 
finance  court  of  the  Empire.  Thus  the  road  for 
caravans  and  merchants  between  the  districts  of 
Khurasan  and  Hind  became  open. 

HiSTOET  OP  THE  CjiPTrEE  OP  GuB. 

The  Sultin  began  to  reflect  and  to  be  disgusted 
with  the  districts  of  Giir,  with  the  insolence  of  the 
inhabitants,  and  the  insults  (of  those  people)  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  his  kingdoms  and  centre  of  his 
empire's  circle,  and  began  to  be  jealously  indignant 
on  account  of  their  crimes  and  wickedness,  and 
infidelity  and  disobedience,  and  their  heavy  imposts 
(by  lying  in  wait)  upon  caravans  and  travellers. 
For  he  saw  it  not  fitting  that  a  people  destitute  of 
Faith's  decoration,  and  marked  with  the  brand  of 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  363 

infidelity,  should  through  the  prestige  of  their 
munitions  of  mountains  and  repelling  cliffs,  in  the 
neighbourhood  and  vicinity  of  the  powerful  throne 
of  royalty,  display  such  arrogance  and  pretensions, 
and  take  upon  themselves  such  enmity  and  for- 
wardness. He  resolved  to  correct  and  pinch  them, 
and  drew  a  considerable  army  of  infantry  a,nd 
cavalry  to  those  confines.  And  he  appointed  to 
the  command  of  the  army  Altontash,  his  Chamber- 
lain, who  had  been  Prince  of  Herat,  and  Arsl^n- 
Jazib,  a  well-known  and  celebrated  man  of  Multdn. 
And  they,  in  folding  up  those  passages  and  halting 
places  fell  into  straits,  for  all  the  people  of  the  army 
of  Giir  were  entrusted  with  the  guardianship  of 
those  defiles,  and  great  battles  took  place  between 
the  two  divisions,  and  they  obtained  not  a  hand's 
breadth  of  footing,  except  by  the  scimitar,  and  no 
other  weapons  were  of  service,  and  the  swords  took 
nothing,  except  to  wait  the  opportunity  of  cutting 
to  pieces,  and  daggers  only  fought  with  throats. 
And  the  SuMn,  informed  of  this,  forthwith  arose, 
with  a  body  of  his  own  special  slaves,  and  came  to 
their  aid,  and  step  by  step  drove  those  wretches 
far  from  the  defile,  and  their  places  of  asylum  and 
(repositories)  of  wealth,  until  he  had  scsittered  them 
all  from  the  protection  of  their  narrow  passes  and 
the  benefit  of  their  diflficult  ground,  and  opened  a 
way  for  his  infantry,  and  made  a  road  to  arrive 
close  to  the  stronghold-nest  of  the  king  and  chief. 


364  MEMOIRS  OP  MAHMU0  OF  GHA2NA. 

whose  name  was  Ibn-Sdri,  and  by  a  ravine  (or 
village)  named  Ahingiran  ( ?)  came  over  to  the 
sides  of  his  fortress.  He  then  issued  out  with  ten 
thousand  men,  and  drew  up  in  line  of  battle  against 
the  Sultd^n,  and  by  his  opportunities  of  entrenching 
himself  behind  walls,  and  by  reason  of  the  aid  he 
derived  from  his  strong  places  of  retreat  and  deep 
ditches,  resisted  half  the  day.  Thus  they  con- 
tinued striking  on  both  sides  in  stubborn  fight,  and 
confused  shootings  and  blows.  But  the  Sultdn 
ordered  that  they  should  turn  their  backs,  as 
though  his  army  were  yielding  and  descending. 
These  doomed  ones  were  deluded  with  this  decep- 
tion, and  the  Hindu  no  longer  held  firm  (to  his 
ground)  but,  fascinated  by  a  desire  for  plunder, 
came  into  the  open  plain,  to  see  the  flight.  Upon 
this  the  Sultdn  wheeled  round,  and  laid  them  all 
on  the  couch  of  sweet  sleep,  with  death  as  their 
bedfellow.  He  took  the  son  of  Ibn-Silrl  prisoner, 
and  carried  away  as  booty  wealth  and  arms,  which 
chief  after  chief  and  infidel  after  infidel  had  be- 
queathed, as  inheritance.  Thus  the  ensigns  of 
IsMm  were  displayed  in  those  regions  and  coasts, 
and  the  renown  of  these  great  victories  travelled 
throughout  the  world.  Thus  the  SultS.n,  on  the 
wing  of  success  and  the  upraised  pinion  of  good 
fortune,  set  off  for  Ghazna.  As  to  the  son  of  Sholi 
{i.  e.,  Siirl)  when  he  saw  himself  disgracefully 
caught  in  the  snare  of  imprisonment  and  the  halter 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OP  QHAZNA.      365 

of  ruin,  and  when  he  saw  the  people  of  IsMm  lords 
of  all  the  deposited  wealth  of  his  castle,  he  sucked 
a  poisoned  ring  that  was  on  his  finger  and  resigned 
his  soul  to  the  Supreme. 

Account  of  the  PAMnrE  at  NfsAprjE. 

In  the  year  401,  in  the  province  of  Khurds^n, 
generally,  and  in  the  city  of  Nis^piir,  particularly, 
a  wide-spread  famine,  and  a  frightful  and  calami- 
tous scarcity  occurred,  such  that  the  girdle  of 
patience  was  too  narrow  to  bear  the  measure  of 
that  distress  and  the  pressure  of  that  misfortune, 
so  that,  from  the  difficulty  of  finding  food  no 
strength  remained,  and  every  one  ate  the  grain  of 
the  heart  (i.e.,  original  sin,  or  misery)  like  the 
grains  of  the  pomegranate  from  the  skin  («.  e., 
innate  corruption  appeared  in  its  effects).  All  con- 
veyed within  their  dwellings  the  vegetation  and 
sprouts  adapted  for  animals,  as  delicious  food,  until 
all  cheeks  withered,  and  all  bright  faces  scattered 
their  freshness  like  autumn  leaves ;  vacant  eyes 
fell  into  a  pit  and  sweet  lips  were  ruined.  The 
nerves  of  articulate  speech  were  unable  to  express 
clear  chants  by  the  organ  of  the  tongue,  and  pearl- 
like teeth,  from  the  saliva  of  inward  fever,  became 
yellow  ;  sweet-scented  mouths  sent  up  to  Heaven, 
from  the  burning  flame  of  hunger,  continual  sighs, 
and  life,  from  the  desolation  of  its  lodging-body, 


366      MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

laid  itself  down  at  its  halting-place  or  inn.  Grains 
of  wheat  were  more  valuable  than  grains  of  pearl, 
and  the  Virgin's  ear  of  corn  in  the  heavens  envied 
the  esteem  afforded  to  the  ears  of  corn  on  earth. 
The  granaries  of  those  who  laid  up  in  store  were 
as  empty,  i.  e.,  forlorn,  as  the  heart  of  the  mother 
of  Moses,  and  the  stomachs  of  the  wealthy  were  as 
void  as  a  drum  :  no  trace  of  bread  remained  ;  and 
that  which  all  coveted  was  annihilated.  Such  was 
the  extent  of  the  calamity  that,  in  the  district  of 
NisS,pTir,  nearly  100,000  men  perished,  and  no  one 
was  at  liberty  to  wash,  coffin,  or  inter  them,  but 
placed  them  in  the  ground  in  the  clothes  they  had. 
Women  and  men,  old  and  young,  uttered  cries  for 
help,  and,  exclaiming  "  Bread  !  bread  !"  lay  cold  (in 
death)  upon  the  spot.  Some  arrested  their  last 
breath  by  means  of  grass  and  hay,  until  all  susten- 
ance from  sown  fields  and  cultivated  things  were 
cut  off,  and  that  resource  was  also  drawn  beneath 
the  veil,  until  they  took  the  bones  from  the  ceme- 
teries, and  broke  them  into  small  pieces,  and  boiled 
them,  and,  as  when  a  butcher  slaughters,  the  poor 
quarrelled  for  the  bloody  portions,  and  therewith 
quieted  the  cry  of  hunger  and  struggle  to  ward  off 
the  last  agony.  However  every  one  who  partook 
of  these  impurities  fell  upon  the  spot  and  yielded 
up  life.  Otbi  says,  I  knew  a  man  whom  they  were 
seeking  and  enquiring  for,  as  heir  to  property  that 
was  falling  in,   but  possessed  not  one   grain   of 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZSA.  367 

wheat  in  reality  or  prospect.  This  man  of  noble 
feelings  and  high  rank  could  in  no  way  obtain 
grains  of  corn,  so  destitute  had  he  become.  And 
the  intensity  of  this  distress  was  so  great  that 
mothers  ate  their  children  and  brothers  made 
brothers',  flesh  the  means  of  preserving  life,  and 
husbands  killed  their  wives  and  boiled  them,  and 
cutting  their  members  and  limbs  into  pieces,  dined 
upon  them;  and  they  seized  men  in  the  streets, 
kUled  and  ate  them,  and  people  separating  the 
flesh  from  the  fat,  would  talk  familiarly  in  the 
market  and  hold  them  up  with  the  fingers,  show- 
ing which  of  the  joints  and  pieces  of  human  flesh 
would  best  melt  together  (or  cleaned  the  best 
joints  and  pieces  of  human  flesh)  and  sold  them  in 
the  market,.  And  they  seized  many  for  this 
offence  and  found  in  their  houses  men's  bones,  and 
carried  them  to  execution.  But  the  source  of  this 
misery  was  not  cut  off,  and  no  more  animals,  as 
dogs  and  cats,  and  such  like,  remained.  And  no 
one  was  so  bold  as  to  stir  far  from  his  house  or  to 
go  far  into  the  city,  unless  in  company  with  others 
and  well  armed.  A  clever  man,  a  theological 
Imdm,  went  to  visit  the  Imdm  Taib-Salaoki.  The 
Imdm  Abii-Taib  said  :  "  It  is  long  since  you  have 
set  foot  in  my  house  or  have  directed  your  will 
towards  me,  what  is  the  cause  ?"  He  replied : 
"  My  story  is  a  strange  story  and  a  wondrous  inci- 
dent ;  if  the  Shaikh  Imdm,  on  account  of  its  sin- 


368  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  QHAZNA. 

gularity,  will  allow  me  a  hearing  and  grant  me  his 
illustrious  attention  I  will  tell  a  tale,  how  God,  in 
my  behalf,  hath  granted  a  solid  favour  and  a 
generous  interposition,  and  hath  saved  my  life 
from  the  precipice  of  destruction."  The  Shaikh 
said :  "You  must  tell  the  story,  by  all  means." 
Then  he  said  ;  "  I  was  passing,  at  night-time, 
through  such  a  street,  wheji  suddenly  a  snaring 
noose  fell  upon  my  neck,  and,  with  successive 
stretchings,  so  compressed  my  throat  that  my 
breath  was  stopped,  and  from  the  violence  of  the 
strangling  I  became  a  prisoner,  and  went  as  the 
rope  (pulled  me)  until  it  drew  me  to  a  certain  lane, 
and  an  old  woman  ran  out  of  the  house,  and  both 
of  them  struck  their  knees  upon  the  lower  parts  of 
my  stomach,  until  from  those  injuries  I  became 
insensible,  and  had  no  knowledge  of  that  which 
afterwards  followed,  until  after  a  while,  by  means 
of  fresh  water  which  was  thrown  upon  my  face,  I 
recovered,  when  I  saw  several  sitting  by  my  pillow 
and  treating  me  kindly.  They  represented  to  me 
the  conduct  of  these  deceitful  and  designing  people, 
and  removed  the  curtain  of  concealment  from  the 
secret  of  the  description  of  the  event.  Thus  I 
became  acquainted  with  the  certainty  of  that  affair, 
namely,  that  at  the  juncture  of  time  when  that 
man  was  dragging  me,  they  were  proceeding 
towards  their  residences  and  abodes,  and  that 
impure  wretch  was  sharpening  a  knife  to  murder 


MEMOIRS  OF  MjVHMUD  0¥  GHAZNA.  369 

me,  when,  being  alaijmed  at  them,  he  left  me  in 
that  condition  and  fled,  and  after  a  Uttle  space- 1 
recovered  my  breath,  and  went  home ;  but,  from 
the  horror  of  that  affair,  I  was  some  days  upon  my 
bed,  until  Heaven  was  so  gracious  that  the  pain  of 
that  injury  ceased.  And  when  the  marks  and 
proofs  of  convalescence  were  perfect,  I  went,  at  the 
hour  of  dawn,  to  fulfil  my  religious  duty  at  the 
mosque ;  and  I  went,  at  the  time  of  the  proclama- 
tion of  prayer,  to  the  minaret,  to  a  seat,  awaiting 
the  hour  of  the  proclamation.  Suddenly  a  noose 
was  in  motion  by  my  side,  directed  towards  my 
throat.  However  the  mercy  of  the  Supreme  inter- 
posed, and  this  attempt  at  injury  missed  my  neck, 
and  my  handkerchief  was  the  preservation  of  my 
life,  and  my  turbg-n  remained  in  the  knot  of  the 
noose.  I  ran  down  fi-om  the  mizanat  (place  where 
the  Muezzin  stands  to  proclaim  the  hour  of  prayer) 
and  made  a  vow  that,  for  the  space  of  this  calamity 
and  the  days  of  this  distress,  I  would  never  come 
from  the  house,  except  in  bright  day,  and  would  go 
for  all  necessaries  before  the  sun  began  to  incline 
to  twilight.  These  were  the  circumstances  which 
hindered  my  service  and  prevented  my  presence." 
"When  I  had  concluded  my  tale  all  expressed  asto- 
nishment at  that  blow  and  astounding  event,  and 
I  sought  the  benignity  of  God,  and  fled  to  the 
canopy  of  his  guardianship  and  compassion.  And 
Master  Abdul-Malik- Walz,  who    was  one  of  the 

2  B 


370  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

pious  Tmdms  and  esteemed  for  his  good  conduct, 
relates  that  on  one  day,  during  that  distress,  they 
carried  four  hundred  from  the  streets  of  the  city  to 
the  hospital,  that  I  might  arrange  for  them  to  be 
put  into  coffins  and  buried.  (And  another  said) 
at  evening  prayer  a  baker,  who  was  settled  at  the 
station  of  the  flag  of  my  serai,  came  to  me  and 
said :  "  To-day  four  hundred  md,ns  of  bread  remain, 
which  no  one  demands."  At  this  state  of  things  I 
was  surprised,  that,  even  at  times  when  food  can 
be  obtained,  if  God  issues  his  decree  and  appoints 
the  (prophetic)  mirror  of  death  for  the  people  it  is 
impossible  to  avert  his  judgment  and  to  obstruct 
his  preordaining  decree.  The  talented  of  that  time 
put  forth  poems,  in  commemoration  of  this  scarcity. 
Abii-Mans^r,  of  Eal,  the  scribe,  says  (Verse) 

"  Oh  what  happened  to  men  during  the  famine  ! 
"  What  alternatives  during  that  calamity ! 
"  He  who  remained  fixed  at  home  died  of  hunger, 
"  Or  (he  who  went  abroad)  witnessed  others  eating  him" 
(who  had  died  so). 

And  Abd  Lekani  says  (Verse) 

"  Do  not  on  any  account  go  forth  from  the  houses,  whether 
there  be  need  or  whether  there  be  no  need  ; 

"  Easten  thy  gates  firmly  with  the  bars, 

"  Lest  the  famishing  hunt  for  thee  and  cook  thee  into 
broth." 

And  the  Sultan  during  those  days  commanded, 
and  sent  an  edict  into  the  provinces  of  the  king- 


ilEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUI)  OP  GHAZNA.  371 

dom,  ordaininof  th;it  the  revenue  officers  and 
magistrates  should  empty  the  fjranaries  of  corn, 
and  distribute  amongst  the  poor  and  wretched, 
and  thus  save  them  from  the  claws  of  destruction, 
and  the  talons  of  want.  And  that  year  came  to 
an  end  in  the  same  state,  until  the  produce  of  the 
year  402  arrived,  when  the  fire  of  that  calamity 
was  extinguished,  and  that  extremity  was  remedied, 
and  God  sent  down  mercy,  so  that  the  appearance 
of  seeds  and  the  blessings  of  increase  returned  in 
their  accustomed  course.  "  What  mercy  does  God 
open  to  man,  and  he  will  not  take  hold  of  it,  and 
what  does  he  hold  and  (man)  wiU  not  send  to  him 
after  it,  although  he  be  the  mighty  Ordainer.'' 
(Kur^n). 


Account  or  the  two  Khans,  aftee  their  Eetuen  feom 
Mawaeannahe,  and  the  Ambassadoes  whom  thet  sent 
to  the  Stjltan. 

The  Sultan,  after  defeating  the  Turkish  army, 
came  to  Jdmdsdn,  and  commanded  that  they  should 
examine  and  spy  the  proceedings  of  Ilek-Klh^n  and 
his  brother,  Togdn-Khdn,  and  the  latter  expressed 
some  inclination  towards  the  Sultdn,  and  began  to 
allude  to  the  covenant  and  compact  which  had 
existed  between  them  in  former  days  ; ,  and  by  the 
tongue  of  messengers  made  overtures  respecting  a 
full  discovery  of  the  proceedings  of  Ilek-Khan,  and; 

2  b2 


372  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

entered  into  treacherous  (proposals)  of  gradually 
approaching  and  suddenly  attacking  his  territory, 
and  the  parts  about.  And  when  Ilek-Khan  became 
aware  of  these  intrigues  of  his  brother,  and  of  his 
traitorous  acts,  and  kliew  his  baseness  and  rebellion, 
he  determined  to  carry  out  abbreviated  counsels  as 
to  him,  and  first  to  cut  off  the  germ  of  all  distress, 
a  domestic  adversary.  He  therefore  marched  with 
the  army  of  M4warannahr  towards  his  territory, 
with  the  intention  to  encounter  him.  And  when 
he  passed  Awazkand  there  was  nmch  snow,  and 
he  saw  that  the  roads  were  obstructed,  therefore  he 
feturned,  until,  at  the  time  of  the  breaking  of  the 
weather,  and  the  retrogression  of  the  planets,  and 
the  opening  of  the  winter,  and  the  intercepting  of 
the  cold,  and  when  the  melting  spring  dissolved 
the  silver  of  the  snow  upon  the  heated  ground, 
and  the  hero  Earth  put  off  his  mailed  coat  of  ice, 
and  the  abundance  of  fresh  herbage  gave  forth 
perfume,  and  the  world  became  quite  young,  Ilek- 
Kh^n  became  eiager  for  victory,  and  with  his  com- 
rades marched  forth  towards  his  brother.  Each  of 
them  had  sent  eiivoys  to  the  court  of  the  SuMn, 
who  hdd  much  discussion  and  conference,  and  many 
disputes  arose  between  them  upon  the  subject  of 
this  treacherous  proceeding.  The  SiiMn  displayed 
indifference  to  their  abundant  words  and  excessive 
series  (of  complaints),  whilst  they  were  knocking 
their  heads  together.     After  this  he  sent  them  an 


MEMOIUS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  373 

invitation,  and  ordered  that  the  bang[ueting  room 
should  be  decked  for  horse,  races,  and  elephant 
fights.  Around  the  circuit  of  the  whole  space  there 
were  two  rows  of  Turkish  Mamliiks  and  GhoMms 
in  full  splendour,  so  that  if  Kariin  had  seen  them 
he  would  have  said  (Verse) 

"  Oh  that  I  had  what  Mahmiid  doth  possess  ! 
How  great  mast  be  his  happiness  !" 

The  following  is  adescription  of  this  assembly: — 
two  thousand  young  Turkish  Officers  were  arranged 
in  rows  opposite  one  another,  dressed  in  embroi- 
dered coloured  robes,  and  five  hundred  of  his  own 
guards  were  stationed  near  the  company,  in  vests 
of  silk,  and  girdles  of  gold  set  with  pearly,  resting 
upon  their  shoulders  Indian  scimitars  in  golden 
gheaths,  forty  yokes  of  elephants  were  arranged  in 
front  of  the  assembly,  in  trappings  of  Grecian  silk, 
harness  of  woven  gold,  and  metal  appendages  of 
new  gold  set  with  valuable  pearls  and  gems.  Then 
behind  each  of  the  two  rows  were  seven  hundred 
camel  elephants,  like  mountains  in  appearances  and 
devils  in  make,  in  splendid  housings  and  painted 
trappings,  with  collars  of  gems.  The  body  of  the 
army  was  clothed  in  coats  of  mail  worthy  of  David, 
.and  drew  Frank  helmets  over  their  heads,  and  the 
infantry  of  the  army  advancing  on  the  green 
space  (?)  drew  their  swords,  and  fijfied  their  javelins, 
and  the  whole  company  of  ithe  Chamberlains  stood 


374  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

before  the  SulUn  like  the  sun  and  moon,  and 
reaching  their  hands,  grasped  their  scimitars,  fast- 
ening their  eyes  and  ears  upon  the  (least)  sign  of 
the  Sultdn,  and  they  introduced  the  envoys,  who 
from  awe  at  this  array,  exhibited  the  expressions 
of  the  most  perfect  devotion  to  the  throne,  and  ful- 
filled all  the  established  rules  and  duties  of  service 
and  obedience,  and  they  introduced  the  envoys  to 
the  head  of  the  table,  into  the  palace  of  hospitality, 
when  they  saw  a  paradise  adorned  with  fish  ponds, 
with  gold  and  silver  ceilings,  furnished  with  jewelled 
vessels,  and  lofty  courts,  and  beautiful  furniture. 
Before  the  Sultan's  throne  was  a  golden  peacock, 
and  the  slabs  of  the  throne  were  joined  with  gold 
wire,  and  silver  nails,  the  carpets  were  of  Greek 
and  sewed  silk.  At  the  upper  part  of  the  assem- 
bly room  was  placed  a  dais,  at  the  edges  of  which 
were  partitioned  off  closets,  square,  hexagon,  and 
circular  :  every  closet  was  filled  with  different 
kinds  of  jewels,  so  that  the  rays  of  their  brilliancy 
clouded  and  confiised  the  eye,  and  all  acknowledged 
that  during  the  whole  time  of  the  Khosroes  of 
Persia,  the  Caesars  of  Greece,  the  Kails  of  Arabia, 
and  the  Rajahs  of  Hind,  they  had  never  heard  the 
record  of  any  such  precious  gems  as  these.  All 
around  the  assembly  room  were  placed  boxes  of 
musk,  amber,  Romaic  camphor,  pure  aloes  wood, 
dried  citrons  and  oranges  dipped  in  fragrant  per- 
fumes, and  various  kinds  of  golden  fruits  and  dates, 


MEMOIKS  Off  MAHMUD  OK  GHA2NA.  375 

with  clusters  of  grapes  made  of  rubies,  and  wlien 
they  introduced  the  wine,  the  private  cupbearers, 
like  veiled  jewels  and  treasured  pearls,  caused  to 
circle  merrily  wine  bright  as  the  eyes  of  the  cock. 
The  envoys  expressed  astonishment  and  amazement 
at  the  decorations  of  this  banquet,  and  when  in  due 
time  they  requested  their  audience  of  leave,  the  Sul- 
tdn  expressed  to  them  his  sincere  wish  for  the  pros- 
perity and  glory  of  their  Sovereign.  And  thus  the 
dust  of  dispute  between  the  two  brothers  was  laid, 
whilst  the  Sultan  continued  to  mediate  between 
them,  and  their  affairs  were  thus  decided,  and 
settled,  so  that  each  replaced  the  sword  of  ill-will 
in  the  scabbard,  and  remained  contented  with  his 
own  territory.  Their  entire  history  shall  be  com- 
pleted in  another  place,  if  God  will. 

Account  or  the  Captube  oi'  KasdAe. 

When  the  Sultan's  mind  was  at  rest  from  the 
quarter  of  the  Turks,  and  had  chaunted  respecting 
their  condition  the  verse  "Their  power  is  great 
between  them,  if  it  is  united,  but  their  hearts  are  di- 
vided," (Kurd,n),  and  had  testified,  in  those  events, 
the  veracity  of  the  fortunate  miracle  of  the  verse, 
"  We  have  sent  between  them  enmity  and  hatred 
for  ever;"  so  that  the  trace  of  the  (external) 
enmity  of  the  two  brothers  was  plucked  up  by  his 
firm   bravery  ;    he  determined   to  march  towards 


376  MEMOIRS  OP  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

KasclS,r,  in  order  that  the  vain  pride  of  the  Prince 
of  that  country,  which  he  had  long  endured  with 
sfelf-restraint,  might  be  stripped  off  from  his  intel- 
lect by  the  (sharp)  snuff  (or  sneezing  powder)  of 
the  sword,  and  that  the  demon  of  darkness,  who 
had  displayed  masterful  and  rebellious  (inclina- 
tions) by  intercepting  money,  might  be  confined  in 
the  bottle*  of  victory,  by  the  tingling  of  Indian 
scimitars ;  and  that  his  fine  cliffs  and  commanding 
mountains,  which  were  the  motives  of  his  rage,  and 
the  cause  of  his  ambition,  might  be  marked  like  a 
withered  branch  by  his  sweetly- sounding  drum- 
stick, and  might  be  given,  as  stirred-up  dust,  to  the 
wind.  He  commanded  the  army  to  move  from 
Ghilzna,  by  way  Of  Bost,  so  that  a  report  was 
spread  that  his  intention  was  to  attack  Herdt ; 
but  a  turning  took  him  to  the  territory  of  Kasddr. 
And  the  Prince  of  that  country  was  disturbed  from 
the  couch  of  sleep  before  the  shining  of  the  eastern 
flames  of  the  sun,  by  the  heavy  forces  of  the  Sultdn 
around  his  castle,  and  was  conscious  of  death  be- 
fore him,  and  ran  out  to  seek  his  patronage,  and 
threw  himself  at  the  hoofs  of  the  Sultan's  horse, 
and  took  upon  himself  five  hundred  packets  of  a 
thousand  dirams  which  were  due.    Part  he  paid  in 

*  Bottle  of  victory :  perhaps  alluding  to  the  bottle  or 
casket  in  which  a  rebellious  Jin  was  imprisoned  for  centuries, 
which  is  an  incident  in  One  of  the  Arabian  Nights'  Entertain- 
ments. 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  377 

ready  money,  but  the  Sultdn  demanded  the  re- 
mainder with  reproaches,  and  seized  fifteen  yoke  of 
elephants,  which  he  had  stored  up  for  times  and 
seasons  of  war,  and  compelled  him  to  pay  dutiful 
submission  and  obedience,  and  to  engage  that  he 
would  facilitate  the  coUedtion  of  the  revenue,  and 
settle  the  payment  of  the  imposts.  And  thus  he 
gave  the  signal  to  display  his  banners  anew,  and 
with  the  fulfilment  of  his  Avishes,  and  completion 
of  his  happiness,  set  forward  to  Ghdzna. 


Account  or  Shab  Abu-Nasb-Muhammad-'bn-Asad  akd  his 
Son,  the  Shae  AbIj-Mdhammai). 

They  call  the  king  who  guides  the  affairs  of  the 
people  of  Garjlstan  (Georgia)  the  Shdr,  as  the 
Turks,  Hindus,  and  Greeks  call  their  respective 
.princes  the  Khdn,  the  Rai,  and  the  Czar.  The  Shar 
•  of  Garjistdn  was  Abii-Nasr,  until  his  son  Muham- 
mad arrived  at  manhood,  and  he,  by  the  power  of 
youth,  and  the  favour  and  consent  of  his  comrades, 
became  ruler  of  the  kingdom,  which  his  father, 
going  into  retirement,  resigned  to  him.  This 
'Prince,  by  reading  books  and  conversing  with  the 
worthy,  became  highly  accompUshed,  and  enjpying 
the  sweetness  of  learning,  was  not  content  with  the 
pleasures  of  royalty,  or  the  luxuries  of  earth.  The 
honourable  of  the  world,  and  the  industrious  of  the 
■age,  regarded  his  Court  as  the  object  of  their  hopes, 


378  MEMOIES  OF  MA.HMUD  OP  QHAZNA. 

and  the   true   Kaaba   of  petitions  and  requests. 
They  resorted  to  him  from  all  portions  and  districts 
of  the  world,  as  the  direction  of  the,  thought  of 
success,  and  the  brisk  market  of  petitions.     And 
Abil-AH-SImjur,  when  he  began  to  rebel  against 
King  Niir,  wished  to  take  Garjlstan  under  his  own 
direction,  and  to  bring  the  Shdr  under  obedience  to 
himself.     But  both  the  Shirs  placed  the  hand  of 
repulsion  in  the  face  of  bis  desire,  and  declined  all 
idea  of  submitting  to  any  other  individual's  sway, 
in  the  room  of  that  suzerainty  of  the  family  of 
S4ixidn  ;  obedience  to  whom  had  been  their  per- 
fume and  livery,  and  under  the  protection  of  whose 
sway  so  long  a  time  had  passed.    Relying  therefore 
upon  the  defence  of  their  castles,  and  the  rugged- 
ness  of  their  country,  they  sent  a  reply  to  Abii- All. 
And  Simjiir  sent  Abiil-Kdsim,  the  priest,  with  a 
body  of  the  lords  of  the  fief  and  nabobs  of  the  state, 
to  oppose  them.    And  this  army,  in  traversing  the 
space  between  the  two  regions,  cut  through  seve- 
ral mountains  on  a  level  with  the  heavens,   and 
parallel   to  the  horizon,  and  passed  some  defiles 
narrower  than  the  eye  of  a  needle,   or  than  the 
pressure  point  of  a   swaddling  band,    and  stood 
against  them  in  several  stations,  engaging  them  in 
battle,  and  many  heads  were  scattered  like  leaves 
from  the  trees,  and  blood  flowed  like  a  stream  upon 
the  surface  of  the  earth.    And  they  turned  the  two 
•Shars  from  difficulty  to  difficulty,  until  they  com- 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  379 

pelled  them  to  take  refuge  in  a  castle  at  the  extremity 
of  their  kingdom,  so  lofty  that  the  ropes  of  the 
clouds  would  be  broken  in  reaching  it,  and  the 
eagle's  wing  fractured  in  rising  to  it.     And  Abiil- 
Kisim  took  this  country,  and  laid  hand  upon  their 
treasure,  their  magazines,  and  their  goods,  and  took 
all  into  his  grasp,  until  the  Amir  Nasr-Addin  came 
to  the  defence.    Then  Abd-Ali  became  occupied  in 
heart,  and  summoned  back  Abiil-Kdsim.    And  the 
two  Shdrs  joined  the  body  of  the  Chiefs  of  Nasr- 
Addln  in  supporting  the  sovereignty  of  Niih.     So 
they  revenged  themselves  on  Abil-All,  and  saw  him 
subject  to  their  wish,  and  came  to  the  head  (posses- 
sion) of  their  kingdom  and  territory,  and  there,  in 
short,   passed  their  time  in  peace  and  quietness, 
until  the  time  of   the  Sultdn  Yamin-Addoulah. 
Utbi  relates :  When  the  lords  of  the  provinces 
bound  themselves  to  allegiance  to  the  Sultd,n,  and 
at  the  coronation  hurrah  reached  forth  their  hands 
in  expressing  obedience  to  him,  and  decorated  the 
pulpits  by  the  commemoration  of  his  titles,  they 
sent  me  to  the  Shdrs  as  an  envoy  to  receive  their 
homage.     And  when  I  arrived  there  they  met  me 
with  perfect  honour,  and  with  sincere  eagerness  and 
true  zeal,  proclaimed  him  on  the  top  of  the  roof, 
and  placed  on  the  edge  of  their  coined  money  the 
august  name  of  thfe  SuMn,  in  the  year  389.    And 
during  my  presence  (at  the  Court)  letters  arrived 
from  the  parties  who  had  been  defeated  at  Merd  (?) 


380  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

in  which  a  request  was  made  for  reinforcements 
and  succour  in  the  war.  And  the  two  Shfe  being 
summoned  to  the  war,  the  Shar  Abii-Nasr  wrote 
letters  to  me,  and  sent  a  note  to  me,  supphcating 
that  I  would  send  his  kind  respects  to  the  Sultan, 
and  assure  him  of  his  firm  and  dutiful  attachment 
to  His  Majesty,  and  his  opposition  to  all  the  adver- 
saries of  the  empire  I  in  reply  wrote  this  extract 
to  him,  "I  hoped  that  God  would  prolong  the 
continuance  of  the  Sh^r,"  &c.,  &c.  "  And  praise  to 
God  who  hath  caused  the  swords  of  our  lord  the 
■Sultan  to  be  proclaimed  in  the  pulpits  of  the  God- 
fearing."* 

This  affair  indeed  fell  out  according  to  the 
settled  conclusion  of  my  discernment,  and  in  the 
end  the  news  arrived  that  Ilek-Khdn  had  come  to 
Bukhdr4,  and  was  made  king,  and  had  taken  cap- 
tive the  greater  part  of  the  army,  and  put  them  in 
chains,  and  the  rest  of  the  people  were  scattered 
and  dispersed.  And  I,  on  account  of  the  request 
of  the  two  Shdrs,  sent  letters  to  the  Sultdn,  and 
their  condition  was  in  the  end  safely  settled  in  the 
most  satisfactory  manner,  and  their  affairs  fell  out 
happily,  and  their  rank  became  well  grounded,  and 
their  (welfare)  was  bound  up  by  the  Sultan  with 

*  The  design  of  TJtbi,  in  this  letter,  was  to  give  an  obscure 
intimation  of  his  want  of  confidence  in  the  Shdrs,  and  to  convey 
a  hint  of  the  consequences  which  would  follow  any  treachery  to 
the  Sultan. 


MEMOIRS  OP  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  381 

the  absolute  necessity  of  things.  And  the  son  of 
this  King  Shdr  came  to  pay  his  respects  at  the 
Sultan's  throne,  and  found  the  most  perfect  accessi- 
bility and  freedom.  He  was  for  some  time  attached 
to  the  Court,  great  and  honoured  ;  but  he  moved 
plans  of  wickedness  and  foUy  inconsistent  (with 
this  treatment),  and  unbecoming  words  of  deceit 
and  treachery  towards  the  kingdom  appeared  to  be 
uttered  by  him,  that  in  kings'  courts  are  the  cause 
of  punishment  and  reproof.  By  this  crime  he  be- 
came like  aL  dissevered  branch  to  His  Highness  the 
Sultin,  who  however  looked  with  an  eye  of  pardon 
and  connivance  upon  his  error,  until  he  requested 
his  dismissal,  when  the  Sultan  presented  him  with 
suitable  gifts  and  a  valuable  dress  of  honour,  and 
thus  he  found  who  was  the  supporter  of  his  honour 
and  the  strengthener  of  his  glory.  Thus  he  de- 
parted, and  affairs  for  some  time  remained  in  the 
same  state.  Until  he  conceived  the  design  of  further 
conquest,  and  wished  to  collect  a  numerous  army 
from  all  quarters,  and  to  be  reinforced  with  great 
numbers  and  strength.  He  therefore  dispatched 
an  edict  to  the  Shdr,  and  expected  great  benefits 
from  him,  in  requital  of  the  solid  and  generous 
favours  which  the  Sultd,n  had  granted  to  him. 
But  the  hand  of  factiousness  had  seized  his  skirt, 
so  that  he  interposed  senseless  excuses,  and  weak 
pretexts,  and  took  the  path  of  delay  and  torpidity, 
until  his  rebellion  became  plain.     And  the  Sultan, 


382  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA; 

passing  by  his  immediate  business,  addressed  him- 
self to  this  affair,  and  giving  a  reply  to  Shams, 
departed   for   that    expedition  upon  the  horse  of 
victory.     And  mutual  letters  passed  between  him 
and  the  Shir,  and  the  Sultin  summoned  him  to 
trial,  and  in  the  midst  of  the  royal  order  which  had 
appointed  the  cause  to  be  tried,   he   commenced 
some  overtures  towards  reconciliation  and  approxi- 
mation ;    recommending    the    Shar    to    institute 
humanity  for  harshness,  and  to  surcease  from  such 
a  display  of  suspicion  and  alienation;  "that  he 
wished  not,  that  the  conduct  which  he  had  dis- 
played  towards   him    should    become   ineffectual 
through  a  single  error,  and  that  the  plant  of  kind- 
ness which  he  had  fixed   in    his    behalf    should 
through  one  slip  be  rooted  up  by  him."     The  Shir 
became  still  more  alarmed  at  this  gentleness,  and 
by  Heavenly  decree  bound  the  garland  of  destruc- 
tion  upon  his  brow,    until  he  appeared  in  open 
rebellion  against  the  Sultin.     The  Sultin  sent  to 
engage  with  him  the  Lord  Chamberlain  Altontish, 
and   Anslin-Jazib.      They  directed   their   course 
towards  his  territory,  and  they  carried  with  them 
Abiil-Hasan,  who  was  Prince  (literally,  bailiff)  of 
Merdnid,  on  account  of  the  famiharity  possessed 
by  him  of  the  windings  of  those  narrow  paths,  and 
the  clefts  of  those  rocks.     And  thus  they  entered 
into  those   confines   with  an  army,   excellent  for 
their  experience  in  important  actions,  and  for  their 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  QHAZXA.      383 

eagle  vision  in  war,  who  cut  like  Egyptian  iron, 
and  dived  into  rivers  like  crocodiles,  and  found 
their  way  into  the  passes  and  ravines  of  earth  like 
snakes.  They  took  therefore  possession  of  the 
country.  And  the  father  Shdr,  through  the  expe- 
rience of  life,  well  knowing  the  end  of  such  actions 
and  the  practical  consequences  of  meddling  in 
serious  times,  sought  protection  in  entreating  quar- 
ter, and  requested  to  capitulate,  and  fled  to  the 
patronage  of  the  guidance  and  aid  of  the  Chamber- 
lain Altontash,  and  sought  help  against  the  dis- 
obedience and  rebellion  of  his  son,  and  declared 
that  he  had  no  part  either  in  his  active  or  passive 
misconduct,  and  requested  not  to  be  connected 
with  his  rebeUious  and  iniidel  measures,  and  asked 
the  General's  conciliatory  intercession  with  the 
Sultan,  representing  his  sincere  fidelity  to  his  the 
suzerain  empire,  and  the  brightness  of  his  walk 
and  throne,  as  respects  obedience  to  the  Sultan. 
They  conveyed  him  with  the  utmost  honour  and 
respect  to  Herit,  and  they  sent  a  royal  missive 
from  the  Sultan  accepting  his  apology,  and  com- 
mending his  obedience.  Thus  they  took  him  unto 
the  pledge  of  peace.  But  his  son  fortified  himself 
in  a  castle,  which  had  been  their  place  of  refuge 
during  the  time  of  the  family  of  Simjilr,  and  which 
has  been  previously  mentioned.  To  this  place  he 
transported  his  treasure,  slaves,  and  furniture.    The 


384  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OP  QHAZNA. 

Chamberlain  Altontasb,    and  Arsl&n-Jazib  came 
down  and  encompassed  tbis  foxtress  (Verse) 

"  All  arouad  this  castle  were  iron-clothed  men, 

"  On  all  sides  of  the  fortress  was  an  iron-cutting  circle." 

The  Sultin's  army  levelled  great  and  small 
slinging  machines  and  batteries  towards  the  side  of 
the  castle,  and  brought  one  side  of  the  wall  to  the 
ground.  And  the  men  of  the  army  ran  up  to 
those  walls  like  deer,  laying  their  hands  to  dart 
and  sword,  and  drew  abundance  of  red  (blood) 
upon  the  traitor  castle.  But  the  Shdr  perceiving 
that  he  was  losing  hold,  sought  to  escape  and 
requested  terms,  in  order  that  by  supplication  and 
submission,  the  intoxicated  retribution  of  that 
terrible  (army)  might  cease,  and  that  he  might 
throw  water  upon  the  fire  of  the  anger  of  those 
troops.  But  he  discovered,  that  the  enraged  lion, 
when  in  the  extremity  of  fury  he  has  reached  his 
prey  with  his  claws,  relinquishes  not  his  sought 
object,  and  that  the  deadly  snake,  when  in  the  ut- 
most rancour  he  determines  to  sting,  withdraws 
not  his  irremediably  (wounding)  teeth.  '  Therefore 
this  devastation  went  on,  until  they  seized  him, 
and  expelled  him  from  the  castle,  and  made  booty 
of  his  treasure  and  property.  They  also  took  his 
Vizier,  who  was  the  depository  of  news,  and  the 
bag  of  secrets  to  him,  and  placed  him  upon  the 


MEMOIRS  OF  TVfAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  385 

square  torture  instrument  (i.  e.  possibly  an  instru- 
ment that  tortures  the  four  limbs)  until  he  gave  up 
his  most  valuable  jewels  and  precious  treasures, 
and  presented  the  account  book  of  the  remaining 
sums  due  from  the  collectors  and  revenue  officers,  to 
obtain  it  from  whom  they  deputed  responsible 
persons.  They  appointed  Abiil-Hasam  to  the  con- 
solidated chajge  of  attending  to  the  affairs  of  the 
country,  the  throne,  and  the  imposts  of  those  lands, 
and  directed  him  to  arrange  the  expenses  of  those 
regions,  and  entrusted  the  fortress  to  him  as  con- 
fidential Kutwal ;  and  an  order  came  from  the 
Sultan  to  convey  the  Shdr  to  the  presence,  and 
a  strict  charge  arrived  to  use  him  favourably,  and 
to  supply  him;  and  in  delivering  him  up  to  the 
Sultdn,  they  conveyed  him  towards  Ghazna  in  a. 
closed  litter  which  he  had  (Takhti  band).  They 
say,  that  one  of  his  confidential  guards  wished  to, 
write  a  letter  home,  and  to  make  known  the  de- 
scription of  the  circumstances  of  that  joui-ney,  He 
called  the  Shdr  in  the  litter,  and  pressed  him  to 
compose  that  letter,  the  Shdr  in  his  distress  was 
vexed  with  the  importunity  and  impertinence,  of 
his  inconsiderate  Ghuldm,  and  taking  the  pen,  be- 
gan the  letter,  writing  thus  to  his  wife—"  Oh  thou 
bad  old  woman,  perhaps  you  think  that  I  care  not 
for  your  extravagance  and  wickedness  in  spending 
my  property  upon  your  own  will  and  pleasure,  or 
that  I  know  not  how  you  are  passing  your  time 

2c 


386  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

continually  in  wickedness,  in  drinking  and  in 
squandering  money  by  expending  it  in  every  way 
of  iniquity  and  perverseness  ;  how  you  are  occupied 
every  day  in  abundance,  and  every  night  in  splen- 
dour, with  merriment,  luxury,  and  art,  giving  my 
house  to  the  wind,  and  casting  away  my  honour. 
If  I  return  I  will  give  you  your  due,  and  place 
your  just  recompense  in  your  bosom,"  He  wrote 
the  letter  with  this  playfully  high  flown  language, 
and  fastened  it  up,  and  gave  it  to  his  guard,  and 
when  it  reached  his  wife,  she  was  astounded,  and 
doubted  not  but  that  some  enemy  had  made  this 
frightful  picture  (of  her  conduct),  or  that  some  ill- 
willer  had  made  it  the  means  of  spite.  She  left 
her  house,  and  in  alarm  and  disquietude  fled  to 
some  corner,  and  when  the  Ghulam  came  to  his 
home,  he  found  his  residence  as  empty  as  a  reaped 
field,  and  saw  no  trace  of  his  lady  and  servants,  he 
remained  in  confusion,  and  sought  from  his  neigh- 
bours the  explanation  of  this  matter.  They  an- 
nounced to  him  the  fact  of  the  letter,  and  recited 
his  abusive  and  odious  words.  He  cried  out  for 
help,  and  occupied  himself  in  soothing  his  wife's 
heart,  and  in  appeasing  her^  and  removing  her 
terror  and  alarm,  and  brought  his  wife  home  again 
quiet  and  confiding.  They  told  this  story  of  the 
Shar's  calumnies  to  the  Sultan,  who  smiled  at  his 
teazing  moroseness,  and  ordered  that  whosoever  he 
appointed  to  serve  the  Shir,  who  did  not  serve 


MEMOIRS  OP  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.      387 

him  with   patience  and  readiness   should  receive 
such  a  retribution. 

And  when  the  Sh^r  arrived  at  the  Durbar  of 
the  Sultan,  he  ordered  them  to  throw  him  down, 
and  to  give  him  a  rubbing  with  the  whip,  in  order 
to  correct  and  punish  him,  and  they  imprisoned 
him  ;  and  the  Sultan  gave  a  charge  to  provide  duly 
for  the  times  of  his  eating  food,  but  so  that  the 
consent  of  the  SuMn  in  that  respect  should  be 
concealed,  that  it  might  not  be  a  cause  of  boldness, 
audacity,  and  impurity.  And  he  made  a  request 
that  thev  would  send'  to  him  one  of  his  favourite 
guards,  and  that  out  of  his  property,  hiousehold 
utensils  and  furniture,  they  would  restore  to  him 
what  was  necessary  for  him,  to  which  request  the 
SuMn  acceded.  And  they  brought  the  father 
from  Herkt  to  the  Sultan's  presence,  who  ordered 
that  they  should  observe  carefully  all  respect  unto 
him,  and  the  Sultan  commanded  that  they  should 
free  their  possessions  and  farms  from  the  brand  of 
disgrace,  and  the  mark  of  suspicion  whereby  they 
had  been  annexed  to  the  other  royal  estates  (con- 
fiscated). And  he  relinquished  the  splendour  of 
their  wealth  to  their  own  disposal,  to  be  expended 
upon  their  comfort  or  their  necessities,  and  the 
Shaikh  Khalil  was  appointed  to  attend  to  Shdr  Abii- 
Nasr,  who  retained  him  under  the  protection  of  his 
encompassing  care,  until  he  departed  to  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  the  mercy  of  Him  who  is  Truth. 

2  c2 


388  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

Account  or  ihb  Eteht  at  Nazin. 

The  Sultan,  Yamin-Addoulah,  in  the  year  400, 
having  taken  India  and  proceeded  into  the  most 
distant  limits  of  the  land,  into  regions  where  IsMm 
had  never  displayed  her  standards,  and  unto  parts 
whereunto  the  wondrous  verses  of  the  Muhamma- 
dan  profession  had  never  extended,  having  purified 
that  region  from  the  darkness  of  denial,  and  having 
lighted  the  blazing  torches  of  the  Law  in  those 
tracts  and  towns,   having  founded  mosques,  and 
having  exhibited  the  perusal  of  the  noble  book  in 
the  verses  of  the  glorious  Kurdn,  in  the  audible 
prayer-summons,   and  in  the   other  signs  of   the 
belief;  wished  to  take  possession  also  of  the  re- 
mainder of  the  land  of  those  vile  ones,  and  to  bring 
ruin  upon  those  enemies  of  the  faith  and  servants 
of  idols,  and  to  subdue,  by  the  cutting  proofs  of 
the  sword,  the  deniei's  of  the  unity  and  glory  of 
God,  to  catch  in  the  snare  of  IsMm  that  owl  of 
their  confidence,  who  was  hooting  in  the  duskiness 
of  novel  errors.     Therefore  he  summoned  his  vic- 
torious armies  and  heroic  bands,  and  covered  them 
with   great   honour  and  eloquent  commendation, 
erecting,  as  the  guide  of  his  plans  and  the  Kiblah 
of  his  devoted   ones,  that  verse  of  the  glorious 
Kurd,n,  "He  hath  incited  the  believers;  God  is 
able  to  make  them  sufficient  (to  cope  with)  the 
powers  of  those  who  believe  not,  for  God  is  mighty 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  389 

in  force  and  mighty  to  subdue."  And,  thus 
strengthened  by  the  breastplate  of  purity  and 
pardon,  with  the  pearl  of  self-command,  and  the 
gem  of  confidence  in  the  help  of  Heaven,  he 
marched  towards  his  business,  with  an  army  of  the 
stars  of  this  world  and  of  the  other,  with  a  most 
lofty  assembly.  And  when  he  arrived  at  those 
territories  much  snow  had  fallen,  and  the  moun- 
tains and  the  plains  were  sprinkled  and  the  roads 
closed  ;  and  a  severe  frost  arose,  and  the  highways 
were  obliterated  ;  so,  by  the  force  of  necessity,  he 
turned  aside  from  those  coasts  and  came  to 
Ghazna,  and  displayed  great  zeal  in  perfecting  his 
preparations  and  in  exhorting  the  nobles  of  the 
empire,  until  the  face  of  spring  appeared,  and  the 
(defying)  shout  of  frost  was  silenced  by  the  dread 
of  the  sword  of  the  sun,  and  the  'temperature 
became  equable.  Then  he  commanded  that  happy 
work  to  begin,  and,  like  the  green  sea  raging  and 
roaring,  put  himself  in  motion  and  turned  towards 
those  accursed  men.  And,  when  he  arrived  near 
the  enemy,  be  occupied  himself  in  arranging  his 
army.  He  posted  Amir  Nasr  on  the  right,  and 
committed  the  left  to  the  care  of  Arsldn-Jazib,  and 
Abii- Abdullah-Til  in  front,  in  the  van,  and  the 
Lord  Chamberlain  Altontish,  with  his  private 
guards,  in  the  centre.  But  the  King  of  India, 
terrified  at  that  army,  sat  down  under  the  protec- 
tion of  the  mountain,  fortifying  himself,  and  took 


390  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

refuge  in  a  pass  between  ten  high  mountains,  and 
strengthened  the  approaches  to  those  narrownesses 
by  niountain-hke  elephants,  and  wrote  to  seek  aid 
from  the  provinces  of  his  country,  and  summoned 
the  cavalry  and  infantry  of  his  kingdoms,  and 
embraced  the  expedient  of  delay,  thinking  that 
procrastination  and  tediousness  would  thus  obstruct 
the  army  of  Islfi.m  in  attaining  their  end,  until 
perhaps,  by  length  of  time  and  long  continuance  in 
their  position,  they  might  be  alarmed  and  turn 
back  from  that  attempt  at  battle,  and  from  that 
invasion.  When  the  Sultan,  dreading  their  deep 
and  secret  perfidy  and  fraud,  incited  the  men  of 
Dilem  and  the  Afghans  against  them,  stirring  them 
up  to  occupy  the  declivities,  and,  like  an  attracting 
magnet  of  victory,  to  draw  them  to  themselves. 
When,  therefore,  they  descended  from  their  narrow 
passes  into  the  open  plain,  they  picked  them  up 
like  a  bird  picking  up  grains  with  a  sharp  beak. 
Several  days  passed  in  this  manner,  until  the  ropes 
of  the  deniers  became  collected,  and  a  great  army 
joined  the  infidels,  so  that  from  Hind  and  Sind, 
and  all  quarters,  there  was  (an  army)  blowing-up 
fire,  seeking  tumult,  making  self-restraint  to 
repose,  bearing  aid,  and  inclined  to  succour  the 
head  of  destruction,  the  fountain  of  strife.  They 
directed  themselves  against  them,  they  raised  the 
shout  of  battle,  and  joined  in  array,  and  drew 
around  the  army  the  obstruction  of  the  giant  ele- 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GfHAZNA.  391 

phants.  Thus  the  fire  of  war  was  burning,  and  the 
combatants  of  the  two  armies  raged  like  hornets  in 
the  heat,  and  seized  one  another  by  the  collar,  and 
pierced  each  other's  head  and  breast  by  the  wounds 
of  the  sword  ;  and  heads  were  cast  upon  the  battle- 
plain  like  balls,  and  wherever  the  elephants  came 
into  the  engagement  the  Muslim  army,  with  spears 
and  arrows,  cut  through  their  throats  and  trunks. 
And  these  Kaffirs  beheld  the  -strength  and  experi- 
ence of  Abdulldh-Tdl,  how  active  he  was  in  battle 
and  war,  and  in  (shedding)  blood  and  killing 
chiefs,  and  therefore  they  turned  towards  him  with 
a  compact  band  of  warriors  and  with  a  number  of 
heroes  (Hterally,  stirrers  of  the  fire,  pokers)  aud 
attacked  him  on  all"  sides  with  severe  wounds.- 
And  he  withstood  them  Hke  an  excited  male  ele- 
phant, and  to  obtain  victory  for  Isldm  exposed 
himself  freely  and  offered  his  life  a  sacrifice  to 
martyrdom.  And  when  the  Sultan  saw  him  in 
the  claws  of  that  distress,  he  sent  some  stars  from 
his  special  guards  to  help  him,  that  they  might 
rescue  him  from  the  claws  of  those  accursed  ones. 
And,  as  his  body  was  all  eyes,  Hke  a  sieve,  and  his 
frame  all  rings,  like  a  coat  of  mail,  the  SuMn 
ordered  that  they  should  place  him  upon  an  ele- 
phant, that  the  pain  of  his  wounds  might  be 
healed,  and  receive  refreshment  and  solace.  And 
the  flame  of  battle  blazed  in  this  manner,  until 
Heaven  quenched  it  with  the  water  of  victory,  and 


392  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

at  one  blast  of  the  good  fortune  of  Mahmiid  all 
their  chiding  abundance  of  men  was  cut  up,  and  all 
their  affairs  scattered  like  dust,  and  throughout  the 
extent  of  plain  and  mountain,  and  the  land  of  hill 
and  valley,  the  sword  of  Islim  destroyed  them. 
And  they  made  prizes  of  their  property  and  ele- 
phants, and  nobles  and  people,  on  account  of  the 
advantage  of  that  wealth,  and  the  enjoyment  of  that 
plunder,  became  placed  on  an  equality,  and  arrived 
at  a  high  degree  of  satisfaction  and  competency. 
Thus  this  territory  became  exalted  amongst  the 
extent  of  Isl^m,  and  this  victory  was  perpetuated 
in  the  register  of  the  expeditions,  and  in  the  chroni- 
cles of  the  conquests  of  the  Sultdn  Yamin-Addou- 
lah,  and  this  fair  deed,  and  eminent  glory  became 
the  buttress  of  his  fame,  and  the  band  of  his 
prosperity. 

And  they  brought  out  of  the  idol  temple  an 
engraved  stone,  upon  which  they  had  fastened  a 
writing  to  the  effect  that  it  was  forty  thousand 
years  since  that  building  was  constructed.  And 
the  SuMn  expressed  surprize  at  this  extreme  error 
and  folly,  for  all  the  learned  in  rules,  and  skilled  in 
guidance  have  agreed  that  the  extent  of  the  world's 
age  is  not  more  than  seven  thousand  years,  and  in 
these  times  there  is  every  indication  of  the  (ap- 
proaching) judgment,  and  evidences  of  the  decay 
of  the  world.  Histories  are  alleged  for  this,  and 
the  Kuran's  witnessing  confirmation  is  to  the  dis- 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OP  GHAZNA.  393 

cerning  intellect  an  essential  fact,  and  to  the  far- 
seeing  is  a  guide  (to  the  truth).  In  these  matters 
we  must  be  content  with  the  eyes  of  the  learned 
and  the  explication  of  the  wise,  who  all  deny  the 
assertion,  and  agree  that  the  testimony  of  this  stone 
is  all  a  falsehood  and  untruth,  and  a  mere  invention 
of  these  bewildered  liars. 

And  the  army  of  Islam  came  to  Ghazna  with 
that  boundless  wealth,  and  those  immberless  sums 
of  money,  so  that  the  forces  of  the  foot  soldiers  of 
Islam  were  retarded  in  proceeding  through  India, 
and  slaves  fell  in  value  to  that  extent,  that  the 
poor  and  humble  became  lords,  and  possessors  of 
many  slaves  and  goods  beyond  computation. 
"This  super-effluence  (of  prosperity)  God  causes  to 
come  upon  whomsoever  He  will,  for  He  is  bounti- 
fully wise." — Kuran. 

Account  oj?  the  Affaiks  of  Takishar. 

It  came  to  the  ears  of  the  Sultdn,  that  in  the 
country  of  Tdnishar  there  -were  many  of  that  pe- 
culiar species  of  elephant,  which  they  call  Sihndn. 
The  prince  of  this  country  was  high  amongst  the 
ungrateful  deceivers,  and  of  exalted  relations 
amongst  the  rebellious  and  the  sinful.  Therefore 
he  was  one  who  merited  that  they  should  give  him 
to  drink  a  cup  of  the  wine  of  the  strokes  of  Islam's 
sword,  and  that  by  means  of  the  flame  of  the  onset 


394  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA, 

of  her  champions,  they  should  strike  into  his  es- 
sence the  due  of  wickedness,  so  making  him  to 
know,  that  to  drink  their  turns  of  this  cup,  and 
their  turns  of  this  calamity  is  the  doom  of  the  uni- 
versal Kaffir  people,  and  that  as  other  chiefs  and 
deceivers  of  India  have  been  sharers  and  partakers 
thereof,  so  his  face  could  not  be  free,  nor  his  path 
an  asylum  from  the  equitable  sword  ;  the  Sultan 
thought  good  then  to  design  this  conquest,  that 
thus  the  standard  of  Islim  might  be  exalted  by 
victory,  and  the  figures  of  idols  might  be  inverted 
by  success  in  war.    Accordingly  he  marched  towards 
Tanlshar  with  an  army  which  had  been  educated 
in  the  chamber  of  the  sacred  war,  and  been  trained 
by  grace  from  on  high,  and  contracted  friendship 
with  sword  and  spear,  and  obtained  an  acquaint- 
ance with  infidel's  blood,  and  in  the  windings  of 
those  marches  they  passed  a  desert  so  dreadful, 
that  a  bird  would  not  fly  over  its  atmosphere,  and 
a  star  would  lose  its  way  on  its  expanse,  a  place 
which   nothing  traversed   but   the  wind,  and  on 
which  nothing  cast  a  shade  except  the  Sun,  with- 
out a  report  of  water,  or  a  vestige  of  habitation. 
But  Providence  granted  aid,  and  they  came  out 
from  that  idolatrous  and  disgusting  place,  and  ar- 
rived at  (the  enemy's  land).     And  before  them 
they  found  a  great  river,  a  running  stream  fuU  of 
water,  lofty  mountains,  and  the  ground  impractic- 
able stone.     Now  the  infidel  sought  his  aid  in  those 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  395 

mountains,  and  became  inspirited  by  their  en- 
circling assistance.  The  army  of  the  SuMn. 
passed  that  water  by  two  fords,  and  engaged 
the  idolatrous  forces  on  two  sides.  And  when  the 
king-falcon,  the  sun,  hung  his  claws  upon  the  cur- 
tain of  his  western  retirement,  (the  day  having 
been  matured),  the  men  of  Isl^m  made  a  charge, 
and  scattered  them  all  about  the  skirt  of  the  rocks, 
and  they  took  the  path  of  flight  and  preservation 
from  the  heat  of  that  battle  and  onset.  And  as 
for  those  stamping  elephants  and  serried  monsters 
which  constituted  the  point  of  their  confidence,  and 
their  remaining  force,  they  left  them  on  the  spot, 
the  SuMn's  elephants  went  after  them,  and  brought 
them  all  to  the  Sultan's  halter-place.  The  army 
spilt  so  much  blood  that  the  water  of  that  river 
was  so  fuU,  and  that  stream  so  abundantly  stained 
with  gore,  that  it  could  not  be  used  for  purification 
and  was  forbidden  to  drinkers,  and  if  the  darkness 
of  the  night  had  not  prevented  it,  not  one  of  these 
wretches  would  have  escaped  with  life, — all  through, 
the  blessing  which  is  upon  Islam,  and  the  wondrous 
religion  of  Muhammad,  unto  which  by  the  kind 
promise  of  Heaven  victory  is  pledged,  and  for  the 
manifestation  of  whose  sayings,  the  standard  of 
the  glorious  Kuran  speaks  plainly,  "  He  unto  whom 
He  sent  his  Apostle  to  guide  him,  and  the  faith  of 
trath  to  lighten  all  to  religion,  even  although  the 
idolaters  hate  it.'' — Kuran. 


396  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

Account  or  the  VfziE,  ABuL-ABBAs-'uN-FAZL-'EN-AiriviAD. 

This  Vizier  was  one  of  the  most  celebrated 
book-students  and  one  of  the  most  eminent  friends 
of  F4ik,  and  when  the  Sultan  had  been  settled 
upon  the  seat  of  authority  at  Nisdpiir,  he  was 
about  (the  person  of)  the  Amir  Ndsir-Addin,  well 
known  to  him  on  account  of  his  perfect  intelli- 
gence, fidelity,  and  penetration.  Therefore  he 
wrote  a  letter  to  Prince  Niih,  demanding  him,  in 
order  that  the  Sultan  might  be  established  by  the 
sufBcieney  of  his  counsels,  and  might  be  distin- 
guished by  the  badge  of  his  vizir4t.  Prince  Ndh 
consented,  and,  sending  a  letter  to  Abiil-Abbis, 
directed  him  to  proceed  to  Nisdpur,  to  be  ready  for 
the  orders  of  Nasir-Addin.  Thus  he  came  to 
Nis^piir,  and  the  Sultan  appointed  him  steward  of 
his  household  (although  the  exemplary  Shaikh, 
Jalil-Shams-al-Kafat,  was  settled  at  his  Court, 
whose  skill  in  books  and  accounts,  whose  firmness, 
rectitude,  and  high-mindedness  in  directing  and 
instructing  he  knew,  and  was  aware  that,  in  his 
freshness  of  youth  and  acceptable  juvenility,  he 
was  without  a  rival  amongst  his  friends  and  com- 
panions, whilst  in  acute  and  able  experience  no 
man  of  his  circle  approached  him).  However  (as 
his  father  had  shut  the  door  of  office  upon  his  back, 
and  the  calumnies  and  rivalries  of  fraudful  ill- 
willers  had  come  to  such  a  point  that  he  became  a 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  397 

martyr  by  the  tand  of  Nasir-Addin,  who,  when 
the  trutli  was  unfolded,  repented,  but  to  no 
purpose  "  When  I  saw  that  I  had  killed  him  I 
repented  about  him")  he  took  an  aversion 
to  his  son,  and  his  heart  was  never  settled  with 
regard  to  him,  and,  according  to  the  saying, 
"Good-will  soon  flies,"  became  suspicious  of  his 
fidelity.  Nor  could  the  Sultin,  in  opposition  to 
his  father's  content,  distinguish  him  by  any 
advantageous  employment  in  his  divan,  or  ask  his 
advancement,  on  account  of  his  own  choice.  The 
heavenly  decree  and  divine  foreordinance  preserved 
and  wrapped  the  dress  of  that  great  rank  and  the 
robe  of  that  weighty  business  in  the  treasury  of 
His  mysteries,  until  the  time  that,  from  the  door 
and  walls  of  Khurasan,  it  was  shown  to  him  that 
they  had  found  this  robe  of  State  to  be  adapted 
only  for  his  high-statured  intellect,  and  placed  this 
seat  only  for  his  exalted  qualities  and  disposition. 
"What mercies  hath  God  opened  to  men  and  they 
will  not  grasp  them." — Kiiran. 

The  Sultan  then  followed  the  opinion  and 
accorded  with  the  feelings  of  his  father,  bestowing 
the  office  of  Vizier  upon  Abill-Abbds,  and  he,  fol- 
lowing the  footsteps  of  great  men  and  their 
greediness  of  gain,  ext;ended  his  hand,  and  col- 
lected much  wealth  and  treasure,  and  employed 
his  stewardship  of  the  world  and  authority  in  the 
kingdom  only  in  making  excessive  demands,  in- 


398  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

creasing  and  unlawful,  so  that  right  rule,  justice,  and 
equity  were  banished  far  from  abodes,  from  society, 
from  the  people,  until,  by  his  means,  all  cultiva- 
tion and  all  abiding  places  in  Khurdsan  were 
devastated,  so  that,  during  his  time,  the  helpless 
ryots  and  rich  masters  sat  down  in  the  dwelling  of 
poverty,  and  became  needy  and  pauperized,  so  that 
smoke  arose  from  no  chimney,  and  one  heard  the 
cock  crow  from  no  village,  for  the  farmers  and 
cultivfitors,  on  account  of  these  distresses,  misfor- 
tunes, and  hard  fate,  left  their  homes  and  held 
their  hand  from  sowing,  so  that  the  sources  of 
revenue  were  broken  off,  and  the  collection  of 
taxes,  on  account  of  the  slenderness  of  the  residue, 
were  exhausted.  Thus  the  sustentation  of  the 
army  and  the  means  of  supporting  the  forces  were 
diminished,  and  throughout  the  kingdom  frightful 
ruin  and  a  hideous  appearance  were  evident,  and  a 
cry  for  help  arose  from  all  quarters,  and  this  cry  of 
the  oppressed  reached  to  Heaven.  The  Sultan 
began  to  be  anxious  respecting  the  diminution  of 
the  levies  and  the  breaking  up  of  the  imposts,  and 
began  to  open  the  book  of  reproof  with  the  Vizier, 
and  to  call  him  to  an  account  for  the  debts  of  this 
destruction  and  mismanagement.  But  he,  in  his 
hastiness  and  want  of  restraint,  returned  a  rude 
reply  and  made  a  claim  to  an  acquittance,  and 
attributed  the  grounds  of,  the  dispute  unto  others. 
And  whenever  the  Sultin  proceeded  to  extreme 


MEMOIRS  OP  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  399 

reproof  upon  this  subject,  he  begged  to  be  reUeved 
from  that  office  and  expressed  a  -wish  to  be 
redeemed  from  that  employment,  and  declared  his 
readiness  to  be  dismissed  and  to  be  made  to  vanis?i 
(from  Ufe).  And  the  notables  of  the  kingdom 
interposed  between  him  and  the  SuMn,  suggesting 
that  he  should  oblige  himself  to  an  accommodation 
and  give  personal  security,  and  should  render  a 
satisfactory  account.  But  he  stood  out  obstinately, 
so  that  the  Sultan  did  not  obtain  one  silver  drachm 
from  him,  unless  he,  perchance,  would  do  so  by 
depriving  and  imprisoning  him.  Thus  he  spoke 
with  tiresome  and  offensive  arguments.  Then  the 
Sultdn  appointed  a  landholder,  Abii  -  Ishak 
Muhamnad-'bn-Husain,  who  was  captain  of  Balkh, 
to  settle  the  accounts  of  the  revenue  and  to  realize 
the  residue  of  the  imposts.  And  he  came  to 
Herdt,  in  the  year  401,  and,  by  his  fair  manage- 
ment and  gentle  sway,  collected  a  great  sum,  and 
in  a  short  time  sent  large  loads  to  the  Treasury. 
And  Abill- Abbess  was  still  settled  upon  the  seat 
of  the  "Vizirat,  and  the  Shaikh  Jalil-Shams-Al- 
Kafdt  sincerely  exerted  himself  to  arrange  reconci- 
liation between  him  and  the  SuMn,  so  that  pos- 
sibly the  accidental  harshness  of  the  SuMn  might 
have  ceased,  and  the  influence  of  the  Vizier  tho- 
roughly re-established.  But  he,  through  the  bent 
of  his  uncompromising  temperament  and  harsh 
nature,  still  obstinately  persisted  in  disputing,  and 


400  MEMOIRS  OF  MAIIMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

of  his  own  choice  went  to  the  citadel  of  Ghazna, 
and  declared  that  he  was  content  to  be  imprisoned, 
and,  making  a  division  between  his  furniture  and 
his  accumulations,  sent  one  portion  to  the  Sultan. 

At  this  proceeding  the  Sultin  was  enraged, 
and,  for  his  traitorous  injury  to  the  country  and 
impoverishment  of  the  condition  of  the  subjects, 
subjected  him  to  a  criminal  fine  of  100,000  dinars. 
He  occupied  himself  in  paying  the  amount,  and 
discharging  a  portion  ;  but,  as  to  the  residue,  he 
represented  his  poverty,  and  requested  patience 
and  a  more  extended  time.  But  the  Sult4n 
ordered  that  they  should  put  him  to  his  oath  upon 
the  point  of  his  poverty,  and  they  tortured  his 
crime  upon  him  by  the  effusion  of  his  blood,  so 
that  whether  he  was  dumb  or  spake,  whether  he 
said  much  or  little,  he  met  with  no  success,  since 
they  were  determined  to  ruin  and  afflict  him. 
And  they  closed  all  access  to  his  sons  and  his 
friends,  when  they  appointed  to  visit  him,  and  at 
length  brought  him  to  such  a  condition  that  he 
revealed  that  some  of  his  stores  were  with  a  certain 
merchant,  whom  they  for  that  reason  despatched, 
by  various  kinds  of  torture  and  misery.  But  the 
standards  of  the  Sult4n  were  far  distant,  on  account 
of  his  successive  conquests,  and  the  great  space 
between  them  prevented  him  from  witnessing  his 
state  or  discovering  his  affairs,  and  thus,  through 
the  castigation  of  torture  and   the  blows   of  the 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  401 

club  and  pain,  lie  was  laid  in  the  grave,  in  the  year 
404.  And  when  the  Sultdn  returned  they 
informed  him  of  his  affair,  and  the  SuMn  was 
oppressed  at  the  heart,  when  he  heard  what  had 
happened  ;  however  the  disposal  of  Heaven  was 
the  agent  herein,  and  the  event  was  advantageous. 
And,  during  the  time  of  his  administration,  his 
son,  Abiil  -  Kasim  -  Mahummad-Ibn-al-Fazl,  had 
arrived  at  the  highest  degree  of  virtuous  distinc- 
tion. In  eloquence  and  in  composition  he  was  the 
paragon  of  his  age,  and  at  the  head  of  all  poets,, 
both  in  blank  verse  and  rhyme.  His  fame  spread 
through  all  the  regions  of  Khurdsdn,  and  his  verses 
and  measures  were  noted  and  published.  These 
stanzas  are  from  a  kasidah  which  he  spoke  upon 
his  father's  merit  (Verse) 

"  Truly  the  liberality  of  Abiil-Abbaa  augments  by  usury,  it 
increases  fourfold  on  d.emand. 

"  In  one  hand  there  is  death  for  the  multitude,  in  the  other 
life  for  him  who  hopes,"  &c. 

His  brother  Abii-AH-bn-Fazl,  sumamed  Al- 
Hajjdj,  was  the  inheritor  of  their  accompHshments, 
distinguished  by  steady  conduct  in  youth  and  ma- 
turity, decorated  with  an  acute  intellect,  the 
garden  of  modesty  being  in  hiin  adorned  with  the 
fruitfulness  of  eloquence.  He  for  some  time  wore 
the  robe  of  revenue  collector  of  Juzjan,  with 
efficiency  and  gratification.     The  country  of  Nis^ 

2d 


402  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

had  for  some  time  the  advantage  of  his  administra- 
tion, when  even  Kadies  were  distressed  at  his 
noble  ideas.  His  fidelity  and  care  were  conspicuous 
amidst  officers  and  magistrates,  and  in  him  the 
virtues  of  his  ancestors  were  renewed  (Verse) 

"  Men  name  the  father  and  his  times, 

"  Men  name  the  son,  and  thus  both  (names)  are  aug- 
mented (with  renown). 

"  And  as  in  the  father  so  in  the  son,  their  noble  patroiir 
age  is  exalted. 

''  As  in  the  prophet  of  God  two  mansions  were  raised  on 
high"  {i.  e.,  the  descendants  of  Fatima  and  Abu-Bakr,  or  Sasan 
and  Hussain). 


ACCOTJNT  OE   THE    ShAIKH    KHALfL-ABtJl-KlsiM-AHMAB-'BN 
HtTSAIN. 

During  the  reign  of  the  Sultan  this  Shaikh 
was  Royal  Munshi  at  Khurasan,  and  to  him  was 
confided  the  Divan  (or  Committee  board)  of  cor- 
respondence, which  is  the  depository  of  secrets. 
His  powerful  intellect  and  intelligence,  &c.,  shone 
like  the  sun's  rays  throughout  all  Khurasan,  and 
the  fame  of  his  elegant  pen,  gentle  nature,  penetra- 
ting intelligence  and  lofty  views  with  regard  to 
worldly  things  and  money,  was  diffiised  around. 
He  rose  by  degrees  to  various  ranks  in  the  Sultan's 
service,  until  he  was  appointed  to  the  Divan  of 
Presentations  {Master  of  Bequests),  and  on  account 
of  his  preponderance,  the  Sultan  assigned  him  the 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.      40,3 

high  employment,  and  responsible  office  of  collect- 
ing the  revenue  and  levies  of  those  regions,  and  in 
all  affairs  which  in  guiding  those  provinces  came 
into  his  consideration,  he  displayed  aU  the  evidences 
of  wisdom,  efficiency,  care  and  fidelity.  Thus  he 
attained  renown,  and  his  humanity,  bounty  and 
liberality  were  in  every  mouth,  so  that  they  came 
from  aU  parts  of  the  world  to  him,  as  the  object  of 
their  hopes  and  petitions.  He  was  like  rain  in  his 
care  and  attention  to  all,  the  proofs  of  his  kindness 
and  generosity  could  be  established  only  by  the 
testimony  of  observation  and  by  the  eyes.  And 
the  Vizier  AbUl- Abbas  derived  information  from 
his  enlightened  sufficiency  in  affairs  of  State,  and 
formed  a  special  intimacy  with  him,  as  well  for  his 
sagacity  as  on  account  of  his  office  which  he  held 
so  near  to  His  Majesty,  and  when  the  Sun  of  that 
vizerat  was  eclipsed  by  the  excrescence  of  dismissal,  , 
whilst  the  Sultan  happened  to  be  engaged  in  the 
conquest  of  N"azdin,  he  committed  to  the  care  of 
the  Shaikh  Khalil  all  the  affairs  of  his  Divan, 
charging  him  with  the  care  of  his  Court  and  house- 
hold, and  the  outgoings  of  the  revenue,  and  sending 
him  a  patent,  whereby  he  was  appointed  to  superin- 
tend all  that  was  brought  or  accrued  to  the  royal 
treasury,  and  although  he  did  not  receive  the  name 
of  Vizier,  yet  the  whole  business  of  the  kingdom 
was  fully  appropriated  to  him.  And  whilst  the 
vizerat  lay  under  the  curtain  of  dismissal,  the  Sultan 

2d2 


404  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

issued  a  royal  order,  by  wliicli  he  summoned  the 
collectors  of  Khurasan  to  the  presence,  and  de- 
manded their  accounts,  and  they  accordingly 
attended  at  the  Court ;  at  that  time  the  Sultan  had 
resolved  to  turn  hack,  and  he  appointed  a  number 
of  his  army  and  serving  followers  over  the  head  of 
the  collectors  to  act  as  motives  to  them,  that  by 
the  most  disgraceful  coercion,  they  might  bring  in 
the  greater  possible  amount  of  revenue.  And  while 
this  was  going  on,  the  Sultan  placed  him  upon  the 
seat  of  authority,  and  honoured  him  with  the  robe 
of  Vizier,  and  delivered  into  his  hand  the  power  of 
binding  and  loosing,  of  imprisoning  and  liberating. 
This  Shaikh  Khalil  devoted  himself  with  prudent 
efficiency,  to  expedite,  to  enter  in  day  books,  to 
settle  arid  to  arrange  the  Customs  and  scattered 
businefss,  and  compelled  the  collectors  to  zeal  and 
duty,  and  purified  the  extent  of  the  kingdom  from  its 
destruction  and  decay.  He  placed  Abii-Ishak,  one 
of  the  Divan  over  the  collectors  of  Khurasan,  and 
in  conducting  his  office  he  shone  like  his  father  as 
administrator  and  counsellor  of  the  throne,  and 
when  the  standard  of  the  SuMn  returned  to 
Ghazna,  and  he  saw  that  by  the  wise  and  happy 
management  and  rule  of  his  Vizier,  the  affairs  of 
State  were  settled  in  a  well  ordered  course,  and  all 
affairs  of  collection  secured,  confirmed  and  guarded, 
he  sent  him  to  the  Siibah  of  Khurasin,  that 
he  might   attend  to  the  weakness  which  he  had 


MEMOIRS  OP  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  405 

discovered  there,  and  put  in  a  proper  way  of  pro- 
ceeding the  revenues  so  much  diminished  and 
■fallen  away,  and  prescribe  good  and  acceptable 
regulations  for  Khurasan.  The  Shaikh  Khalil* 
went  therefore  to  Herdt,  and  the  dread  of  his  com- 
mand and  rule  bound  the  hands  of  oppressors  be- 
hind their  back,  and  overthrew  the  flags  of  dark- 
ness, and  whatever  they  had  acquired  out  of  the 
receipts  and  expenditure  by  means  of  confiision 
and  in  time  of  tumult,  and  whatever  they  had 
collected  by  extortion  and  procuration,  that  he 
seized  from  them,  and  thus  by  his  gentle  vigour, 
he  dispatched  to  His  Majesty  an  amount  of  gold 
and  silver,  of  plate,  ready  money,  and  vessels 
dedicated  to  pious  uses,  the  like  whereof  had  at  no 
time  ever  reached  the  treasury  of  any  king  from 
Khurasdn. 

And  the  people  of  Khurasdn  sent  statements 
and  notes  to  the  Court,  discovering  the  evil  prac- 
tices of  the  Divdn  lord  (*•  e.,  whom  the  Vizier  had 
sent  thither).  The  Sultdn  issued  an  order  to 
toquire  into  the  truth  of  this,  and  sent  commis- 
sioners to  realize  and  sell  his  property.  They 
obtained  much  wealth  from  him  :  he  gave  up 
whatever  ready  money  and  furniture  and  vessels 
he  possessed,  and  sold  the  residue  of  his  slaves,  but 
was  excused  the  payment  of  the  rest  which  he  had 
sold.  And  whereas  the  Vizier  Abiil-Abbds  pos- 
sessed no  capital  stock  in  the  business  of  writing,; 


406      MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

and  profited  not  at  all  in  handling  the  pen,  and  in 
lecturing  on  good  manners  {i.  e.,  belles  lettres, 
humanities)  so  that,  in  his  time,  they  translated  the 
•  State  tmtings  into  Persian,  and  thus  the  market  of 
the  excellent  was  ruined  and  the  splendour  of  elo- 
quent authors  became  slender,  so  that  the  learned 
and  foolish,  the  virtuous  and  insignificant,  were 
reduced  to  the  level  of  the  same  rank.  When  the 
Shaikh  KhaKl  adorned  the  Mnsnud  of  Vizier  he 
brought  the  stars  of  authors  from  the  gulphs  of 
declination  to  the  zenith  of  glory,  so  that  the  rose 
of  ingenuity  and  distinction  budded  in  the  breeze  of 
his  favour,  and  the  countenance  of  the  clever  was 
exalted  in  his  fostering  abode.  He  commanded 
that  the  State  writers  should  avoid  Persian,  and 
that  as  an  estabhshed  rule  aU  diplomas,  orders,  and 
preaching,  (or  public  proclamations)  should  be 
vsrritten  in  Arabic,  except  where  the  proclaimers 
did  not  know  or  understand  Arabic.  His  orders 
and  intimations  were  famed  throughout  aU  parts  of 
the  world,  as  current  proverbs,  and  circulating 
poems,  and  all  tongues  commended  his  beautiful 
models  and  ornamented  examples.  The  ingenious  ■ 
ones  of  the  world  in  their  verses  and  rhymes 
decorated  the  title  pages  of  their  volumes  with  his 
praises  and  commendations,  and  came  with  song, 
like  nightingales  into  the  garden  of  his  presence. 
He  took  all  ranks  under  his  beneficent  and  kind 
favour,  and  by  his  blessed  equity  united  all  the 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  40 7 

community  under  the  shadow,  veil,  and  canopy  of 
his  virtuous  security,  so  that  the  world  became 
peopled,  and  hearts  wounded  and  diseased  by 
sorrow,  were  healed  by  the  medicine  and  plaister 
of  his  attention  and  knowledge.  By  his  counsels 
he  incited  the  Sultdn  to  be  firm  in  the  principles  of 
rectitude,  and  to  seek  the  reward  of  the  other 
world.  Thus  the  state  of  the  world  and  the 
empire  became  regulated  and  fixed,  and  all  being 
settled  upon  the  basis  of  knowledge  and  foresight, 
became  firmer  by  lapse  of  time.  May  his  (memorial) 
columns  become  higher  as  days  advance,  and  may 
the  building  (of  his  fame)  become  stronger  and 
firmer  unto  the  fated  end  of  time  (Verse) 

"  Oh  may  the  foundation  of  the  good  work  thou  hast 
constructed !  may  thy  structure  endure  unto  the  judgment- 
day  ;  may  no  enemy  approach  its  boundary,  even  to  attribute 
to  it  the  name  of  injury." 


AOOOUNT    OF    SHAMS-AL-MUALI-lCABUS-'BN-WASnAMGiH    AUD 
THE    EEMAIWING    PoKTION    OF    HIS    ArFAIBS,  AND    OF  THE 

Accession  to  the  Theone  of  his  Son,  PALK-AL-MtTALf. 

Shams- Al-Mu41I,  on  account  of  his  penetrating 
acuteness,  and  specially  restless  mind,  when  it  was 
necessary  to  endure  with  patience,  was  harsh 
tempered  and  overbearing,  and  from  his  austere 
conduct  and  perpetually  passing  round  the  cup  of 
his  violence  was  never  at  peace  with  any  one.     If 


408  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

mildness  of  disposition  liad  been  in  him  as  weighty 
as  a  stone  mountain,  he  would  have  summoned  it 
from  its  summit,  by  his  light  sword  as  by  lightning, 
and  if  any  sedateness  could  have  been  ever 
attributed  to  him,  through  the  slappings  of  the 
billows  of  his  anger  it  had  become  a  myth  in  the 
^reen  sea,  for  the  smallest  offence  he  inflicted  a 
harsh  punishment.  He  had  no  compassion  or  fear 
of  shedding  blood,  he  punished  and  corrected  only 
by  the  cutting  sword  and  raised  spear,  and  his 
prisons  were  but  cavern  sepulchres  fitted  to  receive 
bodies  {catacombs). 

Hence  the  people  were  destroyed  by  him,  so 
that  hearts  were  broken  by  dread  of  him,  and 
breasts  shattered  by  hatred  of  him.  For  if  by 
various  means  of  execution  and  coercion  for  casual 
errors  and  accidental  slips,  one  must  die,  or  be 
distressed,  what  purity  from  aU  sin  and  corruption 
exists  in  prophets,  so  that  spirits  retained  no 
strength,  and  souls  were  furious.  And  there  was 
a  worthy  man,  his  Chamberlain,  a  man  of  gentle 
and  guileless  nature,  known  and  remarked  by  all 
for  a  peaceful  disposition,  to  whom  the  guardian- 
ship and  controlling  of  the  taxes  of  those  places 
had  been  entrusted.  Him  they  accused  of  rebellion, 
and  the  prince  ordered  him  to  be  killed,  and  he, 
declaring  his  innocence  sought  succour  in  abscond- 
ing and  flying.  He  remained  some  time  in  his 
place  of  refuge,  when  his  retreat  was  discovered, 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  QHAZNA.      409 

and  although  he  at  the  time  then  present  showed 
his  fidehty  and  stability  during  time  past,  he  ob- 
tained no  favour.  His  execution  increased  the 
disgust  of  the  army,  and  all  hearts  resolved  to 
draw  off  the  bridle  of  obedience,  and  openly  to  em- 
brace the  word  of  rebellion  and  of  freedom  of  their 
lives  from  the  obnoxious  moroseness  of  His  High- 
ness, And  whilst  this  was  going  on,  he  went  out 
from  Juzjdn,  and  by  reason  of  the  aid  of  absence 
the  fuel  was  renewed  in  the  troops,  and  through 
the  arrangement  of  the  army  and  their  malicious 
ill-will,  he  remained  without  intelligence  of  their 
movements  until  they  seized  upon  his  castle,  and 
plundered  his  goods,  arms,  horses,  &c.  His  nobles 
stood  up  to  repel  them,  and  protected  him  from 
the  malice  of  their  enmity.  And  when  the  design 
of  these  people  failed  in  the  object  they  had  in- 
tended to  attain,  they  went  to  Juzjdn,  and  took 
that  city  by  force  and  perseverance  into  their 
possession.  And  they  summoned  the  Amir 
Manuch-har  from  Tabaristdn,  and  he,  on  account 
of  his  vexation  and  the  ruin  of  this  event  to  his 
father,  and  the  deep  treachery  of  those  people, 
hastened  on,  in  order  to  take  the  direction  of  this 
affair.  But  when  he  arrived  at  Juzj^n,  he  saw 
the  army  broken  up  into  mutiny,  and  the  affair  out 
of  his  hands.  The  regiments  of  the  army  then 
sent  a  message  to  him,  thus : — If  you  will  agree 
with  us  with  respect  to  the  deposition  and  dismissal 


410  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

of  your  father,  we  will  bind  up  our  loins  with  faith- 
ful zeal  to  serve  you,  and  wiU  be  obedient,  but  if  not, 
we  will  inaugurate  some  other  man,  or  go  to  some 
other  place.  And  the  Amir  Manuch-har  saw  no 
remedy  but  to  obliterate  aU,  and  join  them,  for  he 
thought  that  the  curtain  of  respect  was  torn,  that 
the  fountain  of  strife  and  hatred  might  augment, 
and  his  old  house  fall  from  his  hands.  As  to 
Sham-Al-Mudli,  when  he  understood  the  coalition 
of  their  words  in  rebellion,  and  their  agreement  in 
all  kinds  of  iU-wUl,  he  removed  himself  to  Bastam 
with  his  light  and  heavy  furniture,  the  royal  seals, 
and  the  rest  of  his  property,  and  awaited  the  end  and 
boundary  of  the  affair.  And  when  the  army  re- 
ceived intelligence  of  this  event,  they  compelled 
Manuch-har  to  attack  him  and  remove  him  from 
that  place,  and  by  dint  of  necessity  he  went  Avith 
them,  and  repelled  wrong  by  wrong,  and  put  fire 
upon  fire.  When,  then,  they  came  near  Kabiis  he 
summoned  his  son,  and  Manuch-har  coming  to 
wait  upon  him,  kissed  the  ground  of  respect,  sate 
before  him  with  the  utmost  submission,  tears  flow- 
ing from  his  eyes,  and  they  began  to  enter  into 
deep  reflexions  and  complaints  respecting  recent 
events,  and  on  both  sides  much  passed  between 
them  on  a  son's  duty  to  his  father,  and  a  hundred 
pledges  were  given  that  the  former  should  protect 
the  latter  from  their  violence.  And  the  Amir 
Manuch-har  said  to  his  father,  if  you  will  permit 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  411 

me,  I  will  risk  my  head  in  repulsing  these  forces, 
and  freely  yield  up  my  life,  and  offer  myself  as  the 
guardian  of  your  existence,  and  sacrifice  myself  for 
your  safety.  Upon  this  Shams-Al-MudK  gave 
Mm.  the  expression  of  his  gladness  of  heart,  and. 
drawing  'iiim  towards  hinaself,  kissed  his  face  and 
said,  I  am  now  at  the  end  of  aU  my  history,  and 
the  conclusion  of  my  adventures,  and  you  are  the 
inheritor  of  my  kingdom  and  my  house.  But  this 
conduct  of  yours  will  merit  distinction  during  my 
life  and  after  my  death.  Upon  this  he  consigned 
to  him  the  seal  of  State,  and  delivered  to  him  the 
keys  of  his  treasures.  And  it  was  determined 
to  place  Shams- Al-Mudll  in  the  castle  of  Klhaba- 
shak,  and  make  him  engage  himself  in  piety  and 
devotion,  and  that  he  should  resign  royalty,  and 
the  right  of  binding  and  loosing  to  Manuch-har. 
They  therefore  removed  Shams- Al-Muall,  to  a 
dwelling  within  that  fortress,  with  all  his  furniture, 
and  servants,  which  they  had  preserved  to  him,  and 
Manuch-har  came  to  Juzjdn. 

And  Kabiis  occupied  himself  in  taking  pos- 
session of  his  property,  and  in  conciliating  the 
chiefs,  and  courting  the  commons.  But  notwith- 
standing all  his  attentions,  and  his  earnest  desire 
to  be  of  service  to  all,  hoth  high  and  humble,  time 
passed,  and  they  found  themselves  not  softened 
with  regard  to  his  errors,  nor  was  their  detestation 
of  the   past  oppressions  and  horrible   crimes  of 


412  MEMOIRS  OP  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZHA. 

Kabiis  diminished,  and  they  examined  every  avenue 
of  contrivance  or  treachery,  in  order  to  set  their 
minds  at  rest  concerning  him.  And  as  their  wish 
was  so  it  was  fulfilled ;  for  when  all  had  arrived  at 
peace  and  quietness,  they  perverted  his  secretary 
that  in  order  to  extinguish  and  end  his  life,  (he 
should  permit)  that  his  bed  makers  should  enter 
his  sleeping  chamber,  and  they  drew  sheet  after 
sheet,  (or  cloak  after  cloak)  so  as  to  be  closely 
glued  upon  him,*  and  thus  saw  him  dead,  (or  drew 
cloak  after  cloak  from  the  furniture  of  his  bed- 
chamber (upon  him)  and  thus  beheld  him  dead). 

Thus  they  obtained  their  wish,  and  became  at 
ease  from  the  dread  of  the  thunderbolts  of  his  sword 
and  spear.  They  interred  him  in  a  domed  sepul- 
chre outside  Juzjdn,  on  the  road  to  Khurasan. 
His  fate  is  intimated  by  the  elegant  poet  (Verse) 

"  It  was  announced  of  thee  that  a  fire  was  burning  after 
thee, 

"  And  the  little  dogs  of  society  railed  after  thee  ; 

"  Thej  published  abroad  and  narrated  the  great  affair.        / 

"  If  thou  hadst  witnessed  them  therein  they  would  not  have 
mentioned  it"  (i.  e.,  they  would  not  have  been  living  to  do  so). 

*  Abulpharagius,  in  his  "History  of  Dynasties,"  seems  to 
imply  that  Kabus  was  assassinated,  by  stripping  him  of  his 
cloaks  or  blankets,  and  so  leaving  him  to  perish  (from  ex- 
posure, it  is  to  be  presumed,  to  cold).  But  it  would  appear 
more  probable  that  he  was  suffocated.  Notwithstanding  the 
very  ingenious  conjectural  emendations  of  M.  Kasimirski, 
which  the  translator  thankfully  adopts,  he  has  not  been  able 
entirely  to  satisfy  himself,  with  regard  to  this  sentence. 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  QHAZNA.  413 

And  the  Amir  Manuch-har  completed  three 
days  upon  the  seat  of  mourning,  and  after  three 
days  took  his  seat  upon  the  throne,  and  being 
inaugurated  by  the  army  forgot  Kabiis.     "There 
is  no  converse  between  Hajiin  and  Safi"  {mountains 
of  Mecca).     "There  is  no  night  gossip  at  Mecca." 
And  a  diploma  arrived  from  the  Chancery  of  the 
Elhaliph  Al-Kidir-Billah  to  the  Amir  Manuch- 
har,    containing   condolence   and   sympathy,    con- 
ferring upon  him  the  surname  of  Falk-Almudli, 
and   wishing   him    Heaven's    grace    and    happy 
guidance.      And  he  was  also   protected   by  the 
mountain  of  the  Sultdn's  friendship  and  requested 
the  support  of  being  admitted  one  of  the  peers  and 
followers   of  the   Empire.     Thus  the  fracture  of 
his  father's  circumstances  became  filled  up  by  the 
weight  of  the  interweaving  friendship  and  pity  of 
the  Sultan,  and  by  putting  on  the  cloak  of  his  aid 
and  (seeking)  utihty  under  his  dread  shadow.     And 
he  sent  several  distinguished  men  of  the  Court  to 
his  presence,  and  he  'offered  to  the  Sultdn  liberal 
presents,  precious  gems,  and  no  scanty  valuables, 
and  assured  him  of  his  sincere  wish  and  pure  in- 
tention as  respected  his  allegiance  to  His  Majesty. 
The  SuMn  looked  upon  these  gifts  with  an  eye  of 
favour,  and  returned  a  corresponding  reply  to  h,is 
desire  and  petition,  and  marked  the  weights  and 
measures  of  his  regard  with  the  standard  of  his 
good-will.     And  he  gave  a  royal  letter,  ordaining 


414  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OP  GHAZNA. 

that  in  the  Amir's  country,  the  public  prayers  and 
the  coins  should  be  edged  with  the  embroidery  of  his 
august  surname.  And  he  sent  his  signet-bearer 
Abii-Muhammad  upon  that  journey  to  him,  with  a 
proper  robe  and  perfect  caresses.  And  the  Aiclr 
Manuch-har,  received  this  order  with  the  ear  of 
assent  and  obedience,  and  carried  it  out  to  the  ut- 
most, so  that  in  the  pulpits  of  the  kingdoms  of 
Juzjdn,  and  Tabaristin,  and  Koms  and  Ddrughdn, 
the  insignia  of  tlie  Sultdn's  style  were  displayed. 
Also,  he  was  bound  to  pay  five  thousand  dinars  by 
way  of  tribute,  which  he  sent  every  year  to  the 
treasury,  and  when  the  Sultdn  marched  forth  to 
fight  for  religion,  he  requested  an  army  from  him, 
and  he  sent  to  battle  from  the  choice  and  flower  of 
the  men  of  Dilem,  forces,  who  in  ascending  were 
like  clubs  {or  maces),  and  in  descending  like  a 
torrent,  all  fully  equipped  and  provided  with 
necessaries  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  exalted  tem- 
perament, and  he  established  confidence  and  faith- 
fulness in  supplying  his  necessities  and  furthering 
his  measures.  And  when  the  atoms  of  his  happy 
disposition  towards  His  Majesty  arrived  at 
(coalescing)  unity,  and  the  sincerity  of  his  allegi- 
ance was  confirmed,  and  the  clearness  of  friendship 
emerged  from  the  dusky  ashes  of  suspicion,  he  sent 
to  His  Majesty  Abii-Said-Sawal,  a  chief  of  Juzjdn, 
an  eminent  man,  skilled  in  genealogy  and  etiquette, 
to  propose  that  the  bonds  of  friendship  should  be 


MEMOIRS  OP  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  415 

strengthened  by  the  ropes  of  alliance.  And  he  de- 
manded the  honour  of  a  marriage  with  one  of  the 
noble  ones  of  His  Majesty's  chamber.  This  Envoy 
with  his  usual  modest  virtues  and  innate  laudable 
gravity,  proceeded  to  this  business,  and  succeeded 
so  well  in  advancing  his  desire  and  prospering  his 
wishes  that  the  Sultan  gave  a  loose  rein  to  the 
promotion  of  his  request,  and  the  success  of  his 
hopes,  so  that  the  claims  of  Falk-AlmudH  became 
attached  to  consent.  And  when  this  great  man 
returned  to  the  Amir's  Court,  and  represented  the 
favours  and  honours  which  he  had  received,  he 
mentioned  the  ready  inchnation  of  the  Sultan  to 
reply  to  his  plea,  and  satisfy  his  request.  Upon 
this,  Falk-Al-Mudll  sent  him  again  to  the  Court, 
and  joined  with  him  the  Kadi  of  Juzjdin,  a  senator 
of  learning,  a  corner  stone  of  theology,  and  a  pillar 
of  experience,  that  by  his  perfect  forethought  and 
skill  he  might  bring  the  union  in  prospect  to  the 
bond  of  marriage  and  girdHng  together.  These 
two  accordingly  went  to  the  Court,  and  offered 
their  respects  and  requested  that  the  marriage 
might  be  finally  concluded.  Then  the  SuMn 
bound  the  Satans  of  wickedness  by  the  Divine  Law's 
decrees,  and  gave  to  Falk-Al-Mudli  a  precious 
one,  who  was  a  corner  of  his  heart,  and  the  Yenus 
in  the  heaven  of  his  kingdom;  a  gem,  fit  only  to  be 
attached  to  the  pinnacle  of  the  hat  of  the  sky,  and 


416  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

a  pearl  of  pearls  only  fit  for  the  rolling  heavens,  and 
a  bridal  bed  of  queens,  worthy  only  of  the  chamber 
of  princes.  At  these  nuptials  such  gifts,  presents, 
gratifications  and  jewels  were  diffused  and  distri- 
buted that  they  would  fill  the  record  of  time,  and  form 
a  decorated  border  for  the  roll  of  all  the  acts  of 
generosity.  Ambassadors  were  sent  to  inform  him 
of  the  accomplishment  of  his  wishes,  and  Falk-Al- 
MudK  sent  a  dowry  of  such  an  amount,  that  the 
renown  of  his  magnanimity  and  generosity  spread 
throughout  the  world,  and  none  of  the  lords  and 
princes  remained  without  his  share  of  noble  grati- 
fications and  keepsakes.  The  Sultan  reciprocated 
his  homage  by  various  noble  acts,  and  fulfilled  ail- 
that  might  respond  to  the  expression  of  his  allegi- 
ance, and  was  due  to  the  claims  of  kindred.  And 
he  managed  the  principal  chiefs  and  eminent  men 
of  his  Court  with  precious  honours  and  valuable 
robes,  so  that  he  became  the  model  of  Kings,  and 
example  of  Sultd,ns  in  the  world,  and  by  his 
alliance  with  the  pearl-producing  shell  of  royalty 
and  illustrious  jacinth  of  sovereignty,  his  wealth 
advanced  until  it  exceeded  aU  that  in  any  age  had 
been  stored  up  by  the  confluence  of  all  the  pens  of 
book-keepers,  or  of  those  wise  in  understanding 
accounts.  And  as  the  moon's  disk  becomes  illu- 
minated by  the  sun  opposite  to  it,  and  the  womb 
of  the  gem-bearing  sheU  is  moistened  by  the  gift 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  417 

of  the  sea,  so  the  treasury  of  Falk-Al-Mudll 
became  as  full  of  riches,  as  the  Ocean  repository  of 
brilliant  pearls,  or  as  a  mine  of  jewels. 

And  when,  by  the  support  of  that  alliance,  and 
by  reason  of  that  affinity,  the  affairs  of  the  Amir 
were  placed  upon  a  firm  basis,  he  began  to  arrange 
the  affairs  of  his  army,  and  to  take  vengeance  upon 
the  parties  who  had  been  concerned  in  the  blood  of 
Shams- Al-Mu411,  and  by  various  methods  of  guile 
and  kinds  of  pretexts,  he  made  a  breach  between 
those  parties  and  their  allies,  and  killed  them  all. 
But  the  son  of  Kharkash,  who  had  been  the  source 
of  the  dissensions,  fled  from  among  them,  and 
became  a  wanderer  in  the  world,  distressed  and 
cast  away,  and  no  trace  of  him  remained.  And  in 
all  the  odiousness  of  that  sin,  and  the  accusation  of 
that  wickedness,  Abill  Kasim  was  implicated,  who 
was  Commander  of  the  army,  and  in  the  highest 
position  of  the  kingdom.  He  remained  wavering 
between  hope  and  fear,  looking  for  grief  and  tor- 
menting anxiety.  And  Falk-Al-Muili  tore  out 
his  eyes,  and  (then)  adopted  the  expedient  of  pro- 
crastination and  delay,  and  deceived  by  feigned 
indifference  and  neglect,  in  order  thus  by  stimula- 
ting his  eagerness  and  longing  for  safety  to  draw 
him  into  the  catching-trap,  so  that  in  the  meeting 
of  questioners  (examiners)  his  tales  were  stopped, 
and  the  way  of  escape  closed.  However,  the  time 
of  every  affair  is  foreseen,  and  its  issue  defined,  and 

2  E 


418  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

its  end  known  to  the  Disposer,  and  He  in  guiding 
affairs,  can  hasten  or  retard  in  a  manner  that  is 
not  imagined.  Abill  Kasim  fled  through  a  strata- 
gem from  prison,  and  wandered  in  various  regions, 
until  he  came  to  Nisdpiir  to  the  Sultan's  Court,  and 
sought  an  asylum  in  his  protection,  thinking  that 
he  should  thereby  obtain  safety  from  the  con- 
sequences of  his  serious  deeds  of  shame  and  odious 
actions,  on  account  of  the  intimate  alHance  and 
connection  that  existed,  as  well  as  by  the  expanded 
discrimination,  and  the  unity  of  counsel  that  was 
established  between  their  Highnesses.  He  how- 
ever knew  not,  that  people  slay  those  who  slay, 
and  that  retribution  like  the  bent  bowstring, 
circles  round  the  evil  doer,  and  although  the  time 
be  slow,  finds  a  place  to  hit  him  on  at  last  ;  and 
although  the  time  was  postponed,  he  at  length  fell 
into  the  trap  of  sorrow  and  the  snare  of  misery. 
Doubtless  the  picture  of  his  vile  deeds  was  made 
known  to  the  Sultdn,  for  he  commanded  that 
he  should  be  bound  and  delivered  up  to  Falk-Al- 
Muall,  and  Ibn-Rilml  hath  composed  these  two 
verses  of  pure  counsel  and  elegant  admonition 
(Yerse") 

"  Grood  13  worked  for  him  who  fulfils  it :  if  thou  doest  good 
it  will  make  thee  happy ; 

"  And  evil  is  done  for  him  who  perpetrates  it :  if  thou  doest 
evil  it  will  ruin  thee." 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  419 

AccoTJST  OP  DisA,  Son  op  SHAMs-Aii-MulLi-KABtJS. 

After  Ddrd,  from  the  party  of  Abu- AH,  had 
translated  himself  to  that  of  Prince  Niih,  he 
became  attached  to  his  service  and  a  candidate  for 
his  munificence  ;  and  when  his  father^  Shams- Al- 
MuaH,  came  to  the  head  of  affairs  he  stiU  remained 
in  contented  obedience  to  his  father,  observing  and 
preserving  before  him  the  affection,  intimacy,  and 
union  of  a  son  with  his  parent,  until  the  latter  sent 
him  to  Tabarist^n.  Here  he  was  settled  for  some 
time,  retaining  his  allegiance,  governing  well,  and 
able  to  answer  those  who  disputed  his  father's  autho- 
rity, until  he,  on  account  of  some  suspicion  that  beset 
him,  recalled  and  sent  him  to  Ast^r^b^d.  He  obe- 
diently proceeded  thither,  and  illuminated  the  royal 
diploma  (and  grant)  of  the  country,  so  that  his  father 
accepted  all  his  excuses  and  delighted  to  honour  his 
advances.  After  some  days  he  again  summoned 
him,  and  Ddra  became  thoughtful.  He  took  his 
seat  to  go  to  his  father,  but  on  the  road  he 
repented,  and,  seizing  the  reins,  went  into  the  depths 
of  the  forests  of  Tabaristdn,  towards  Khur^sdn. 
They  intimated  this  event  to  Shams-Al-Mudli,  who 
dispatched  cavalry  after  him.  He  proceeded  the 
whole  distance,  and  when  he  arrived  on  the 
frontiers  of  Khurisdn,  being  safe  from  the  vehe- 
ment winds  of  the  fury,  and  the  blasts  of  the  fiery 
rage  of  his    father,   he   attached  himself  to  the 

2  E  2 


420      MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

SuMn,  and  found  with  him  a  settled  home  and 
sure  abode,  and  was  honoured  with  every  atten- 
tion. But,  through  the  giddiness  of  youth  and 
want  of  gravity,  he  in  the  assembhes.  of  the  Sultdn 
made  light  of  Mahmiid's  kindred  and  rank.  He 
thus  became  obnoxious  to  the  rancour  of  the 
Sultin,  and  had  cause  to  be  alarmed  at  his  jea- 
lousy, and  therefore  escaped  under  the  star  of  the 
border  of  night.  The  Sultdn  sent  persons  in  quest 
of  him,  but  they  attained  not  the  place  of  the 
setting  orb,  for  he  came  to  the  land  of  Gharsh,  to 
the  Shar-king,  who,  influenced  by  the  long 
friendship  which  had  existed  between  them,  gave 
him  an  asylum  at  his  Court.  The  Sultdn  sent  a 
royal  letter,  in  which  he  demanded  him,  and  reite- 
rated promises  and  threats.  The  Shar,  in  alarm 
and  terror  at  consequences,  sent  the  Amir  Dard  to 
the  SuMn.  He  was  for  some  time  in  prison, 
enduring  the  harshness  of  fortune.  Upon  one 
occasion,  by  some  unknown  means,  he  escaped, 
and  if  the  destined  duration  of  his  sorrow  had  been 
accomplished  he  would  have  attained  safety. 
However  the  rawness  of  his  days  of  misery  and  the 
fated  residue  of  the  season  of  his  calamity  seized 
his  collar,  so  that  the  spies  of  the  Sultin  laid  hands 
on  him  and  replaced  him  in  a  closer  prison,  with 
increased  severity  and  hardship,  until  the  force  of 
the  Sultin's  severity  diminished  and  he  forgave 
him,  and  he  revivified  him  with  fresh  existence  and 


MEMOIRS  OP  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.      421 

new  life,  and  issued  an  order  to  console  and  release 
.him,  and  again  conferred  upon  him  his  wonted 
benefits  and  favours,  giving  him  the  land  of  Taba- 
ristdn   and  Juzjdn.      And  he  nominated   ArsMn 
Jazib  to  assist  and  aid  him.     And  if  the  sagacity 
of  Falk-AlmudH,  in  displaying  allegiance  and  per- 
sisting in  his  contented  good  affection  towards  the 
Sultdn  had  not  put  his- affairs  in  a  right  train,  his 
house  and  his   kingdom   would  have   fallen  from 
his  possession.*      However,  when  that  affair  was 
arranged,   the   Sultdn   recalled   Ddrd,    who    then 
remained  as  one  of  the  lords  of  the  empire  and 
associates    of   the    Court.      And,   at    aU    social 
meetings,  hunting  shows,  private  audiences,  and 
every  assembly  whatever,  he  was  neVer  away  from 
the  Sultin's  eyes,  until  the  time  when  the  Amir 
Abill  -  Fawards     'bn  -  Azduddoulah     came     from 
Karman,    on    account   of    the   dispute   with    his 
brother,  before  the  Sultan's  throne,  in  the  hope  of 
assistance  against  his  brother's  oppression.      One 
night  Ddrd   and  this  Amir  met  in  the  Sultdn's 
presence,  when  some  discussion  arose  respecting 
the  dignity   of  their  families,  the  precedency  of 
their  chieftains,  and  the  depth  of  their  genealogy, 
when  Daia  spoke  words  which  were  inconsistent 
with  the  reserve  due  to  his  majesty  and  the  wide 

*  i.  e.  By  losing  Tabaristan  and  Juzjan,  which  were 
included  in  the  grant  to  Dara,  Falk-Al-Muali  would  have  lost 
a  considerable  part  of  his  kingdom. 


422  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

reverence  owing  to  royalty.  And  wten  the  denial 
was  given  him  he  repeated  the  words  in  a  more 
quarrelsome  and  insolent  manner,  and  the  matter 
came  to  such  a  point  that  the  Sultan  caused  him 
to  be  removed  from  the  company,  and  the  next  day 
imprisoned  him  in  a  certain  fortress,  confiscating 
all  his  property,  real  and  moveable,  until  the  Vizier 
interceded  for  him,  when,  in  the  month  Muharram, 
in  the  year  400,  his  estates  and  lands  were  deli- 
vered to  his  agents,  to  be  expended  for  his  advan- 
tage. 

Account  of  MAJDUDBoriiAH-ABrj-TlLiB-'BH-- 

FAKHE-ABDOXriiAH. 

When  HisS,m-Addoulah-Tash  arrived  at  Juzj^n 
Fakhr-Addoulah  wrote  to  him  by  the  hand  of  a 
messenger,  and,  amongst  the  contents  of  that 
letter,  expressed  his  gladness  at  the  birth  of  Majd- 
uddoulah,  discharging  the  duty  of  thanks  to  God 
for  that  gift.  And  these  words  were  contained  in 
this  letter:  "God  hath  graciously  given  me  the 
bounty  of  a  son  ;  I  have  surnamed  him  Abil-  Tdlib, 
as  his  Mussulman  appellation,  but  I  have  named 
him  Eustam,  for  he  is  of  the  sons  of  that  stock  and 
of  that  origin."  And  when  Fakhr-Addoulah 
migrated  to  the  other  palace  (died)  the  army  inau- 
gurated him  into  his  father's  lordship.  And  his 
mother,  Mary  (  ?)  was  a  sister  of  Asphabad,  a  lady 
mainly  confident  in  the  greatness  of  her  kindred 


MEMOIliS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  423 

and  in  her  august  tribe.  She  began  to  employ 
towards  the  army  of  Dilem,  in  an  authoritative  and 
dictatorial  manner,  language  of  binding  and 
loosing,  commanding  and  prohibiting.  For  this 
cause  bitterness  arose  between  him  and  his  mother, 
and  she  sent  a  person  and  transferred  Badr-Hasan- 
awyat  to  herself,  and  seized  upon  Rai  and 
weakened  the  authority  of  her  son's  Nawwdbs. 
For  this  cause  much  strife  took  place,  and  effusion 
of  blood  and  tumults  universally  drew  on,  and  the 
army  of  Dilem  and  people  of  Rai  were  hereby 
reduced  to  distress,  and  lost  strength,  and  fresh 
commotions  continually  arose,  and  the  bands  of 
peace  were  cut,  so  that  by  the  lights  and  revolu- 
tions of  those  confused  calamities,  whole  battalions 
of  the  army  were  destroyed,  and  through  this 
miserable  state  of  things  the  hardship  of  all  classes 
and  the  ruin  of  the  subjects  increased,  the  country 
approached  desolation,  and  all  men  were  scattered. 
And  Majduddoulah  became  wearied  with  the 
burning  of  these  times  of  tumult  and  with  these 
flames  of  iniquity.  He  therefore  retired  from  his 
office  of  Amir,  and  arose  to  avoid  the  perverseness 
of  his  mother,  and  conquered  the  passion  of  his 
inclination,  so  as  to  obey  her,  and  thus  delivered 
the  people  from  that  precipice  of  undoing,  and 
occupied  himself  in  reading  books,  and  in  the 
society  of  pen  and  ink.  And  his  brother,  Shams- 
Addoulah,  possessed  Hamadan  and  Karmistdn,  as 
far  as  the  frontiers  of  BagdM. 


424      MEMOIRS  OP  MAHMUD  OV   GHAZNA; 

And,  during  their  lives,  Badr-'bn-Hasanawyat 

amassed  great  wealth,  and  property,  and  goods, 

and  in  various  ways  of  good  feeling  and  humanity, 

dictated  by  his  warm  and  great  intellect,  expended 

it.     And  thus,  in  like  manner,  Ibn-FuMd,  during 

the  days  of  the  family  of  Boyah,  obtained  great 

power,  and  so  high  did  his  authority  arrive  that 

the    chiefs   of  Dilem    and    the  principal   persons 

amongst  the  Kurds,  Arabs,  and  Persians  joined 

his  army.    And  he  wrote  a  letter  to  Majduddoulah 

and  to  his  mother,  the  manager  of  the  kingdom, 

demanding  an  increased  share  of  territory,  that  he 

might  expend  the  revenues  thereof  upon  the  amiy, 

and    appropriate    it    to    the    exigencies    of   the 

kingdom,  in  defending  the  frontiers  of  the  empire 

in   current  necessities,    and  in  repelling  enemies. 

And   they   returned   an  answer,    alluding  to  the 

diminution  of  the  area  of  the  kingdom,  and  to  the 

decreased    glory    of    the    empire,    and    excused 

themselves.     And  he  rebelled  against  them,  and 

turned  towards  the  frontiers  of  Rai,  and  plundered 

them,  and  seized  the  lands  bordering  upon  his  own 

region,    and   took   possession   of    their  revenues. 

Hereby  the  roads  were  closed,  and  the  means  of 

abundance   and   food   intercepted.      Majaddoulah 

and    his  mother  therefore  wrote   to   Asphabad, 

imploring  assistance,  and  he  came  with  a  whole 

division  of  an  army  of  cavalry,  and  he  frequently 

gave  battle  to  Ibn-Ful^d  (^.  e.,  the  son  of  steel)  and 

many  perished  on  both  sides.     And  he  wounded 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  425 

Ibn  FuMd,  and  he  retreated,  and  went  out  towards 
Damghan,  Here  he  tarried  some  days,  repairing 
his  losses  and  to  be  healed  of  his  wounds,  and 
wrote  to  Falk-Almu^li  for  aid,  requesting  him  to 
obtain  possession  of  Rai  for  him,  and  surrendering 
to  him  the  public  prayer-distinction,  the  coinage, 
and  the  settled  duties,  by  way  of  encouragement. 
And  he  sent  to  him  two  thousand  chosen  men, 
who  deemed  it  a  noble  end  to  die  gloriously,  and 
regarded  battle  but  as  wine-drinking  and  sport. 
And,  in  order  to  gladden  Ibn-Fuldd  and  to  seal 
the  truth  of  his  good  inclination,  he  sent  abundant 
wealth  as  a  loan.  He  went  then,  with  this  army 
towards  E,ai,  and  began  to  rob  and  plunder.  The 
army  of  Dilem,  therefore,  suffered  great  distress 
and  frightful  scarcity.,  so  that  Majuddoulah  and  the 
royal  troops  were  compelled  to  come.  And  they 
conciliated  him,  and  gave  Isfahan  to  him,  and  he 
was  then  appeased,  and  restrained  himself  from 
injury  and  wrong ;  and  he  brought  the  army  to 
the  high  road  of  restraint  and  the  ways  of  recti- 
tude, so  that  the  pretext  of  oppression  and  desola- 
tion was  cut  off;  and,  in  the  year  407,  he  went  to 
Isfahan,  and  there  displayed  the  insignia  of  empire, 
as  belonging  to  Majduddoulah.  And  Nasrat- 
Hasan-'bn-Finizdn,  for  the  reason  stated  above, 
proceeded  towards  Rai,  and,  from  alarm  at  the  iU- 
will  of  Kibiis  and  at  the  complaints  respecting  his 
army,,  came  by  the  way  of  the  wilderness.     And, 


426      MEMOIRS  OP  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

when  he  arrived  at  Rai,  he  passed  the  space  of  two 
years  amidst  the  people  of  Rai  and  with  the  most 
perfect  respect,  referred  to  with  confidence  in 
matters  of  State,  and  regulating  all  before  and  all 
behind.  Then,  for  some  offence,  they  arrested 
him  and  sent  him  to  the  fortress  of  Istonawand. 
Here  he  was  confined  for  some  time,  until  they 
drew  the  pen  of  pardon  over  his  offence  and 
brought  him  to  his  promised  seat  in  the  midst 
of  the  kingdom  (promised)  in  those  days  when 
he  had  committed  wickedness  towards  Majdud- 
doulah.  From  his  bad  government  rectitude  was 
diminished,  and  the  army  of  Dilem  threw  off  the 
bridle  of  allegiance,  and  began  to  oppress  and 
attack.  And  since  they  threw  off  the  halter  of 
obedience  he  could  not  restrain  them,  so  that  every- 
one did  as  he  liked,  as  to  murder,  rapine,  and 
plunder,  except  those  who  were  hindered  by  com- 
passion and  the  fear  of  God,  through  piety  and  the 
dread  of  retribution.  Nasr  (Nasrat  ?)  indeed 
attempted  to  punish  them,  killing  several  and 
expelling  some.  At  length  all  joined  hands  and 
made  an  assault  upon  Nasr,  and  took  the  sur- 
rounding (outer)  defences  of  his  palace  ;  and  he, 
with  a  select  force,  repulsed  them  for  awhile,  but 
at  length  he  was  put  to  flight,  and  aU  his  property 
and  possessions  passed  to  them  ;  and  afterwards  he 
remained  in  deep  indignation  at  this  calamity,  and 
distressed  until  he  was  deposited  in  the  grave. 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  427 

AoooTTurx  OF  Biha-AbdouIiAh-'bn-Azdtjddotjlah  and  his 

CONOEENS. 

When  the  country  of  Slst4n  was  surrendered 
to  the  Sultdn,  Bihd-Addoulah  began  to  express 
some  desire  that  he  should  be  admitted  to  share  in 
the  Khutbah,  since,  on  account  of  the  proximity  of 
the  two  countries,  they  had  been  connected  in 
public  writings  and  Khutbahs,  and  the  Sultdn,  on 
account  of  his  noble  descent  and  peculiarly  high 
birth,  was  inclined  to  an  alliance  of  love  and  affec- 
tion ;  also  for  the  advantage  of  the  kingdom. 
Noble  words  passed,  and  messengers  came  and 
went  upon  the  subject.  And  they  sent  to  Pars 
(Fars)  the  Kadi  of  Nisipilr,  Abii  (Abr  ?)  Bastdmf, 
a  man  celebrated  throughout  the  whole  world,  for 
his  virtues,  eloquence,  and  gravity.  And  Biha- 
Addoulah  behaved,  in  expediting  that  honourable 
design  and  favourable  position,  as  became  the 
glorious  eminence  of  the  Sultdn.  Subsequently  to 
his  arrival  Biha-Addoulah  inclined  to  a  new 
arrangement,  and  the  affair  was  delayed.  And 
again,  as  Fakhraddoulah,  uncle  and  heir  of  his 
father,  governor  of  Dudman,  and  a  great  lord,  was 
settled  at  Bagddd,  the  affair  could  not  be  conceived 
without  his  advice  and  permission.  So  he  sent 
the  Kadi  to  Bagdad,  to  bring  this  affair  to  his 
ears,  and  to  obtain  his  pleasure  upon  this  proposal. 
And  when  he  returned  from  Bagddd  Biha  Addou- 


428  MEMOIRS  OP  MA.HMUD  OF  QHAZNA. 

lah  had  left  this  world  empty  and  found  extinction. 
And  his  son  Abii  Shajd  was  heir  of  his  father,  and 
there  arrived  a  royal  letter  from  the  palace  of  the 
Khildfat,  to  establish  him  in  the  dignity,  and 
giving  him  the  surname  of  Sultdn  Addoulah. 
And  his  feet  were  firm  in  his  kingdom,  and  the 
army  placed  their  head  upon  the  line  of  obedience. 
And,  with  respect  to  the  proposal  of  marriage 
which  had  been  made  in  that  mission  to  his  father, 
he  knew  not  how  he  ought  to  answer  it.  How- 
ever he  committed  the  duty  of  communicating  and 
corresponding  entirely  to  the  Kidi,  on  account  of 
his  sincere  and  faithful  affection  to  the  Sultan,  and 
his  inclination  towards  the  alliance,  and  his  wish 
that  he  would  imitate  his  father  in  his  friendship. 
And  he  produced,  accordingly,  a  satiety  of  sincere 
correspondence  and  many  letters. 

But  Amir  Abill-Fawdris,  his  father's  brother, 
was  settled  at  Karmdn.  Between  them  the  open- 
ings of  hatred  appeared,  and  increased  so  much 
that  Sultdn  Addoulah  sent  an  army  to  Karmdn,  to 
dispossess  him.  He  earnestly  devoted  himself  to 
repel  it,  and  a  severe  engagement  took  place 
between  them,  in  which  Abul-Faw^ris  was 
defeated,  and  went  to  Sist^n,  to  seek  an  asylum 
with  and  to  obtain  aid  from  the  Sultan.  The 
latter  sent  to  the  Amir  Nasr-'bn-Nasir-Addln  a 
special  message,  enjoining  that  he  should  honour 
his   arrival,    and  that  he  should  consider  it    his 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OP  QHAZNA.  4-29 

bounden  duty  to  take  pains  in  arranging  his  resi- 
dence, and  providing  for  his  retinue.  He  was, 
moreover,  to  give  the  Amir  two  thousand  dinars, 
by  way  of  an  oflfering  (of  welcome)  and  send  the 
Prince  to  him.  And  the  Amir  most  fully  carried 
out  his  wishes,  so  that  all  the  world  wondered,  and 
confessed  that  at  no  time  had  any  kings  or  Sultdns 
taken  such  pains  concerning  other  kings  and 
princes,  or,  by  the  rain  and  sea  of  remarkable  gifts 
and  generosity,  had  displayed  such  special  thoughts 
and  humanity  ;  and  the  renown  of  this  act  and  the 
echo  of  these  benefits  reached  the  extremities  of 
the  world.  He  went  out  to  meet  him,  treated  him 
with  splendour  and  magnificence,  and  gave  him 
gold,  silver,  horses,  and  other  presents,  such  as  the 
imagination  could  not  embrace,  and  such  as  could 
not  come  into  the  human  mind — (into  the  mind  of 
any  mortal)  except  the  royal  mind  of  the  SuMn, 
before  whose  eyes  wealth  was  like  gnats,  which 
are  not  weighed ;  or  dust,  which  is  not  of  any 
account.  He  remained  six  months  at  Court, 
more  esteemed  than  the  SuMn's  sons  and  more 
honoured  than  his  brothers.  And  after  six 
months  he  felt  inclined  to  return  to  his  own 
country,  and  requested  succour  from  the  Sultin. 
The  latter  provided  him  with  many  troops,  well 
equipped  and  armed,  and  dispatched,  to  attend 
upon  him,  Abii-Said-Tdin,  one  of  the  most  emi- 
nent learned  writers  of  the  Court,  with  an  army 


430  MEMOIES  OF  MAHMUD  OP  GHAZNA. 

whicli  had  contracted  an  affection  for  war  and 
contest,  and  become  accustomed  to  a  recurrence  of 
victories  and  supremacy  of  strength,  the  very  edge 
of  rapine  and  plunder  (Verse) 

"  Troops  like  these  would  carry  off  a  mountain-fort,  as  if  it 
were  (only)  of  the  length  (size)  of  that  which  is  fastened  on  the 
crupper." 

With  this  army  the  Amir  Abiil-Fawdris  arrived 
at  Karmin,  and  the  army  posted  there,  knowing 
that  they  had  not  strength  to  cope  with  them, 
retreated,  and  he  was  re-established  in  his  king- 
dom, upon  his  promised  throne.  And  Abii  Said, 
having  accomphshed  this  affair,  returned,  accom- 
panied by  his  army.  Some  time  passed,  during 
which  he  preserved  the  respect  and  due  reverence 
to  the  Sultdn,  and  nothing  happened  that  might 
destroy  the  structure  which  he  had  founded,  or 
render  useless  the  seat  which  he  had  arranged  for 
him.  At  length  the  SuMn  determined  to  return 
to  Ghazna,  and  his  terrible  standards  were  far 
distant,  and  the  Amir  Abdl-Fawdris  remained 
without  shield  or  protection.  Hereupon  SuMn 
Addoulah  sent  another  army  against  him,  which 
defeated  him.  He  fled  to  Hamadin,  to  Shams- 
Addoulah ;  and  he,  on  account  of  the  claims  of 
kindred,  and  with  the  idea  of  being  keeper  of  his 
property,  and  of  gain,  displayed  zeal  for  his  advan- 
tage.     But  afterwards  an  imagination  flew  before 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHA.ZNA.  431 

him,  and  he  thought  that  the  Amir  Shams- 
Addoulah  would  display  treachery  to  him,  seize 
him,  and  send  him  to  Sultdn  Addoulah.  For 
this  cause  he  went  from  Hamaddn,  to  Bagdad. 
The  rest  of  his  adventures  shall  be  given  in  their 
place,  please  God. 


AOCOTJNT  OE  IlEK-KhaN  AJSTD  CONOLrSIOH  OF  HIS  AFEAIES. 

Tlek  Elhdn,  after  his  defeat  at  Balkh,  returned 
to  his  own  land,  sad  from  the  anguish  of  that 
weakness,  and  the  disturbance  of  that  debility. 
He  continually  blamed  his  brother  Togan-khan  for 
his  delay  and  slackness  in  succouring  him,  until 
througli  this  affliction,  he  fell  upon  the  bed  of 
death,  and  marched  from  the  world  unto  the  home 
eternal.  Thus  the  hunger  of  his  covetousness  was 
fattened  by  the  dainties  of  dust,  and  his  ambition 
which  was  on  a  level  with  the  rolling  vault  and 
orb,  was  worsted  by  the  hand  of  fate,  and  destiny's 
decree  (Verse) 

"  The  mill  !*  the  streaming  waters  flow  to  it, 

*  i.  e.  Providence  acts  by  means  secret  to  us.     The  great 
fall,    if  they  are    destitute   of   Heaven's    wings,    which    are 

sometimes  vouclisafed  to  the  humble.     Axis,  ,    J^;,  seems 

here  to  be  used  for  the  power  which  causes  revolution  or  motion 
arotmd  an  axis.  The  poet  implies  that  the  power  which  causes 
water  to  turn  a  mill  is  like  the  Divine  causation  unknown  to 


432  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

"And  ttere  is  no  (moved)  axis  whereby  they  make  it 
revolve. 

"  Truly  the  abundance  of  feathers  enables  the  sparrow  to 
rise  in  flight, 

"  And  the  featherless  vultures  fall." 


His  decease  took  place  in  ttie  year  403.'  His 
brother  obtained  the  principality  of  Miwarannahr, 
and  adopted  the  course  of  peace  and  mutual  regard 
towards  the  Sultin,  and  obtained  protection  from 
the  effects  of  his  brother's  faults  by  his  sincere 
attachment,  and  the  influence  of  kindred. 

And  an  army  of  a  hundred  thousand  tents 
came  from  the  frontiers  of  China  to  attack  him, 
and  the  fairest  of  the  lands  of  Isl4m,  such  a  num- 
ber that  no  trace  of  them  had  ever  been  seen 
during  the  existence  of  Islam,  with  a  design  to 
extinguish  the  light  of  Islam,  and  to  raise  the 
palace  of  idols,  knowing  not,  that  the  stability  of 
the  Muhammadan  opinions  will  not  be  subverted 
by  the  flags  of  any  rebel,  and  that  it  wiU  cast  the 
head  of  the  oppressor  into  the  dust.  Togan-khan 
summoned,  from  all  kingdoms  of  Isld,m,  troops  to 
repulse  them,  and  from  those  who  would  aid  re- 
ligion, and  help  Isldm,  collected  100,000  men. 
This  terrible  proclamation  and  agitating  announce- 
ment caused  great  fear,  and  considerable  stir  and 
sympathy  took  place,  so  that  in  worshipping- 
houses  and  mosques,  hands  were  raised  in  supplica- 
tion,   and     they    committed    their    anxieties    (to 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.      433 

Heaven.)  And  Togan-khan  marched  to  the  sacred 
war  against  this  people,  placing  his  heart  upon 
meeting  fate,  and  fortifying  his  resolution  to  pro- 
ceed towards  the  dignity  of  martyrdom,  hoping  in 
the  promise  of  heaven  respecting  victory  to  religion, 
and  the  exaltation  of  the  convicting  word,  as  the 
standard  of  the  glorious  Kor4n  alledges,  "  We 
have  sent  them  to  victory,  they  believe  in  the  life 
of  the  (other)  world."  And  for  several  days, 
during  the  struggle  of  that  engagement,  and  the 
blessedness  of  that  fight,  and  the  fallings  of  that 
battle  field,  there  dropped  from  the  edge  blows  of 
those  noble  natures,  and  the  sharp  (swords)  of 
those  brave  ones,  and  from  the  striking  of  the 
scimitars  of  those  warriors  upon  the  throats  of 
those  ass  colts,  from  the  compassion  of  those 
warrior  swords  in  cutting  up  those  vile  people,  and 
from  the  flashes  of  those  lightning  blades,  from  the 
seizings  of  those  propitious  thunderbolts,  from  the 
victory  over  these  rebelhous  races,  and  from  the 
blows  of  cutlasses  upon  their  necks,  (streams)  like 
raining  hail,  or  the  moist  honeycomb.  But  God 
took  his  sacred  servants  into  the  fort  of  security, 
and  strengthened  them  with  sure  victory  and 
power,  and  exalted  his  word  relating  to  Isldm's 
victory,  and  the  stoning  of  devils,  until  one  day, 
when  the  fire  of  war  came  from  above,  and  Mars 
disclosed  his  girdle,  and  granted  to  the  two  parties 
'a,  friendly  circulation  {of  the  cups)  of  swords  and 

2f 


434  MEMOIRS  OF  MAttMUD  OP  GHAZNA. 

spears.  Then  the  troops  intoxicated  with  the 
praises  of  God,  with  the  sweet  odour  and  fragrance 
of  the  breezes  of  Paradise,  and  with  a  passion  to 
obtain  an  abode  in  the  mansions  of  mercy,  like 
wild  colts,  or  the  foaming  sea,  played  {the  game  of 
battle)  with  their  hot  horses,  from  the  first  gleam 
of  the  sky  until  twilight  fell,  and  with  the  assistance 
of  the  exalted  Agent  performed  most  mysterious 
(acts.)  Doubtless  opportune  aid  came  from  the 
Holy  Majesty,  and  the  breeze  of  victory  blew  from 
the  merciful  holder  of  the  winds.  They  cast  to 
the  ground  upon  the  battle  field,  nearly  100,000 
dead  bodies  of  infidels,  heads  bade  farewell  to 
bodies,  and  souls  were  divided  from  forms.  The 
vulture  swords  inflicted  full  pain  upon  the  livers  of 
unbelievers,  and  the  hyenas  and  lions  were  glad- 
dened by  gleaning  from  that  plain.  Nearly  one 
thousand  captives,  their  damsels  and  children  fell 
into  the  hands  of  the  people  of  Isldm,  equal  in 
beauty  to  the  Moon,  and  in  brightness  excelling 
the  all-diffused  rays,  and  incalculable  wealth  and 
plunder  besides,  the  residue  of  the  army  gnawed 
destruction  and  took  to  flight.  This  important 
victory  and  great  success  was  universally  reported, 
calming  hearts,  soothing  souls,  and  inducing 
tongues  to  praise  heaven.  After  this  victory  his 
last  hour  arrived  for  Togan-khan,  and  his  soul 
removed  to  the  lodging  of  Paradise,  to  dwell  amidst 
the  martyr  spirits.     And  the  kingdom  descended 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA,  435 

to  his  brother,  who  in  piety,  fear  of  God,  and  zeal 
for  the  affairs  of  religion,  was  a  like-minded  and 
suitable  successor  to  his  throne.  He  like  his  pre- 
decessor was  settled  in  allegiance,  in  acting  libe- 
rally to  the  commonality,  in  smoothing  the  carpet 
of  equity  and  comfort,  and  in  avoiding  pride  and 
arrogance.  On  account  of  the  association  that 
existed  betweenhis  brother  and  the  Sultd,n,  he  went 
and  built  up  former  hospitable  relations  by  means 
of  adhering  brotherhood  and  friendship.  And  in 
the  time  of  Ilek-Khdn,  the  Sultdn  had  betrothed 
one  of  the  casketed  gems  of  Ilek-Khdn's  children 
for  Amir  Khalil-Abii-Masiid,  and  at  the  present 
time  he  resolved  to  complete  this  match  of  alliance 
and  bond  of  marriage.  And  several  of  the  confi- 
dential counsellors  of  the  Sultdn  departed  to  convey 
this  precious  pearl  in  order  that  they  might  securely 
deposit  this  keepsake.  Several  of  the  eminent 
nobles  of  the  kingdom  and  eloquent  Imams  came, 
having  arranged  this,  to  Balkh,  and  deposited  this 
trust,  and  discharged  all  that  they  conveyed  both 
in  words  and  wealth.  The  nuptial  evening  was  ex- 
tremely grand,  and  the  Sultan  ordained  that  they 
should,  before  their  meeting  arrange  ceremonies 
at  Balkh,  and  decorate  the  city,  and  nothing 
was  left  wanting  in  various  kinds  of  glory. 
And  in  order  to  raise  the  position  of  his  son,  and 
to  exalt  his  rank,  the  SuMn  gave  him  Her4t,  with 
great  riches,,  abundant  property,  and  royal  orna- 

2f2 


436      MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

merits  and  furniture.  He  departed  in  the  year 
408,  and  came  to  Balkh.  He  held  the  mirror  of 
equity  before  his  face,  and  by  upright  conduct,  and 
just  guidance  of  the  path  of  the  people,  kept  that 
land  in  the  gardens  of  safety,  and  the  Paradise  of 
peace. 

AcCOXriTT  OF  THE  AmIr  ABU-AHMAD-'BN-TAMfN-ADDOTJLAH. 

The  cream  of  our  descriptions  and  the  flower  of 
our  words,  in  pourtraying  the  qualities  and  dis- 
playing the  brilliancy  of  this  Prince,  reminds  us  of 
the  poet's  words  (Verse) 

"  The  generosity  of  that  Prince  is  as  the  blessings  given  by 
the  dawn;" 

"  The  generosity  of  this  Prince  is  as  the  blessings  given  by 
the  midday." 

Heaven  had  adorned  him  with  specially  good 
morals  and  with  inclinations  to  high  dignities.  Of 
this  the  virtues  of  his  disposition,  his  pure  and 
gloriously  conspicuous  nature,  were  a  cutting  evi- 
dence and  clear  proof  His  mind,  in  nobleness, 
was  parallel  to  the  sign  Pisces  and  on  a  level  with 
the  sky,  and  from  the  chamber  of  education,  the 
canopy  of  care,  and  the  guardianship  of  the 
Sultan's  training,  he  came  forth  pure  as  gold  tried 
by  the  touchstone  of  fire,  and  walked  proud  as  the 
moon  on  her  throne  of  increasing  light,  and  arrived 
at  the  door  of  exaltation  through  the  influx    of 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OP  GHAZNA.      437 

merits.  He  profited  much  in  the  exercises  of 
swords  and  spears,  and  was  gemmed  with  generous 
morals,  when  he  emerged  from  the  shaping  of 
childhood  to  the  age  of  youth,  and  an  hero's 
strength  was  founded  in  him.  The  Sultdn,  as  the 
consummation  of  his  rearing  and  training,  by  the 
full  effect  of  manhood  and  the  duties  of  paternity, 
demanded  for  him,  from  amongst  the  princely 
children  of  Abii-Nasr-Feriguni,  a  noble  lady, 
adorned  with  brilliant  qualities  and  accomplish- 
ments, and  appointed  him  Receiver-Governor  of 
Juzjdn,  a  seat  of  the  family  of  Ferigiinl,  who  in 
greatness  resembled  the  Creator,  in  graciousness 
Heaven,  and  in  bounty  the  Jihiin.  He  distin- 
guished then  his  son,  with  the  viceroyalty  hereof, 
who  proceeded  thereunto,  and,  with  his  showers  of 
liberality  and  comprehensive  justice,  revivified  the 
subjects  of  those  regions,  so  that  hearts  became 
strong  by  his  virtues,  and  aU  with  pure  affection; 
and  sincere  friendship,  presented  the  service  of 
allegiance.  And  the  Sult4n,  when  he  saw  the 
indications  of  his  bent,  and  the  lights  of  his  glory 
increasing  day  by  day,  augmented  his  proofs  of 
favour,  his  kind  preference,  and  his  eagerness  to 
raise  the  degrees  of  his  position,  and  the  steps  of 
his  rank,  and  increased  his  kindness  and  benevo- 
lence, with  special  regard  and  peculiar  benevolence. 
The   remaining   adventures  of   the  two  brothers 


438  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAXINA. 

shall   be    mentioned   in   their   own    place,    please 
Heaven  ! 

Account  of  the  Tahieite  Entoy. 

The  Sultfi.n,  on  account  of  his  genius  and  capa- 
city, his  upright  conversation,  and  his  zeal  in 
subduing  the  towns  of  infidels,  became  a  followed 
guide  in  expounding  the  law  and  in  defining  works 
of  merit,  and  a  great  investigator  and  explicator  of 
questions  stirred  up  respecting  settling  views  and 
assiduous  disputes,  and  upon  the  knots  of  divines, 
and  the  sects  of  the  followers  of  novelties.  He 
was  gloriously  perspicacious  in  grounding  religion 
and  in  goading  heretics ;  he  was  solidly  confident 
in  interpretation  and  hermeneutics,  and  the  due 
measurement  of  doctrines,  and  the  proofs  of 
repealing  and  repeated  (verses)*  and  in  verifying 

*  The  Koran  of  Muhammad  does  not  consist  of  regular 
historical  narratives  or  of  a  code  of  precepts  arranged  ia  any 
order.  But  it  is  made  up  of  a  number  of  unconnected  portions 
or  chapters,  of  various  lengths,  consisting  of  precepts  or  prohi- 
bitions, wildly  and  obscurely  blended  with  historical,  or  rather, 
legendary  allusions.  The  dates  of  the  appearance  of  these 
portions  are  not  known,  so  that  they  cannot  be  classed  in  order 
of  time.  And  as  some  of  the  signs  or  verses  of  these  portions 
are  repugnant  to  or  supersede  others,  it  cannot  be  known  which 
is  the  earliest  and  repeated  verse,  and  which  the  latest  and  the 
finally  enacting  one,  which  appertains  to  the  nascent  and 
which  to  the  developed  religion.  Innumerable  differences  have 
arisec,  in  consequence,  and  it  has  been  a  main  object  of 
Mutiaramadan  doctors  and  interpreters  to  settle  these  contro- 


MEMOIRS  OP  MAHMTJD  OF  QHAZNA.  43  d 

or  reprehending  traditions  and  hints,  and,  by 
reason  of  his  clear-sightedness,  a  perfect  refuter  of 
all  kind  of  false  allegations  and  heretical  sectaries, 
for  he  watched  that  the  ordained  statutes  should 
be  pure  from  the  dust  of  innovation.  It  came  to 
his  ears  that  a  sect  had  recently  appeared  amongst 
his  people,  who  professed  to  adhere  to  the  Lord  of 
Egypt,  and,  although  their  outward  profession  was 
but  heresy,  their  words  within  were  pure  infideKty, 
and  they  interpreted  the  standard  of  the  revealed 
book  according  to  their  own  heart,  which  was  the 
cause  of  the  destruction  of  the  foundations  of  reli- 
gion, and  a  removal  of  the  bulwarks  of  proof 
They,  moreover,  were  zealously  engaged  in 
making  void  the  science  of  the  law  and  the  rules 
of  the  faith,  and  showed  the  way  of  going  aside' 
from  the  determination  of  the  Divine  statutes  and 
decrees.  The  Sultdn  commissioned  spies,  to 
investigate  and  spy  out  their  places  of  meeting, 
and  they  brought  to  his  hand  a  man  who  com- 
manded amongst  them,  and  who  knew  all  their 
names  and  appellations.  He,  by  dint  of  punish- 
ment and  torture,  surrendered  them  all  to  his 
power.  They  brought  them  all  from  diiferent 
places  and  from  successive  cities,  to  the  Court. 

yeraies.  Mahmiid  of  Grhazni  is  said,  by  TJtbi,  to  have  displayed 
skill  and  ingenuity  in  these  matters.  Even  the  prohibition  of 
wine  is  not  quite  free  from  uncertainty,  and  one  sect  at  leas^ 
has  disregarded  it. 


440.  MEMOIES  or  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

They  were  impaled  on  the  tree  or  stoned.  He 
followed  after  the  whole  company,  until  he  had 
seized  them  all  and  annihilated  them,  and  thus 
obtained  the  mastery.  And  Abd-Bakr-MamshM, 
a  venerable  divine,  a  virtuous  and  religious  noble- 
man, in  this  matter  coincided  in  opinion  with  the 
Sultan.  And  as  to  every  one  who  was  connected 
with  this  assuming  body  or  people  of  sinful 
novelty,  and  who  had  turned  aside  from  the 
highway  of  the  established  religion  and  settled 
strait  path,  he  made  them  all  an  example.  By 
reason  of  this  his  reckoning  (with  these  heretics) 
and  his  zeal  herein  his  reputation  increased,  and 
he  became  the  object  of  men's  eager  wishes,  and 
that  which  their  hopes  craved,  and  all  his  decisions 
upon  religious  points,  from  his  piety,  knowledge, 
and  safe  acuteness,  arrived  at  the  highest  estima- 
tion, and  were  placed  at  the  summit  of  Arcturus 
and  on  the  pinnacle  of  Heaven's  vault,  as  is  noted 
and  commemorated  in  the  announcement  of  God 
to  the  world :  "  He  who  serves  me  I  will  serve 
him,  and  he  who  serves  thee  I  will  follow  him  and 
make  him  serve"  (Kdr^n).  And,  during  these 
events,  there  rose  up  a  man,  in  the  province  of 
Ir^k,  who  professed  to  be  derived  from  the  tree 
(family)  of  All,  who  showed  as  if  he  were  proceed- 
ing from  the  Lord  of  Egypt  unto  the  Sultdn,  and 
were  about  to  present  unto  him  a  written  letter 
and  well-filled  packages.      He  went  as  far  as  to 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAMMU'D  OF  GHAZNA.  441 

Nisapiir,  and  made  great  vauntings,  on  account  of 
his  family  and  of  his  proud  nobility,  and  exhibited 
boastings  and  pretensions.  But  at  Nisdpiir  they 
made  him  stop,  and  intimated  the  matter  to  the 
Sultin.  But  he,  in  his  falsehood  and  self-suffici- 
ency, moved  on,  and  came  to  Herit,  with  the 
intention  of  going  to  Ghazna.  The  SuMn,  how- 
ever, sent  a  royal  order  to  convey  him  to  Nisha- 
piir,  whilst  his  letter  could  be  decided  upon  by  the 
chief  examiners,  so  that  all  might  be  cleared  and 
evident  to  the  Sultan's  privy  council,  as  to  receiv- 
ing his  embassy,  and  that  the  dust  of  suspicion 
should  not  be  placed  on  the  edge  of  the  purity  of 
his  introduction.  And,  when  they  brought  him  to 
Nishipiir,  and  began  to  unfold  his  words  and  acts, 
they  found  on  him  some  writing,  taken  from  the 
volumes  of  the  people  of  the  interior,  full  of  deceit 
and  eri'ors,  such  that  the  words  of  the  licentious 
and  the  diabolical  suggestions  {of  fire-worshippers, 
followers  of  Manis  f )  were  better  founded  than 
they,  which  proceeded  not  from  any  intellectual 
perception^  or  from  the  information  or  deductions 
of  intellect,  and  which  were  not  referable  to  proof. 
The  Master,  Abii-Bakr,  investigated  his  iniquity, 
and  found  that  his  weights  were  unable  to  bear 
the  standard  of  examination,  and  that  his  words 
did  not  tally  with  fact  and  truth.  At  the  begin- 
ning of  this  altercation  he  himself  comprehended 
his  own  position,  and  knew  that  in  this  journey  he 


442  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA, 

had  cast  himself  into  the  noose  of  destruction,  and 
had  aimed  at  himself  the  arrow  of  ruin.  They  sent 
him  to  the  Siiltdn,  and  made  him  appear  before 
the  select  assembly  of  chief  Imdms  and  Kadhis, 
eminent  divines  and  faith-champions.  And  Hasan- 
'bn-Tahir-'bn-Musallim-Alawwi  (one  of  the  family 
of  All)  was  a  witness  of  that  trial  and  present  at 
that  Court.  He  says  :  "The  story  of  that  digni- 
fied Sayyid^  was  this,  that  amongst  the  lordly  race 
of  T^ib  and  the  sons  of  Husain  the  younger,  no 
one  was  more  noble  and  eminent  than  his  grand- 
father, who  surpassed  all  in  rank  and  wealth ; 
that  Muiz  (Addin)  Khalif  of  Egypt,  sent  one  to 
him  to  demand  his  daughter  for  his  son  Aziz,  in 
marriage.  That  the  cause  which  indttced  him  to 
seek  this  alliance  was  as  follows  :  he  had  found  in 
his  palace  a  piece  of  paper,  on  which  was  written 
the  following  quatrain  (Verse) 

"  If  thou  be  of  the  family  of  Abu-Talib  seek  in  marriage 
one  of  the  children  of  Tahir, 

"  Even  if  people  look  at  thee  with  aversion  to  them 

"  At  the  beginning  of  the  matter  or  at  the  end. 

"  Truly  his  mother  is  one  who  is  railed  at  as  a  native  of 
Susa,  a  woman  from  whom,  in  fine,  they  bite  carbuncles."t 

(For  this  poet  had  called  his  mother  a  native  of 

*  Dignified  Sayyid,  ironical. 

t  Carbuncles  or  warts,  &c.,  excrescences  proceeding  from 
scrofula  or  leprosy,  which  diseases  are  thus  intimated  to  be 
common  at  Susa. 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  443 

Susa,  because  the  mother  of  his  grandfather  Mu- 
hammad-'bn-AbduUah-'bn-Maimiin  was  of  that 
■place.)  "  That  he  had  declined  this  alliance  and 
affinity  with  Muiz  on  account  of  scorbutic  (maladies) 
and  that  he  considered  him  not  equal  to  himself, 
and  gave  answer,  '  Both  my  daughters  are  engaged 
in  the  marriage  knot.'  J^uriz  on  this  account  im- 
prisoned him,  and  seized  whatever  of  his  worldly 
goods  he  could  discover,  and  at  length  he  suffered 
death  under  his  hand.  But  the  exact  nature  of  that 
which  happened  to  him  was  not  known  to  any  one  ; 
some  said  that  they  killed  him  and  buried  him 
secretly,  several  said  that  he  fled  from  prison,  and 
was  cut  off  from  the  regions  of  the  Hij^z.  And 
Td,hir  the  father  of  Hasan  went  to  Medina,  and  be- 
came lord  of  that  city.  And  T^hir  his  uncle's  son, 
and  (his)  son-in-law,  was  in  great  intimacy  with 
him,  and  upon  the  demise  of  Tdhir,  Abii  Ali  was 
heir  presumptive  to  the  lordship,  and  after  his  de- 
cease, Hani  and  Muhanni  his  sons  obtained  the 
lordship.  But  Hasan  on  account  of  his  decayed 
circumstances  as  regards-  wealth  and  dignity,  be- 
came of  no  account,  therefore  he  came  to  Khurasdn, 
and  sought  an  asylum  at  the  Sultan's  Court."  And 
when  Tahirti  in  this  explanation  began  to  mention 
his  mission,  Sharif  Hasan  drew  out  the  tongue  of 
opposition,-  and  denied  that  he  had  any  connexion 
with  the  matter  as  Envoy,  or  with  the  genealogy  of 
the  prophet,  and   gave  sentence,  authorizing  the 


444  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

shedding  of  his  blood.  And  the  Sultan  cast  the 
judgment  against  Tahirti  upon  the  responsibility  of 
Hasan,  and  Hasan  killed  him.  And  the  Com- 
mander of  Believers  Al-Kadir-Billah  sent  a  Royal 
letter  upon  the  subject  of  Tahirti,  and  signified  his 
pleasure  that  he  should  be  seized  as  a  troubler  of 
the  devotion,  and  he  made  an  example  of,  and 
punished.  And  when  the  news  of  his  execution 
reached  Bagdad,  and  the  firmness  of  the  Sultan's 
rehgion  became  known,  and  the  tongues  of  objectors 
and  reprovers  were  tied,  the  Commander  of  the 
faithful  regarded  him  as  singularly  paired  with 
him,  i.  e.  in  religious  authority,  and  he  stood  in  a 
position  of  acceptance.  And  the  punishment  of 
Tahirti  accords  with  the  saying  (Verse) 

"  He  who  gives  to  drink  a  poison  that  kills  suddenly  it  is 
just  that  he  suffer  a  death  that  streams  with  blood"  (i.e.,  a 
violent  death,  but  of  a  kind  different  from  that  by  poison). 


Account    or    the    AmIe   Abul-Abbas-MImIjn-Khwaeism;- 
ShIh  and  the  CoNciTrsioir  of  his  HistoeT,  and  how 

HIS  KlN&DOJM  DETOLTED  TPON  HIS  SoN. 

When  the  kingdom  of  Khwarism  came  from 
Mamiin  to  his  son  Abii-All,  and  the  country  of 
Khwarism  and  Jurjdn  was  ceded  to  him,  he  took 
the  Sultan's  sister  in  marriage,  and  by  that  affinity 
became  powerful,  and  the  families  became  one, 
and  this  stability  was  smoothly  settled  until  the 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  445 

end  of  his  life.  And  when  the  period  of  his  life 
was  cut  short,  his  brother,  Mdimin-'bn-Mdmiin,  sat 
in  his  room,  who  sent  to  the  Sultan,  and  demanded 
his  brother's  wife  in  marriage,  and  offered  evi- 
dences of  greater  purity  and  sincerity  of  obedience. 
The  Sultin  returned  a  favourable  reply  to  his 
request,  so  that  the  affairs  of  those  two  kingdoms 
became  duly  regulated  by  an  interwoven  and  asso- 
ciated unity,  until  the  Sultan  demanded  that, 
throughout  his  kingdom,  the  public-prayer  ac- 
knowledgment should  be  made  and  the  coinage 
struck  in  his  name,  and  sent  an  ambassador  to  stir 
in  that  matter.  He  called  his  chiefs,  followers, 
and  principal  courtiers,  to  consult  on  this  affair, 
who  all  twisted  out  their  necks  from  this  command, 
and  exhibited  averseness,  dislike,  and  disdain 
thereat,  and  said,  ''WhUst  your  kingdom  has 
endured  as  it  was  delivered  to  you,  that  is  elevated 
and  autocratical,  and  whilst  it  remains  preserved 
and  indivisible,  we  gird  up  the  loins  of  service ;  but 
if  you  choose  to  become  the  subject  of  another's 
will,  we  will  draw  our  swords  to  resist,  and, 
depriving  you,  will  propose  the  sovereignty  to 
another."  The  messenger'  returned,  and  reported 
directly  to  the  Sultin  the  words  which  he  had 
himself  heard.  But  the  people  of  Khwdrism 
afterwards  began  to  think  of  the  consequences  of 
their  words  and  of  the  wrong  which  they  had  done 
to  their  Supreme  Sovereign,  and  began  to  be  ter- 


446  MRMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

ribly  alarmed  at  the  issue  thereof.  And  the 
foremost  of  all  was  Inaltagin,  Commander  of  the 
Forces  of  Mdmiin.  They  were  engaged  in 
arranging  that  affair,  and,  by  craft  and  treachery, 
they  arrived  at  this  conclusion,  that  one  day, 
unexpectedly,  when  they  went  to  offer  the  usual 
salutations  at  Court,  intelligence  of  the  king's 
demise  was  brought  out  from  within,  although 
they  know  not  how  it  had  occurred,  and  all  the 
people  assembled  to  inaugurate  his  son.  And  they 
put  him  in  his  father's  place  ;  and  they  knew  that 
the  Sultan  would  enquire  into  this  event,  and  take 
vengeance  for  this  offence.  They  therefore  entered 
into  an  oath  with  one  another,  to  oppose  the 
Sultdn,  and  entered  upon  a  covenant  of  mutual 
fidelity  and  support,  that  if,  on  the  Sultdn's  part, 
there  should  be  any  proceedings  against  them, 
they  would  be  all  one  hand  in  hand,  and  resolutely 
answer  him.  This  resolution  affected  the  fortune 
and  the  empire  of  the  Sultd,n,  and  such  a  determi- 
nation nearly  concerned  the  happiness  of  his  life, 
since,  by  reason  of  the  opposition  of  that  kingdom, 
opposition  would  increase  in  his  own,  and  other 
lands  be  drawn  in  thereby.  The  Sultin,  therefore, 
with  a  perfect  army,  marched  to  Khwarism ;  and 
Inaltagin  made  an  attack,  by  night,  upon  his 
advanced  guard,  and  Abil-Abdallah-Tii,  who  was 
with  the  advanced  guard,  stood  up  to  fight  with 
them.      Intelligence  of  this  engageuaent  reached 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZSA.  447 

the  Sultdn,  who  turned  towards  them  with  his 
forces,  and  from  the  time  of  the  unfurling  the  flag 
of  morning  until  the  equalization  of  the  sun  (noon) 
the  battle  endured.  And  the  Khwdrismians  firmly 
kept  their  footing,  in  the  hope  of  victory  and 
conquest,  not  considering  that  treachery  is  a  collar, 
on  one  side  of  which  is  transitory  shame  and  on 
the  other  eternal  fire,  and  that  ingratitude  to 
benefactors  is  the  cause  of  ruin  and  punishment, 
and  invokes  destruction  and  misfortune.  And 
when  the  day  began  to  decline,  through  the  blows 
of  horses  and  the  wounds  of  elephants  an  innu- 
merable multitude  of  the  army  lay  lifeless  upon 
the  piain  of  that  battle-field ;  the  regt  took  to 
flight  and  became  dispersed  in  the  midst  of  the 
forests,  on  the  shore  of  the  Jihiln.  Nearly  five 
thousand  men  were  made  prisoners.  And  Inalta- 
gin  (or  Nihaltagin)  made  an  effort,  if  perchance  he 
might  pass  over  the  Jihiin  and  save  his  life,  but 
knew  not  that  to  the  deceitful  the  dark  path  of  the 
narrow  valley  of  treachery  blocks  up  the  road  of 
safety,  and  stops  up  the  means  of  preservation  and 
the  egress  of  salvation,  and  that  the  retribution,  of 
evil  designers  inevitably  arrives.  For,  when  he 
was  seated  in  the  boat,  a  dispute  arose  with 
another  man  for  some  cause,  and  he  joined  in  the 
altercation  between  them,  upon  which  he  seized 
InaMgIn,  and  gave  him  to  a  sailor,  at  the  prow 
of  the  boat,  to  deliver  him  up  to  the  army  of  the 


448  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

Sultin.  The  Sult^u  ordered  that  he  and  the  other 
prisoners  should  be  presented  before  him,  when  he 
questioned  them  upon  the  cause  of  their  heat 
against  their  benefactor.  And  when  Inaltagin  saw 
that  he  could  not  escape  he  gave  an  insolent  reply, 
and  the  rest  of  the  prisoners  threw  their  heads 
before  him  {were  reckless  and  defied  him)  and 
returned  blush-causing  and  shameless  replies,  so 
that  they  carried  trees  opposite  the  monument 
of  Mdmiin,  and  drew  (impaled)  them  all  upon 
trees,  and  wrote  this  inscription  upon  the  columns 
(or  cloister)  of  the  monument :  "  This  is  the  grave 
of  such  a  one,  son  of  such  a  one,  one  of  his 
dependants,  who  rebelled  against  him,  and  one  of 
his  servants  who  made  his  blood  flow ;  but  God 
took  by  the  hand  Yamin-Addoulah-wa-Amin-Al 
Millat,  until  he  obtained  vengeance  upon  them  and 
miserably  punished  them,  an  example  to  all  who 
behold  and  a  sign  to  all  who  understand  "  As  to 
the  other  prisoners  he  tied  halters  round  their 
necks,  and  sent  them  to  Ghazna,  and  retained 
them  in  dungeons.  After  some  time  he  released 
them  all,  and  sent  them,  with  the  other  troops  in 
his  service,  to  the  regions  of  Hind.  He  committed 
Khwarism  to  the  great  Chamberlain  Altont^sh, 
that  he  might  follow  after  the  rest  of  those  wicked 
people,  and  dig  them  all  up  by  the  root.  Thus  the 
land  of  Khwarism  was  tranquillized  and  civilized. 
Such  was  the  decree  of  mighty  Wisdom. 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.      449 

Account  of  the  Conquest  ob  Mahhah  and  Kanijj. 

The  SuMn,  having  concluded  this  transaction 
respecting    Khwarism,  and   having  annexed  that 
land  to  his  other  kingdoms,  desired  to  give   the 
rest  of  the  year  to  repose,  and  thought  that  he 
would  undertake  a  third  (sacred)  conquest,  when 
the  face  of  the  spring  was  smiling.     This  thought 
he  perfected,  and  commanded  a  movement  towards 
Bost,  until  the  time  when  the  sun  should  direct  his 
course  towards  the  quarter  of  the  North  and  arrive 
at  the  equinox,  when  the  world  would  be  decorated 
and  adorned,  and  when  he  should  find  the  tracts  of 
the  earth   in  full   splendour.      And,    arriving  at 
Bost,    he    employed   himself  in   examining    the 
accounts   of  the   collectors,   and  in  renewing  the 
duties  and  affairs  of  the  subjects,  until  Heaven 
granted  him  a  union  between  stability  and  glory, 
and  prospered  his  power  over  the  kingdom.     Then 
he  betook  himself  to  conquest  from  that  place  with 
good  mind  and  regulated  thought,  and  Heaven, 
according  to  the   accustomed  decree  commanded 
respecting  confirmation  of  the  Muhammadan  reli- 
gion and  aid  to  its  law,  fulfilled  in  his  behalf  the 
promise,  and  joined  to  verification  the  wonder  of 
that  glorious  word  which  is  quoted  on  this  subject, 
although  the  distance  was  extended  and  the  way 
long.      For  the  conquests  of  the  Hindil  territory, 
so  as  to  become  the  territory  of  Isldm,  were  over- 

2  G 


450  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

flowing.  All  had  been  adorned  with  the  insignia 
of  that  profession,  and  the  veil  of  infidelity- 
remained  nowhere  except  in  the  interior  of 
Kashmir.  And  whereas  in  those  regions  there 
was  a  long  desert,  in  the  atmosphere  of  which  a 
bird  could  not  fly,  and  in  whose  expanse  the  falcon 
would  be  lost ;  yet,  in  those  days,  nearly  twenty 
thousand  men  had  come  from  the  plains  of  Mawa- 
rannahr,  through  zeal  for  IsKm,  and  they  sat  down 
waiting  the  time  for  the  Sultdn's  movements, 
striking  their  numerous  swords,  and  uttering  the 
shout  of  the  holy  war,  "  God  is  great !"  They 
deliberately  placed  their  lives  in  the  palm  of  their 
hands,  and  as  to  their  bodies  they  held  them  by 
his  enhancing  bounty,  in  the  market  of  the  verse, 
"  God  hath  bought  from  the  believers  their  lives 
and  their  property" — (Kiirdn).  Their  craving  zeal 
and  stirring  ideas  inflamed  and  excited  the  purpose 
of  the  Sultan,  and  he  desired  to  proceed  with  those 
troops  to  Kamij.  This  was  a  country  quite 
unknown  to  any  foreign  kingdom,  except  to 
Kashasab,  who  was  Chief  of  the  Kings  and  Head 
of  Emperors.  From  Ghazna  hereunto  was  six 
months'  journey,  but  the  SuMn,  on  account  of  the 
excellence  of  his  design,  determined  upon  the 
measure,  and  severed  himself  far  from  delicious  sleep 
and  security,  that  with  this  numerous  army,  who, 
full  of  a  passion  for  happiness  and  a  craving  for 
martyrdom,  would  put  fear  into  their  cheeks  and 


MEMOIKS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  451 

pluck  out  the  hair  of  their  mouths  (beards)  he 
went  down.  And,  from  the  rivers  Jihiin,  and 
Jilam,  and  Chaud  (Chendb  ?)  he  went  the  straight 
way  to  Tibet,  and  passed  Iskandar,  walled  around 
by  the  protection  of  God,  who  watched  over  him 
in  the  deepest  of  obnoxious  (perils).  And,  wherever 
he  came  envoys  came  to  meet  him,  girding  up 
the  loins  of  obedience,  offering  the  belt  of  submis- 
sion and  allegiance.  And,  when  they  arrived  near 
Kashmir,  Habali-'bn-Sh^snl,  General  of  the  Army 
and  Lord  of  Kashmir,  joined  his  service.  But  he 
was  given  to  understand  that  there  was  no  remedy 
for  the  effects  of  the  Sultan's  superabounding 
power  and  awful  sword  except  Isldm  and  its  pro- 
fession. He  therefore  bound  up  the  waist  of 
service,  and  took  up  his  position  with  the  robbers 
(or  advanced  skirmishers  ( ?)  Kiilawazi)  of  the 
army,  and  went  before  the  troops.  It  passed 
valley  after  vaUey,  and  every  night  before 
the  crowing  of  the  cock  the  sound  of  fife  and  drum 
arose.  The  earth  trembled  from  the  motion  of  the 
Sepoys,  until  they  passed  the  last  day  of  halting  on 
the  march  ;  for,  on  the  20th  of  Rajib,  in  the  year 

409,  they  left  ( ?)  behind,  and  took  possession 

at  their  will  of  the  fortresses  of  refuge  and  the 
munitions  of  that  land,  until  ihey  arrived  at  the 
castle  of  Barma,  in  the  country  of  Hanin.  The 
King  of  this  place  (Hariin  ?)  was  the  greatest  of 
all  the  sovereigns  of  India.     But  when  he  became 

2  G  2 


452  MEMOIRS  or  mahmud  of  ghazna. 

aware  of  the  multitude  of  the  champions  of  Isldm, 
and  saw  the  army- sea  which  was  striking  out  its 
billows,  he  came  down  with  nearly  ten  thousand 
men,  and  represented  his  willingness  to  display  the 
insignia  of  the  symbol  of  the  profession  of  Isldm. 
He  became  blessed  with  the  happiness  of  true 
guidaJice.  From  hence  they  went  to  the  fortress 
of  Kaljand,  the  chieftain  of  which  was  of  the 
number  of  those  Pharaoh  devils  and  accursed 
princes.  He  passed  his  life  in  infidelity,  and,  on 
account  of  the  fear  of  his  kingdom  and  of  the 
extent  of  his  authority,  lived  in  safety  from  the 
attacks  of  heroes  and  the  conflict  of  trenchant 
swords.  No  one  had  an  opportunity  of  obtaining 
the  mastery  over  him,  and  the  chief  lords  and 
eminent  men  of  kingdoms  turned  the  face  of 
weakness  away  from  him  and  from  his  powerful 
state,  his  immeDse  riches,  his  strength  in  cavalry, 
his  grand  armies,  from  the  inaccessibility  of  his 
dwellings,  and  from  those  commanding  munitions 
which  for  long  records  of  days  and  events  of  time 
had  been  guarded  and  preserved.  And  when  he 
saw  that  the  Sultan  would  direct  against  him  the 
cry  of  the  holy  war,  he  arrayed  his  warlike  prepa- 
rations, his  army,  his  horses,  and  his  elephants, 
and  awaited  his  stpproach  in  a  wood,  into  whose 
intricacies  a  ray  of  the  sun  could  not  penetrate,  and 
from  whose  leaves  and  branches  a  needle  would 
not  reach   the   ground.     The  Sultdn   then   com- 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OP  GHAZNA.      453 

manded  Ms  advanced  guard  to  force  themselves 
into  the  midst  of  the  forest.  They  found  a  road 
(which  led)  from  the  upper  castle,  and  when  the 
green  sea  struck  out,  "  AUah  Akhar,"  they  stood 
against  the  head  of  the  Kafirs,  and  twisted  them 
round  their  scimitars,  and  cast  the  troops  upon  the 
ground.  They  stood  firm  for  a  time,  and  made 
charges  from  their  own  position,  when  the  rain  of 
swords  reached  them,  and  the  heavenly  decree 
preserved  the  people  of  IsMm  from  the  edge  of 
their  scimitars  and  the  point  of  their  spears 
(Verse) 

"  The  swords  of  Hind  were  blunted  by  their  strokes, 
"And  when  thev  cut  our  necklaces  saved  our  lives." 

At  length  it  became  known  that  all  events 
are  in  the  grasp  of  destiny,  and  that  the  well- 
formed  scimitar,  although  its  force  may  be 
extreme  and  its  edge  sharp,  is  but  a  subject  of 
the  command  and  vassal  of  the  decree  of  fate,  if 
it  penetrate  to  the  Mushm's  blood  ;  and  herein 
destiny  exhibited  its  usual  blessedness,  but  if  it 
had  been  weak  it  would  have  been  the  cause  of 
some  wonder-working  providence,  and  for  the 
display  of  some  miracle.  These  despicable  ones 
were  astonished ;  and,  when  they  saw  the  indica- 
tions of  the  power  of  these  champions  of  religion, 
and  were  witnesses  of  their  arms  and  appurte- 
nances, they  said  one  to  another,  "  This  body  of 


464  MEMOIES  OP  MAHMUB  OF  GHAZNA. 

men  is  not  of  the  race  of  mankind  or  of  the  human 
family  !  Our  swords  which  in  breaking  could  pass 
through  a  rock,  and  rhake  a  mere  tale  of  brilliant 
lightning,  are  cut  off  from  cutting  them,  and 
glance  away  from  their  shoulders."  Perhaps  these 
wretches  had  placed  themselves  in  the  straight 
road  to  destruction,  and  recognized  not  the  truth 
that  such  (fatuity)  is  the  sign  of  rebels  and 
deniers,  and  the  marked  path  of  their  wickedness 
and  undutifulness.  They  threw  themselves  then 
simultaneously  into  the  river,  in  order  that  the 
abundant  waters  and  powerful  current  might  be 
the  means  of  their  preservation  and  safety ;  and 
they  knew  not  that,  although  water  is  the  germ 
of  life  and  the  principle  of  vivification.  Heaven's 
decree  can  render  it  the  cause  of  destruction  and 
ruin.  This,  however,  the  warrior  comrades  and 
eminent  army  of  guides  (to  truth)  made  them 
know,  by  cutting  off  the  fountain  of  infidelity 
and  intercepting  the  rivulet  of  idolatry,  so  that 
some  came  to  the  sword  and  some  were  drowned 
in  the  water.  Five  thousand  perished  and  went 
to  hell,  and  Kaljam  drew  his  dagger,  killed  his 
wife,  and  then,  ripping  himself  up,  became  a 
partner  of  his  forces  on  their  road  to  hell.  Of 
their  wealth  185  head  of  elephants,  with  other 
kinds  of  profit  and  plunder,  came  to  the  SuMn. 

In  that  place,  in  the  city,  there  was  a  place  of 
worship  of  the  Indian  people  ;  and  when  he  came 


MEMOIUa  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  455 

to  that  place  he  saw  a  city,  of  wonderful  fabric  and 
conception,  so  that  one  might  say,  this  is  a  building 
of  Paradise,  but  its  accidents  or  qualities  could  only 
come  by  the  aid  of  the  infemals,  and  an  intelligent 
man  would  hardly  receive  favourably  the  account 
of  it.  They  had  brought  immense  stones,  and  had 
laid  a  level  foundation  upon  high  stairs  (or  steps). 
Around  it  and  at  its  sides  they  had  placed  one 
thousand  castles,  buUt  of  stone,  which  they  had 
made  idol  temples,  and  had  (cemented)  fastened 
them  well.  And  in  the  midst  of  the  city  they  had 
built  a  temple  higher  than  all,  to  delineate  the 
beauty  and  decoration  of  which  the  pens  of  all 
writers  and  the  pencils  of  all  painters  would  be 
powerless,  and  would  not  be  able  to  attain  to  the 
power  of  fixing  their  minds  upon  it  and  considering 
it.  In  the  memoir  which  the'  Sultdn  wrote  of  this 
journey  he  thus  declares,  that  if  any  one  should 
undertake  to  build  a  fabric  like  that  he  would 
expend  thereon  one  hundred  thousand  packets  of 
a  thousand  dinars,  and  would  not  complete  it  in 
two  hundred  years,  with  the  assistance  of  the  most 
ingenious  masters  (architects) .  And  amongst  the 
mass  of  idols  there  were  five  idols  made  of  pure 
gold,  of  the  height  of  five  cubits  in  the  air  ;  and  of 
this  collection  of  idols  there  were  (specially)  two, 
on  one  of  which  a  jacinth  was  arranged,  such  a  one 
that  if  the  SuMn  had  seen  it  exposed  in  the  Bdzdr, 
he  would  have  considered  as  underpriced  at  fifty 


456  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

thousand  dinars,  and  would  have  bought  it  with 
great  eagerness.  And  upon  the  other  idol  there 
was  a  sapphire  (hyacinth)  of  one  solid  piece,  of 
azure  water,  of  the  value  of  four  hundredweights 
of  fine  miskals  {five  weights  of  a  dram  and  a-half) 
each,  and  from  the  two  feet  of  an  idol  they 
obtained  the  weight  of  400,400  miskals  of  gold. 
And  the  idols  of  silver  were  a  hundred  times  more, 
so  that  it  occupied  those  who  estimated  their 
standard  weight  a  long  time  in  weighing  them. 
They  devastated  (all  that  city)  and  passed  there- 
from towards  Kaniij,  and  the  SultS.n  took  an 
augury  thereon  from  the  Korfi,n,  and  left  behind 
much  of  his  army,  in  order  that,  perchance,  Haipal 
(or  Jaipal)  Rajah  of  Hind,  when  he  saw  the  small 
number  of  his  chieftains,  might  return,  and 
consider  it  disgraceful  to  paE  in  resolution,  before 
first  engaging  in  battle  or  conflict,  for  he  was  the 
chief  of  the  princes  of  India,  and  all  submitted 
their  necks  in  obedience  to  him  (bowed  their  heads) 
and  acknowledged  his  high  rank,  and  great  power 
and  dignity.  And,  throughout  all  the  extent  of 
this  expedition,  at  whatever  region  he  arrived  and 
whatever  fortress  the  SuMn  saw,  he  took  posses- 
sion of  it,  and  devastated  it,  plundering  and  taking 
captives.  Thus,  on  the  eighth  of  Shaabdn,  they 
arrived  at  Kamij,  where  a  mountain  rose  before 
them,  and  the  army  passed  the  Ganges.  This 
water  possesses  glory  and  great  dignity  with  the 


MEMOIRS  OP  MAHMUD  OP  GHAZNA.  457 

chiefs  of  India.  They  know  it  to  be  a  spring  .of 
the  springs  of  eternity,  and  when  they  wash  their 
dead  they  purify  them  in  this  water,  and  are  per- 
suaded that  it  is  the  means  of  clearing  all  their 
accounts,  and  of  cleansing  from  all  sins  and  evil 
inclinations.  And  from  far  distant  roads  Brah- 
mins come,  and  wash  in  this  water,  thinking  it  a 
cause  of  salvation  and  of  obtaining  a  higher  hea- 
venly rank.  The  Sultan  then  opposed  the  for- 
tresses of  Kamij  ;  and  he  beheld  seven  castles, 
placed  upon  the  margin  of  the  water  of  the 
Ganges.  Nearly  ten  thousand  temples  were  built 
in  these  forts,  and  these  dotard  and  lying  idolaters 
declared  that  the  date  of  the  commencement  of 
those  fabrics  was  two  or  three  hundred  thousand 
years,  and  from  this  confident  belief  derived  pride 
and  pretension.  Their  trust  in  them  was  continu- 
ally recurring,  under  aU  circumstances,  for  they 
were  desirous  to  deposit  money  therein,  and  in 
time  of  need  made  processions  around  them, 
humbly  imploring  aid.  The  greater  number  of 
the  people  had  deserted  their  homes,  from  terror 
at  the  Sultdn,  but  some  remained.  The  SuMn  in 
one  day  took  all  those  fortresses  and  plundered 
them,  and  thence  turned  to  the  fortress  of  Manaj, 
called  the  Brahmins'  Castle.  The  people  of  this 
fortress  stood  up  to  resist  him,  but  when  they 
knew  what  is  the  power  of  confidence  and  the 
strength  of  salvation  from  non-existence,  they  cast 


458      MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

themselves  down  from  the  summit  of  the  castle, 
and  some  of  them  struck  themselves  with  darts 
and  the  edge  of  swords,  and  sent  their  impure 
souls  to  the  mansion  of  destruction.  From  hence 
the  Sultan  came  to  the  fortress  of  Aster,  held  by 
Jandbal  the  Violent,  one  of  the  most  furious  of  the 
Indians,  confiding  in  the  extent  of  his  territory 
and  his  numerous  army.  The  Rajah  of  Kamij 
was  annoyed  by  him,  and  several  times  marched 
towards  his  province,  but  returned  without  being 
able  to  effect  anything.  This  castle  was  situated 
in  the  midst  of  forests,  upon  an  eminence,  and 
deep  moats  were  drawn  around  it.  And  when 
Jandbal  saw  the  wounding  blows  of  the  SuMn's 
legions  and  the  strokes  of  his  riders,  and  was 
aware  that  Fate  was  reaching  out  her  claws  to 
seize  him  by  the  neck,  and  that  the  angel  of  death 
was  sharpening  his  teeth  to  flay  him,  he  broke  up  the 
earth  of  his  castle  and  took  to  flight.  The  stars  of 
religion,  the  stoners  of  devils,  and  the  champions 
of  the  Sultan  went  after  them,  killing  and  plun- 
dering, so  that  Jandb^  and  his  comrades  were 
deceived,  for  the  Sultin's  men  made  them  know 
their  awful  power  and  dreadful  might.  And  when 
they  witnessed  the  serried  ranks  of  his  warriors 
and  the  fury  of  his  men,  they  knew  how  long  an 
interval  there  is  between  the  heat  of  play  and  the 
ardour  of  the  brave,  and  became  aware  that  their 
business  was  to    engage   with   those   who   were 


kEJfOIES  OF  MAHMUD  OF  6HAZNA.  459 

determined  to  shed  blood,  not  with  the  play  of 
cotton-threshing  tables.  And  the  Sultd,n,  having 
reached  Jandbdl,  and  surrounded  him,  directed  his 
course  towards  Chandrarajah,  who  was  owner  of  a 
very  strong  fortress,  and  who  sfjid  (Verse) 

"  I  snort  my  long  nose  and  display  my  marshy  plains,  and 
am  a  foe  to  any  other  claimant." 

He  had  never  owned  submission  or  allowed 
superiority  as  to  any  one,  and  knew  nothing  but 
boasting  and  pride.  Between  him  and  Jandbdl 
balls  of  contention  had  passed,  and  great  wars  had 
occurred,  in  which  many  had  perished  on  both 
sides,  but  by  their  distresses  (they  were  compelled 
to  arrange)  so  that  the  spirting  of  blood  and  the 
defence  thereof  came  to  a  compromise  and  to 
peace.  And  Jaibdl  offered  his  daughter  to  him  in 
marriage,  and  to  cut  off  the  subject-matter  of 
dispute  and  perpetuate  the  opened  friendship, 
sent  his  son  to  him,  to  conclude  that  alliance, 
that  the  means  of  their  mutual  participation  in 
the  equipments  of  the  household  and  in  fortune 
might  be  smoothly  settled,  and  the  distinguished 
families  be  united.  And  when  his  son-in-law 
thus  fell  into  his  hand  he  seized  and  confined 
him,  and  demanded  of  him  an  equivalent  for  the 
money  and  property  which  had  been  laid  waste  by 
his  father's  power.  And  Jaibdl  was  helpless  in 
this  matter,  and  knew  not  by  what  means  he  could 


460  MEMOIRS  OF  MA.HMUD  OP  GHAZNA. 

obtain  the  deliverance  of  his  son.  And,  in  the 
midst  of  this  affair,  the  Sultdn  arrived  at  these 
regions,  and  the  chiefs  of  the  Courts  of  India  were 
up  and  down  (overthrown)  by  his  power,  and,  in 
their  terror  at  the  Sultdn,  sought  refuge  with 
Haibal,  from  the  most  distant  parts  of  India.  He 
became  dispirited;  and  Chandrardy,  confiding  in 
the  repelling  power  of  his  castles'  and  forts,  and  in 
his  numerous  army,  determined  to  oppose  the 
Sultan,  and  sought  aid  therein.  Then  Haibal  {or 
Bahamal)  sent  to  him,  saying,  Mahmiid  is  not  like 
the  race  of  Indian  chiefs,  that  one  can  play  with 
him  in  war  as  upon  a  (chess)  board,  or  think  to 
meet  his  standards.  He  hath  taken  many  forts 
stronger  than  thine,  and  hath  subdued  many  forces 
more  unyielding  than  thine.  One  may  regard  the 
opportunity  of  flying  from  him  as  a  gain,  and  one 
should  pray  for  escape  from  him  and  his  comrades. 
This  advice  was  favourably  received,  and  he  col- 
lected his  property,  horses,  treasure,  and  posses- 
sions, and  sought  an  asylum  in  a  mountain,  which 
could  fight  at  butting  with  the  constellation  of  the 
Bull,  and  in  a  forest  which  concealed  the  surface 
of  the  earth  from  the  eyes  of  the  stars,  and  drew 
the  veil  of  concealment  over  the  traces  of  his 
march,  and  it  was  not  known  to  any  one  what 
course  he  had  taken  and  where  he  had  halted. 
And  the  view  of  Haibdl,  in  giving  this  advice  to 
Chandrardy,    respecting    absenting    himself   and 


MEMOIRS  OP  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.      461 

flying,  was  this,  that  he  was  in  great  alarm  at  the 
stars  of  the  Sultdn,  and  the  stern  imposition  of  the 
words  of  Isl^m,  and  thought  that  when  the  people 
and  his  kindred  had  been  tied  by  the  rope  of 
Muhammadanism,  and  the  SuMn  had  arrived,  he 
would  seize  that  fortress,  and  alone  possess  its 
wealth  and  plunder,  and  that  his  army  would,  in 
the  productions  of  that  country,  find  the  pasture- 
field  of  their  will  and  the  quarters  of  exaltation. 
But  the  Sultdn  found  no  deliciousness  in  that  vic- 
tory, except  in  overcoming  the  design  and  flight  of 
those  rebellious  infidels.  He  therefore  proceeded 
to  reap  all  the  results  (of  that  victory)  and  went 
nearly  fifty  parasangs,  pursuing  their  footsteps. 
Upon  the  fifth  of  Shaabdn  he  reached  them,  and 
he  stirred  up  the  chiefs  of  his  army  to  hunt  up  and 
take  vengeance  upon  them.  The  despicable  ones 
cast  away  their  baggage  and  fiirniture,  that  they 
might  be,  perchance,  the  preservation  of  their  lives 
and  their  safety.  But  the  people  of  Isld,m  turned 
not  at  all  thereunto,  and  were  content  with  nothing 
but  those  worshippers  of  fire,  those  wicked  infidels, 
and  with  industry  in  tracking  them  to  vengeance. 
They  went  after  them  for  three  successive  days, 
and  killed  them,  and  seized  their  arms  and  accou- 
trements. And  they  took  some  of  their  elephants 
by  force,  and  some  came  (wUhngly)  under  the 
SuMn's  yoke,  to  whom  they  gave  the  name  of 
"  God- guided."     And  the  SuMn  praised  the  mer- 


462      MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

ciM  acts  of  God  and  His  accustomed  generosity, 
because  an  elephant,  which  cannot  be  brought 
under  except  by  the  agency  of  horses,  by  the  aid 
of  chiefs  (trainers)  and  by  the  sternness  of  men, 
was  thus,  by  supereffluent  kindness,  cut  off  from 
the  service  of  idols  and  placed  in  the  service  of 
devotion  (Verse) 

"  Say  to  the  Amir, '  Hast  thou  been  served,'  until  the  ele- 
phant came  to  thee,  serving. 

"  Praise  to  him  ia  whom  are  collected  all  blessings,  far  and 
near." 

They  obtained  from  the  treasures  of  Chandra- 
rajah  three  thousand  packets  of  gold  and  silver, 
precious  gems,  and  valuable  sapphires,  and  so  great 
an  abundance  of  slaves  that  the  price  of  each  never 
exceeded  from  two  to  ten  dirhems,  at  the  utmost. 
This  victory  fixed  the  embroidered  border  of  the 
Sultdn's  prosperity  and  good  fortune,  and  its 
renown  extended  from  the  East  to  the  West — 
Salutation. 


AOCOTTJST  OP  THE  COUSTBUCTION  OF  THE  JaMA  MaSJID  OF 

Ghazna. 

When  the  Sultin  returned  from  Hind  in  vic- 
tory and  hght,  with  abundant  wealth  and  no 
scanty  amount  of  gems,  and  so  many  slaves  that 
the  drinking-places  and  streets  of  Ghazna  were 
too    narrow   for    them,    and    the    eatables    and 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHA.ZNA.  463 

victuals  of  the  country  sufficed  not  for  them,  and 
from  the  most  distant  parts  tribes  of  merchants 
betook  themselves  to  Ghazna,  bringing  so  many 
slaves  from  Khur^sdn,  and  Mawarannahr,  and 
Irdk,  that  their  number  exceeded  the  free,  and  a 
white  freeman  was  lost  among  them,  the  Saltan 
began  to  feel  an  earnest  desire  to  expend  the 
plunder  of  those  princes  upon  some  liberal  work 
of  piety  and  lasting  benefit ;  and,  before  he 
marched  forth  on  his  expedition,  he  ordered  that 
they  should  make  a  choice  of  a  site  for  the 
Jama  Masjid  of  Ghazna,  since  they  had  con- 
structed the  old  mosque  in  bygone  times  and  for 
a  smaller  number  of  people,  at  a  time  when 
Ghazna  was  but  a  narrow  territory,  and  was  infe- 
rior amongst  civilized  lands  and  renowned  cities. 
And  when  the  Sultan  returned  the  enlarged  site 
for  the  mosque  had  been  fixed,  and  the  foundation 
and  corners  completed,  and  the  walls  of  the 
building  were  rightly  arranged.  Then  he  com- 
manded that  they  should  disburse  abundant  sums, 
for  the  purpose  of  completing  this  fabric,  which 
was  directed  by  faithful  architects  and  ingenious 
overseers,  and,  from  the  confidential  counsel  of  the 
Court,  full  power  of  forced  requisition  and  of 
hastening  the  building  were  entrusted  to  them,  so 
that  from  morning  to  evening  superintendents  were 
raising  the  building,  and  enquiring  respecting 
verifying  the  work   and   repairing   any    injuries. 


464  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OP  GHAZNA. 

And  when  the  halo  of  the  sun  touched  the  pin- 
nacle of  the  horizon  they  produced  scales,  and  their 
stipulated  wages  appeared,  so  that  all  went  home 
with  a  good  bargain  of  copious  wages  and  complete 
reward,  one  with  ready  money  from  the  Sultan's 
Treasury,  and  another  with  promissory  notes  from 
the  treasury  of  Heaven.  And  they  brought  trees 
from  Hind  and  Sind,  and  used  these  trees  in  the  said 
works,  for  strongly  constructing  all  belonging 
thereto,  in  the  most  complete  and  just  proportion, 
and  in  solidity  like  the  earth's  centre,  preparing 
and  sealing  the  quantity  necessary  for  every  day. 
And  they  brought  from  distant  places  mighty 
stones  (marble)  square  and  hexagonal,  all  shining 
(and  polished) ;  and  in  front  of  the  body  of  the 
elevation  they  drew  out  the  domed  porticoes  so , 
perfectly  spherical  that  the  measured  arch  of  the 
sky  was  but  a  myth  in  comparison,  and  the  beauty 
of  the  throne  (i.  e.,  the  golden  throne  of  Persia) 
and  of  Karnfi.k  lost  their  renown  ;  and  they  worked 
it  exquisitely,  with  various  hues  and  colours,  like 
the  plains  of  the  garden  of  spring  full  of  enamelled 
(flowers)  so  that  the  eye  became  dim  and  the 
intellect  confused  in  contemplating  it ;  and  they 
executed  such  gilding  with  paper  and  metal  that 
the  work  of  the  artificers  of  all  time  was  nothing 
in  reference  to  the  delicate  execution  of  these 
mosaic  artists.  They  spared  not  the  purest  gold 
in  their  painting  and  gilding,  nay  they  employed 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUn  OF  GHAZNA.  465 

lumps  of  gold ;  and  they   crushed  the  body-like 
idols  and  corporeal  images,  and  fastened  them  into 
the  doors  and  walls.     The  Sultdn  commanded  a 
closet  to  be  constructed,  for  bis  own  use  ;  he  com- 
manded,   also,    the    fabric    to    be    square,    with 
expanding  porches  and  with  interlacing  curvatures/^ 
and  the  walls  of  the  gates  lofty  and  projecting. 
They  collected  white  marble,  to  cover  the  pave- 
ment, and  on  the  sides  of  every  court  they  deline- 
ated golden  paintings,  shaded  with  lapis  lazuli. 
So  great  was  the  splendour,  gilding,  decoration, 
and  colouring  of  this  mosque  that  everyone  who 
saw  it  took  the  finger  of  wonder  into  his  mouth, 
and  said,  "  Oh  thou  who  hast  beheld  the  mosque 
of  Damascus,  and  art  maddened  thereby,  and  dost 
profess  that  no  building  like  that  is  possible,  and 
that  no  one  can  imagine  any  other  specimen  like 
that    fabric,    come   and   witness  the    mosque   of 
Ghazna,  that  thou  mayest  see  the  vanity  of  thy 
boast  and  direct   thy  speech  into   the  words  of 
praise,  and  know  that  of  the  confluence  of  all  plans 
this  is  the  most  beautiful,  and  of  the  conception  of 
aU  examples  this  is  the  most  elegant."     In  front 
there  was  an  immense  nave,  for  great  festivals  and 

1 slktl     LlioJuiJ.      If  these  words  be  rendered  "  the 

interlacing,  intertwining,  or  interweaving  curvatures"  they 
would  appear  to  express  the  grand  distinctive  feature  of 
pointed  architecture.  One  of  the  meanings  of  ^_  iUr  given  b^ 
Golius  is  "  fonus  ceu  potim'  eurvatura  arcus." 

2  H 


466  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

congregations,  in  which  six   thousand  servants  of 
God  might  fulfil  their  duties,  and  be  engaged  in 
worship    without  inconvenience   to   one  another ; 
and   he    built  near  the  precincts   a  college,    and 
supplied  it  with  valuable  books  and  rare  volumes 
of  theology,  and  to  those  pure  walls  of  writers  and 
masters  of  profitable  instruction  professors,  im^ms, 
divines,  and  students  directed  their  course,  occu- 
pying    themselves     in    obtaining    and    chanting 
knowledge ;    and  from    the   endowments   of  the 
college  they  received  daily  a  maintenance,  and  all 
necessaries,  and  a  salary,  yearly  or  monthly,  was 
duly  paid  to  them.   They  contrived  a  passage  from 
the  royal  palace  to  the  closet  in  the  mosque,  that 
he  might  be  covered  from  the  gaze  of  eyes  and 
meeting  the  view  of  the   people,  and    that   the 
Sultd,n,  at  needful  times,  might,  with  full  quiet  and 
repose,  proceed  by  that  passage  to  accompHsh  his 
devotions  ;  and  every  one  of  the  nobles  and  great 
men  had  his  private  closet,  so  that  it  would  be 
impossible  to  arrive  at  an  idea  of  its  beauty  and 
perfect  construction  except  by  the  evidence  of  the 
eye.     And,  during  the  empire  of  the  Sultan,  the 
extent  of  Ghazna  exceeded  all  cities  in  spacious 
buildings  and  solid  edifices  ;  and  amongst  other 
fabrics  there  were  a  thousand  walled  inclosures,  for 
the  purpose  of  keeping  the   trained  elephants,  in 
each  of  which  there  was  a  spacious  lodging  and 
wide  precinct  for  the  elephant-grooms,  the  sup- 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  467 

pliers  of  food,  and  the  managers  of  maintenance. 
It  was  God  who  was  the  promoter  and  designer  of 
this  prosperity  of  the  land  and  increase  of  His 
servants,  in  His  bountiful  providence  and  decree. 
He  is  supreme  Ordainer  of  all  things. 


Account  oe  the  Affair  of  the  AF&H-iKs. 

When  the  pimples  of  the  disgrace  and  infamy 
of  the  puritans  (lit.,  Tahirites,  heretics  so  called)  of 
Tabaristin  had  passed  away  the  Sultan  occupied 
himself  in  repelling  the  nation  of  the  Afghans, 
who  made  their  homes  in  the  acclivities  of  cliffs 
and  the  summits  of  mountains,  and  for  a  long  time 
had  been  accustomed,  with  violent  success,  to 
stretch  out  their  hand  (to  attack)  the  extreme 
bord'er  of  his  territories.  He  departed  from 
Ghazna,  with  the  wish  to  turn  upon  them,  and,  by 
giving  their  nest  to  the  winds,  cut  oflP  the  germ  of 
that  annoyance.  He  therefore  made  as  though  he 
were  marching  towards  another  place  and  had  a 
design  against  some  other  people,  and  suddenly 
fell  upon  them  and,  fastening  the  sword  upon 
them,  gave  many  people  to  destruction  (Verse) 

"  Knocking  down  after  knocking  down,  as  if  their  skins 
■were  anointed  with  shame  and  bruises." 

He  then  returned  to  Ghazna,  and  was  unde- 
cided whether  he  would  remain  still  for  the  rest  of 

2  H  2 


468  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OP  GHAZNA. 

the  year,  for  the  purpose  of  repose,  and  enjoying 
tranquillity  for  that  winter,  then  determine  Upon 
his  victorious  design  and  cast  out  the  residue  of 
the  infidel  wretches,  from  the  cities  and  dwellings 
of  India,  and  annihilate  those  swords  which  were 
moving  like  a  stream  in  the  remoter  provinces. 
His  jealousy  for  Isldm  and  regard  for  the  faith, 
however,  prevailed,  and  his  progressing  sword 
could  not  be  content  in  its  sheath,  but,  charmed 
with  his  power  and  courage,  flew  and  escaped  from 
its  dwelhng.  And  thus  he  marched  towards  India, 
with  men  as  eager  and  excited  as  neighing  colts, 
with  the  delight  in  battles  felt  by  males  in  mea- 
suring swords  and  points,  whose  rose-bed  was  the 
battle-field  and  plain,  whose  violet-bed  was  daggers 
and  spears,  whose  gardens  were  deeds  of  swords, 
whose  fishponds  were  the  streaming  dead,  whose 
scimitars  were  their  stars,  and  to  ford  through 
dust  their  boats,  whose  companion  and  soothing 
mistress  was  victory,  whose  confidant  was  their 
dagger,  and  glory  their  echo.  Thus  they  passed 
the  desert,  and  left  behind  those  fords  and  passages 
(of  the  river)  and  from  the  rest  of  those  lands,  from 
the  plunder  of  encounters,  and  the  injury  of  the 
army,  a  shout  arose  and  a  cry  was  raised  to 
Heaven.  And  the  Sultdn  gave  quarter  to  whom- 
soever followed  his  religion,  but  if  any  one  twisted 
his  head  from  his  decree  he  cast  hia  head  upon  the 
ground..     They  ravaged  the  country,  and  collected 


Memoirs  of  mahmud  of  ghazna.  469 

so  great  an  amount  that  water  and  fire  could  not 
consume  it,  and  it  could  not  be  reduced  to  the 
compass  of  calculation  or  to  the  order  of  account- 
books,  until  he  arrived  at  the  river  named  Rahib, 
where  the  waters  were  great  and  where  was  a  dif- 
ficult channel-passage,  and  whose  whirlpool  could 
carry  away  horsemen  and  footmen,  and  in  whose 
fords  great  and  small  are  drowned.  Here,  as  in  a 
fitting  place,  Jaibdl  had  halted,  trusting  in  the 
copious  (streams)  and  stood  to  repulse  the  Muslim 
army  ;  and  he  would  not  permit  any  one  to  pass 
the  water.  But,  when  night  arrived,  he  took  to 
flight,  under  the  canopy  of  darkness.  And  when 
the  Sultdn  knew  his  craftiness  and  his  design  he 
called  his  guards  and  prepared  hides,  and  ordered 
them  to  inflate  them,  and  tie  them  to  their  bellies, 
and  thus  pass  the  water.  Eight  of  the  guards, 
self-forgetfiil,  ran  and  tied  the  inflated  skins 
around  them,  and  threw  themselves  into  the 
water.  And  when  Jaibal  saw  them  on  the 
surface,  he  sent  five  elephants  with  a  body  of 
men  to  resist  them.  But  God,  to  verify  His 
word  and  promise  to  the  Apostle  and  Prophet, 
by  the  success  and  accompHshment  of  this  saying, 
"  The  earth  hath  been  referred  to  me,  east  and 
west,  and  wide  regions  have  been  brought  near  to 
me ;  my  people  have  been  offered  to  me  there- 
from," inspired  those  eight,  so  that  they  held  on 
with  firm  hands  and  unmoveable  resolution,  and 


470  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  QHA^NA. 

pierced  those  elephants  through  and  through,  on 
the  sides  and  flanks,  with  arrows,  and  bore  men  to 
the  ground.  And  so  kind  was  the  Sultdn  that  he 
encouraged  eveiy  one  to  swim  powerMly  (by 
saying)  "  We  ought  to  endure  the  toil  of  a  day  for 
the  sake  of  the  rest  of  a  whole  life."  And  the 
army,  from  the  kind  words  of  the  Sultdn  and  their 
eager  devotion,  pressed  ou,  jostling  one  another. 
Some  passed  by  the  skins  and  others  firmly  held 
their  horses'  manes,  so  that  all  came  forth  safely 
and  stood  on  the  shore,  without  loss  or  suffering, 
and  pressed  upon  their  rear,  and  thus  put  many  of 
these  accursed  creatures  to  the  sword,  and  made 
the  greater  number  prisoners.  They  brought 
seventy  elephants  to  the  Sultdn's  yoke,  by  the 
bridle  of  force  and  the  noose  of  compulsion.  And 
the  infidels  fled,  leaving  as  booty  their  treasures' 
and  property.  And  the  Sultdn,  before  he  engaged 
the  Kafirs  and  conquered  these  false  fugitives,  had 
taken  an  omen  from  the  glorious  Kur^n,  "  Your 
Lord  hath  contrived  that  you  should  destroy  your 
enemies,  and  he  will  appoint  you  to  succeed  them 
in  (their)  land,  so  He  sees  how  you  act."  This 
true  promise  was  fulfilled,  and  Heaven  freely 
granted  victory  and  accomplished  (success)  in  order 
to  respond  to  His  covenant  and  confirm  His 
surety.  Thus  he  was  raised  on  the  effectual  set- 
tlement of  the  seat  of  justice,  and  on  the  well- 
ordered     carpet    of    equity,    and,    thanking     the 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  471 

bounty  of  Heaven,  felt  assured  of  extended  pros- 
perity and  empire,  and  happy  support,  and  help 
for  the  course  of  successive  years.  And  what  is 
numbered  and  prepared  for  him  in  the  palace  of 
eternity  and  the  everlasting  Paradise  is  more 
valuable  and  preponderating.  In  the  other  world 
is  good,  and  in  blessing  is  the  abode  of  the  assured 
ones. 


AcCOriTT      or    the     KADHf     ABUL-ULA-SAID-'BH'-MrHAMMAD 
AND    THE    MasTEE    ABU-BAKE-'BN-MrHAMMAD-MAMSHlD 

— Heaten  be  MebcieuJ;  to  him  ! 

The  Master  Abil-Bakr-'bn-Muhammad-Mam- 
shdd,  during  the  days  of  the  Sult4n's  empire,  was 
regarded  with  the  eyes  of  veneration,  highly  cele- 
brated amongst  the  imd,ms  of  Khurdsdn.  His 
father  was  an  eminent  scribe  and  doctor,  a  pillar 
of  the  monastic  life.  His  son  followed  his  father 
in  the  cowl-dress  of  self-restraint,  and  abstinence 
from  the  pomps  of  the  world,  and  in  Hving  by  rule. 
And  when  the  Amir  Nasir-Addin  saw  the  loving 
ascetism  of  his  comrades  and  the  pure  monasticism 
of  his  followers  he  persisted  in  commending  him, 
and  an  upright  confidence  was  knit  up  between 
them,  and  he  looked  at  him  with  the  glance  of 
honour  and  esteem,  and  regarded  highly  his 
regular  followers  (called  Kerdmites)  so  that  their 
market  and   sale  (^.  e.,  their    value  and  honour) 


472  Memoirs  of  mahmud  of  gha^na. 

reached  the  sky.  Abiil-Fath-Busti  would  say, 
with  regard  to  their  excellence,  "The  divinity  of 
divinity  is  that  of  Abii-Hanifa  alone  ;  the  religion 
of  religion  is  Muhammad-'bn-Kirdm.*  If  I  see 
those  who  do  not  believe  in  Muhammad-'bn'Kir^m 
them  I  honour  notj"  or  they  must  believe  in  another 
Kirdm.f 

Now  when  the  army  of  the  Turks  came  to 
KhurSrSan  and  the  Sultdn  was  engaged  in  the 
conquest  of  Multln  they  seized  Abii-Bakr,  because 
they  mistrusted  his  high  attachment  to  the  Sultin 
and  the  influence  of  his  followers.  And  when  the 
standard  of  the  Sultan  dawned  again  (returned) 
they  carried  him  with  them,  so  that  he  had  no 
opportunity  of  deliverance,  and  came  to  Nishapiir. 
This  state  of  things  was  imputed  as  a  merit  and  a 
desert,  and  he  was  distinguished  by  increased 
reverence,  so  that  his  exile  and  vexation  was  the 
cause  of  peculiar  favour.  And,  in  the  midst  of 
these  affairs,  the  shame  of  the  followers  of  novelty 
and  leaders  of  crime  appeared,  and  filled  the  people 
throughout  the  house  of  Isldm  with  anxiety,  on 
account  of  the  wicked  profession  and  inclinations 
of  these  followers  of  inward  (religion)  and  heretics. 

*  Eouader  of  the  Kerdmites,  which  sect  Mainshad  fol- 
lowed. 

t  This  double  meaning  arises  from  a  play  upon  the  word 
Kiram,  which  signifies  Jionowrable,  and  also  the  proper  name 
Kiram. 


MKMOiaS  OF  MAHMUD  OP  GHAZNA.  473 

And  the  Sultdn  looked  upon  it  as  an  obligation  to 
unfold  this  affair,  to  arrange  to  bring  out  this  sect 
(to  light).  Then  the  Master  Abil-Bakr,  from  the 
soundness  of  his  understanding  and  the  acuteness 
of  his  conclusions  in  these  matters,  was  an  earnest 
instrument  in  seeing  to  this  despicable  sect,  in 
cutting  off  this  calamity,  and  in  applying  a  remedy. 
And  he  killed  many  for  this  crime ;  and  parties 
arose  of  the  pious  and  the  wicked,  and  many 
perished  for  truth  or  for  vanity.  And,  from  dread 
of  these  besetments,  men  became  averse  to  the 
Master  Abii-Bakr,  and  fled ;  for  awe  of  him  was 
established  in  the  heart  of  noble  and  plebeian,  and 
they  subsequently  declared  that  under  the  habit  of 
the  Sufi  rule,  the  doctrine  of  the  descendants  of 
Ali  (the  Shiite)  was  shown  forth.  For  their  sec- 
taries and  populace  took  men  captive,  and  patched 
up  (filled)  their  own  purses  by  them,  and  acquired 
much  wealth  firom  them.  And  if  any  one  hap- 
pened, by  accident  or  on  purpose,  to  oppose  them 
they  regarded  him  as  related  to  heretics  and  evil- 
doers. Things  proceeded  thus  for  a  long  time,  and 
no  one  had  power  to  extinguish  this  tumult  or  to 
change  this  position.  But  time  trains  us  to 
change  of  circumstances  and  to  substitute  altera- 
tions. Thus  affairs  had  the  pledge  of  times,  days, 
and  hours.  But  every  one  who  would  wait 
patiently  for  the  vicissitudes  of  time  he  will  behold 
the  proud  enslaved  in  depression  and  humihty,  and 


■474  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

he  will  find  the  enslaved  placed  under  the  canopy 
of  peace  and  repose.     And  it  happened  that  the 
Kadhi  Abiil-UM-Said-'bn-Muhammad,  in  the  year 
420,*  determined  to  fulfil  the  Pilgrimage.     He 
was  a  most  eminent  doctor  and  great  scribe  of 
imams,  and  from  his  solid  excellence  and  copious- 
ness in  poetry,  expended  the  days  of  his  precious 
life  in  teaching  and  lecturing,  and,  from  his  scien- 
tific  and   abundant   excellence,    had    robbed    the 
horns  and  chiefs  of  time  of  the  guiding-staff  of 
direction.      He  was  famed  for  his  monastic  living, 
for  abstaining  from  concupiscence  and  desire,  and 
bodily  acts,   and   for  occupying  himself  in  great 
devotion,  and  in  his  stern  authority  would  oppose 
the  decree  of  kings  and  sultans.     When  he  came 
to   Medina   he   was  extremely    honoured  at    the 
abode  of  the  Khilafat  and  seat  of  Im^mship,  and, 
returning   therefrom,    they  gave  him  a  letter  to 
convey  to  the  Sultdn,  and  sent  a  message  through 
him  by  word  of  mouth,  upon  the  affairs  of  the 
kingdom.     And  when  he  came  to  the  Sultan,  to 
fulfil  his  commission,  the  Master  Abil-Bakr  was 
in   the   presence,    and    a   conversation   upon   the 
doctrine  of  Kiram  happened  between  them,  and 
they  displayed  their  confidence  in  the  corporeality 
(of  God)  His  similarity  or  resemblancef  (to  created 

*  If  this  date  be  correct  Utbi  must  bave  survived  to  a  later 
date  of  the  reign  of  Mahmlid  than  has  been  supposed, 
t  &«  Translator's  Introduction. 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  475 

things)  and  such  of  His  errors,  and  their  tales 
about  this  similarity,  their  shps  of  the  feefc,  and 
their  deceptions  as  the  most  evident  texts,  fell 
sidelong  on  the  Sultdn's  mind,  who  was  disgusted 
with  their  references  and  their  words.  He  called 
the  Master  Abii-Bakr  before  him,  and  commanded 
him  to  unfold  the  real  principles  of  his  followers. 
He  disclaimed  adherence  to  this  sect  and  denied 
this  imputation;  but  he  was  for  this  reason 
expelled  from  the  Sultdn's  establishment :  and  the 
Sultan,  in  the  matter  of  his  followers,  commanded 
that  a  royal  supreme  decree  should  be  issued  to 
the  Naww^bs  and  magistrates,  directing  them  to 
seize  the  superiors  of  the  sect,  that  if  any  one  of 
them  disclaimed  innovation  and  these  vile  sayings 
him  they  should  release,  and  dismiss  him  to  his 
position  in  the  college  as  professor,  or  to  his  pulpit. 
But  that  if  any  one  should  persist  in  his  blindness 
and  errors  to  expel  him  from  the  city  and 
discharge  him  from  his  college  privileges,  and  cor- 
porate rights,  persecuting  his  schismatical  course 
and  wicked  separatism,  and  imprisoning  his 
household  with  him.  But  the  Sultan  caressed  the 
Kadhi  Abiil-Ula,  and  honoured  him  with  a  robe 
worthy  of  his  glorious  dignity,  so  that  all  marks  of 
outward  reverence  were  paid  to  him  from  His 
Majesty's  sovereignty  (Heaven  glorify  it !)  and 
from  regard  to  the  -  glorious  Law  drew  the  two 
imdms  (Othman  and  Omar  ?J  to  complete  autho- 


476'  MEMOIRS  OF  M\.HMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

rity.     The  mortification,  however,  and  annoyance 
of  the  accusation,  respecting  his  beHef  of  an  Incar- 
nation and  the  possibiHty  of  the  Deity  assuming 
similarity,  stirred  up  a  tumult  in  the  breast  of  the 
Master  Abii-Bakr,  who  sought  an  opportunity  for 
making  an  oration  and  the  power  of  making  an 
apology,  and,  by  various  craftinesses,  managed  that 
a  trial  should  be  ordered  to  set  him  right,  and,  for 
the  purpose  of  testimonials  and  evidence,  collected 
together  many  persons,  who  were  forward  ones  in 
the  troop  of  his  inclination-seconders  and  agents 
for  effecting  his  prosperity  and  credit.      Thus  a 
troop  of  ugly  and  ill-conditioned  people  assembled 
before  the  Court.     Then  the  Sultdn  was  enraged, 
and  desired  the  Kadhi  of  Kadhis,  Abii-Muham- 
mad-Nasib  to  be  present,  and  issued  an  edict  to 
stir  up  the  truth  of  this  affair,  and  commanded  an 
exposure  of  this  feigning  and  colouring  (doctrine). 
This.  Kadhi  was  remarkable  amongst  those  in  the 
Sult4n's  service,  for  his  merits  and  discrimination, 
and  both  on  account  of  his  mighty  knowledge  and 
his  perfect  piety  had  been  honoured  with  the  chair 
of  professor    and  the   chief  seat   of  determining 
doctor    (Mufti)    at   Ghazna.      His   learning    was 
exalted  like  a  column  and  his  rank  for  piety  so 
great  that  the  destinies  of  kingdoms  were  confided 
to  him.       And  when  he  summoned  the   Kadhi 
Abiil-U14  and  the  Master  Abii-Bakr,   Abii-Bakr 
knew   that  his   seat  was  broken,    and   that    the 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  477 

building  of  his  tower  upon  that  boasting,  and 
obstinacy  in  those  assertions  would  be  the  cause  of 
disgrace.  He  said,  therefore,  such  is  the  malignity 
to  which  our  mutual  dissensions,  respecting  learn- 
ing, and  our  mutual  envy  as  to  rank  have  arrived  ! 
The  cause  of  it  amounts  to  this,  that  he  imputes  to 
me  the  doctrine  of  Form,  and  I  declare  that  he  is 
involved  in  the  heresy  of  the  Mutazilites  ;  and 
thus  both  of  us  have  punctured  one  another  with 
words  of  malice,  quarrelling  and  anger.  Let  him 
be  acquitted  of  this  charge,  and  let  him  free  me 
from  the  imputation  of  this  crime.  Hereupon 
several  persons  present  gave  their  testimony  as  to 
the  responsibiUty  and  regular  good  conduct  of 
Abil-Bakr,  but  others  cast  before  the  Court  the 
drink  of  shame  and  attached  the  garland  of  the 
wreath  of  disgrace,  and  so  that  harsh  revelations 
and  savage  cross-questionings  ensued,  and  if  the 
awe  of  His  Highness  the  SuMn  had  not  prevented 
it,  the  violent  uproar  and  unpleasant  proceedings 
would  have  been  renewed.  But  the  Kadhi  of 
Kadhis  reported  all  this  contest  to  the  ears  of  the 
Sultdn,  in  mild  terms,  and  conveyed  the  represen- 
tation thereof  to  the  presence,  in  an  agreeable  way. 
And  the  Amir  Nasr-'bn-Nasir-Addin  sought  an 
opportunity,  and  in  a  diploma  expressed  a  high 
opinion  of  the  remarkable  piety  of  this  Kadhi,  and 
advised  the  Sultdn  to  examine  into  the  opposition 
and  indignity  which  hiad  resulted  to  him  in  the  above 


478  MEMOIRS  OF  MAIIMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

affair.  The  Sultan  acknowledged  his  disinterested 
remarks,  and  treated  the  ill-wishers  of  the  Kadhi 
Abiil-Ul^  with  indifference.  Thus  this  Kadhi  re- 
turned to  his  presidency  and  reposed  in  the  abode  of 
abundant  respect,  and  declined  all  squabbling  and 
fighting,  and  was  occupied  in  the  daily  wages  of 
devotion  and  in  diffusing  the  M'ealth  (of  religion) 
well  knowing  that  the  residue  of  life  was  too 
precious  to  be  wasted  in  the  service  of  high-raised 
desires  and  malicious  word?.  His  two  sons,  Abiil- 
Hasan  and  Abii-Said,  were  his  deputies,  and  he 
thus  lived  in  settled  comfort  and  dignity,  occupied 
in  arranging  learned  points  and  in  rectifying,  by 
sight  and  measure  ({.  e.,  hy  acuteness  and  judgment) 
the  discussion  of  questions,  so  that,  instead  of 
vanity,  his  life  attained  abundant  affluence,  as- 
Abii-Busti  says  (Verse) 

"  Heaven  Hath  accumulated  upon  me  four  things,  amongst 
which  are  honour  and  respectability  in  station,  the  science  of 
easily  swallowing  wine,  affluent  means  of  enjoyment,  and  a 
happy  mind." 

As  to  Abii-Bakr  and  his  followers,  through  his 
penetrating  judgment,  his  high  rank,  his  overflow- 
ing credit  with  all  classes  of  the  people,  and  his 
obstinacy  towards  the  chiefs  of  the  State,  he  passed 
the  hne  of  rectitude,  and  tongues  uttered  his 
conduct  to  the  Sultan's  Court,  and  a  cry  arose  from 
men  on  account  of  that  which  they  endured  from 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  QHAZNA.  479 

his  sectaries.  The  Sultan  for  some  time  severed 
himself  from  these  sayings,  and  abstained  from  the 
cognizance  of  this  vain  course  of  proceeding,  and 
from  destroying  its  grounds,  not  wishing  to  render 
ineffective  the  respect  which  he  had  arranged  for 
him,  from  estimation  of  his  merits,  or  that  the 
fabric  which  had  been  founded  upon  the  good 
pleasure  of  God  should  be  demolished,  until  when 
the  matter  exceeded  all  bounds,  and  the  wicked-, 
ness  of  that  party  came  to  its  height,  then  he 
committed  the  dictatorship  of  Nisapiirto  Abii-Ali- 
Al-Hasan-'bn-Muhammad-'bn-Abbds.  He  was  a 
man  nobly  born,  whose  ancestors,  during  the  time 
of  the  family  of  Sdmdn,  had  been  remarkable  for 
abundant  wealth  and  esteem.  His  father,  at  the 
outset  of  the  SuMn's  history,  whilst  he  was  Com- 
mander of  the  Forces,  entered  into  his  service,  and 
was  particularly  intimate  with  him,  and,  on 
account  of  the  suitableness  of  his  youth,  was 
enrolled  in  the  troop  of  his  comrades  and  friends ; 
but  his  life  attained  not  maturity,  jand  he  departed 
young ;  and  with  respect  to  his  son,  inasmuch  as 
he  had  possessed  so  confidential  an  intimacy  with 
the  Amir  Abd-Nasr,  and  had  been  modelled  by 
his  character,  and  had  found  the  utmost  profit 
from  the  natural  lights  of  his  glorious  disposition, 
and  had  imitated  the  deep  intellect,  generous 
feehngs,  and  noble  nature  (of  that  Prince)  they, 
when    Abd-Nasr    deceased,    represented    to    the 


480  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

Sultdn's  consideration  his  eloquence,  dignity,  ele- 
gance,   and  agreeable  manners,  the  Sultdn  sum- 
moned him  before  the  throne  and  placed  him  on 
the  seat  of  private  friends.      He  came  to  be  the 
first  object  of  the  Sultan's  eyes,  and  was  selected 
by  him  remarkably  for  friendship  and  honour.    He 
arrived  at  high  posts  and  attained  to  the  place  of 
the   category    of  vizirs,    amidst   the   nobles,    the 
generals,  and  the  high  officers.    The  Sultan's  view, 
in  investing  him  with  the  collar  of  this  dictator- 
ship, was,  that  with  reference  to  these  people,  who, 
by  reason  of  their  devotional  and  monastic  way  of 
living,  had  acquired  such  authority,  and  who  had 
made  the  grandeur  of  their  position  vie  with  the 
grandeur  of  religion,  and  had  imagined  that  the 
moon  could  not  support  her  claim  compared  with 
their  place,  and  that  the  stars  would  be  unable  to 
inflame  their  high  devotion,  he  should  put  them 
all  to  their  proper  labour  and  extirpate  their  errors, 
and  tie  their  hands  from  coveting  high  positions 
or  from  ambitiously  craving  for  the  world.     And 
when  he  came  to  Nisapiir  he  began  to  break  them 
in,  so  that  if  you  obtained  the  testimony  of  the 
majority  they  would  declare  themselves  satisfied 
with  his  government  and  benefited  by  his  exact 
efficiency.     Thus,  through  dread  of  him,  Nisapiir 
became  calm,  and  the  hissing  of  these  scorpions 
and  noise  of  these  locusts  of  self-will  was  appeased, 
and  no  one  possessed  the  power  of  disputing  about 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA,      481 

their  ways  (of  religion)  or  of  quarrelling  about 
their  party  standards.  Thus  these  people  of  con- 
fusion and  chiefs  of  innovation  drew  their  heads 
into  their  collars,  and  folded  up  their  skirts  from 
the  quest  of  eminent  things  (Verse) 

"  The  servant  of  God  hath  dispersed  the  dread  of  vengeance, 
in  the  night,  when  the  scorpions  were  hissing." 

And  although,  in  appeasing  this  uproar  and 
extinguishing  this  outcry,  he  displayed  commend- 
able marks  of  industry,  all  bore  the  impress  of  the 
blessed  resolution,  and  aU  was  the  eifect  of  the  awe 
felt  for  the  Sultin,  by  whose  power  a  mountain 
would  quake,  and  from  dread  of  whose  scimitar 
the  dust  would  arise  from  the  depth  of  the  sea. 
And  although  the  tears  of  the  clouds  be  the  cause 
of  the  beauteous  sheen  of  vegetation,  and  the 
stones  of  the  brave  the  proximate  reason  of  the 
flight  of  devils,  the  intelligent  know  that  the  first 
cause  of  aU  is  that  Providence  who  fans  the  stars 
of  his  gift  by  the  breathings  of  his  mercy,  and  that 
Almighty  one  who  lights  the  lanterns  of  Heaven 
by  the  flame  of  the  sparks  of  His  bounty.  He  is 
the  adorable  necessitator  of  the  produce  of  the 
clouds,  not  the  clouds,  and  He  is  the  causation  of 
the  periods  (times)  of  the  stars,  not  the  stars. 
Thus  this  governor  made  this  mob  follow  their 
bread-winning,  and  whatever,  during  the  time  of 
confusion,  they  had  seized  in  their  impurity,  he 

2i 


482  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

seized  from  them  again,  and  confined  them  all  in 
prison.  He  wished  to  give  a  rubbing,  also,  to 
Abii-Bakr,  but  he  withdrew,  and  sat  down  in  the 
corner  of  secrecy.  And,  because  the  Sultan  did 
not  wish  to  molest  him  further,  or  issue  a  writ 
demanding  money  from  him,  he  turned  away  his 
eyes  from  him,  that  he  might  occupy  himself  in 
devotion  at  home,  and  change  his  disposition  from 
its  custom  of  exciting  tumults  and  deceiving  the 
people.  And  as  to  the  party  of  Sayyadites,  who 
had  withdrawn  their  foot  from  the  circle  of 
uprightness  and  the  direct  object^  he  settled  them 
in  the  right  path,  by  various  punishments  and 
fines,  and  assured  them  that  the  ample  veneration 
and  supremacy  of  their  body  was  founded  upon 
their  obedience  to  the  Sultan,  upon  pursuing  the 
path  of  rectitude,  and  upon  withdrawing  from  all 
measures  of  falsehood  and  malice.  And  all 
expressed  submission  to  him,  and  took  the  road  of 
sincerity  and  modesty ;  and  then  appointing  as 
his  deputy,  with  the  confirmation  of  the  Sultdn, 
Abii-Mansiir-Nasr-'bn-Ramus,  who  was  his  other 
self,  he  returned  to  the  presence.  The  Sultdn 
entertained  great  regard  for  him,  on  account  of  his 
expedition  in  that  affair,  and  for  having  managed 
the  preservation  of  his  honour. 

Moreover  he  issued  rigid  orders  to  the  great, 
eminent,  and  noble  men  of  his  Court,  respecting 
assiduous  obedience  and  steady  service,  obUging 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OP  GHAZNA.  483 

them  all  to  attach  themselves  to  the  Div^n,  for 
two  parts  of  the  day,  and  to  render  an  indication 
(or  evidence)  of  their  labour,  and  if  any  one 
twisted  his  head  from  his  commands  and  reproofs, 
he  gave  them  a  noble  rubbing,  so  that  all  placed 
their  necks  beneath  his  authority,  and  became 
submissive  and  attentive  to  his  orders.  Tn  a  short 
time  his  affiiirs  reached  the  Pleiades,  and  his 
government  went  on  in  such  a  manner  that,  in  the 
land  of  Khuras&n,  no  one  had  ever  conducted  it  in 
such  order  and  beauty.  However  he  passed  a  long 
life,*  with  abundant  wealth,  with  numerous 
servants  and  troops,  in  liberality  and  plenty. 
During  his  administration  the  aftairs  of  Nisapilr 
were  brought  to  thorough  order.  His  displayed 
the  face  of  level  equity  between  the  widow  and  the 
wealthy,  and  the  door  of  boasting  and  oppression 
was  closed.  And  he  charged  a  faithful  Muhtisab 
(examiner  of  weights  and  measures,  and  censor)  to 
go  amongst  the  market  people  and  workmen,  in 
order  to  guard  the  standard  of  weights  and 
measures.  He  made  each  street  a  clear  road 
for  asses,  crowds,  and  stalls,  so  that  the  people,  in 
the  mutual  transaction  of  business,  were  enabled  to 
refrain  from  extremities  of  impatience.  Formerly 
the  streets  of  the  bazars  had  not  been  covered,  and 
from  the  marks  of  dust  and  the  annoyances  of  rain 

*  This  expression  would  imply  that  TJtbi  lived  during  a 
great  part  of  Mahmud's  reign. 

2i  2 


484  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

the  market  people  and  men  of  business  had  been 
vexed ;  but,  during  his  government,  he  ordered 
that  the  roofs  of  the  bazars  should  be  connected 
together,  and  in  the  space  of  two  months  the  city 
was  entirely  covered,  roof  by  roof,,  with  clean  roofs 
and  light-affording  interwoven  (leaves)  so  that  all 
might  everywhere  be  gladdened  by  the  penetration 
of  the  rays  of  the  sun.  He  expended  nearly  one 
hundred  thousand  dinars,  through  his  goodness  of 
soul,  in  promoting  justice  and  gladness  for  th© 
people,  in  honourable  and  pious  liberalities,  and  in 
building  bazars ;  and  the  city  was  so  finished  that 
the  eye  was  never  satisfied  with  contemplating  its 
paintings  and  pleasant  objects,  so  that,  in  the 
midst  of  Nisapiir,  there  appeared  another  Arcturus 
and  an  eighth  heaven.  His  conduct,  both  regard- 
ing the  city  and  its  administration,  was  fuUy  recog- 
nised by  the  Sultan,  and  rewarded  with  corre- 
sponding praise  and  satisfaction. 

Account  or  Nase-'bn  Nasie-AddIn-SabaktagIn'. 

When  the  Sultan  took  the  kingdom  of  Khurd,- 
san  and  the  Amir  Nasr-'bn-Sabaktagln,  being  of 
confirmed  sincerity  and  mature  age,  discharged 
the  duties  of  allegiance  and  withdrew  his  skirt 
from  the  Amir  Ismael,  and  resolved,  with  evi- 
dences of  faithfulness  and  fidelity,  and  with  the 
fulfilment  of  service,  to  follow  perseveringly  the 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA.  485 

sovereignty  of  his  (brother  Mahmild),  the  SuMn 
gave  him  his  own  place,  as  Commander  of  the 
Army  and  province  of  Nishapiir,  where  .he  ful- 
filled that  office  for  some  years,  usefully  and  pro- 
fitably, and  in  repulsing  Muntasir  and  efficiently 
completing  that  matter  attained  the  reputation 
which  has  been  described,  and  used  great  diligence 
to  cut  off  those  who  would  return  to  confusion  or 
invoke  the  days  of  tumult,  by  means  of  his  excel- 
lent administration  and  success.  And  afterwards 
the  Sultdn  summoned  him  to  the  service  of  the 
throne  and  enjoyed  his  society.  He  served  him  in 
his  expeditions  and  at  home,  and  in  his  wars  and 
victories  over  the  infidels,  being,  with  sincere  bro- 
therly love  and  pure  aflfection,  the  nearest  con- 
nexion of  that  generous  and  noble  nature.  The 
Amir  was  a  strict  adherent  of  the  school  of  Abii- 
Hanifa  (Heaven  be  compassionate  to  him),  and  felt 
blessed  in  associating  with  the  partizans  and  parti- 
cipating in  the  affairs  of  that  doctor.  He  went  to 
the  neighbourhood  of  the  college  of  the  Kadhi 
Abdl-Ul^-Said,  and  spent  great  sums  in  building 
it,  and  endowed  it  with  considerable  real  and  per- 
sonal property,  so  that  this  precinct  remained  a 
perpetual  memorial  of  him  and  a  lasting  alms. 
These  revenues  were  a  good  thing  for  the  college 
of  the  doctors  and  divines.  So  noble,  pure,  kind, 
and  liberal  was  his  disposition  that  a  harsh  word 
was  never  heard  from  him  during  his  whole  life, 


486  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

and  he  offered  no  wrong  or  violence  to  any  one. 
But  the  Providence  of  God  gave  him  no  time,  for 
he  died  young  and  left  the  world  stripped  of  his 
virtues,  generosity,  and  inward  (goodness).  Utbi 
wrote  this  letter  in  his  praise  (Yerse) 

"  Alas  for  the  journey  without  a  bait !  Alas  for  the  sigh 
over  the  goocl!  for  Nasr,  son  of  the  Amir  Wasir-din-AUah, 
Centre  of  Wars  and  Warriors,  General  of  the  Army,  Precious 
Pearl,  Crown  of  Glory,  Eefuge  of  the  Noble  and  of  the 
Learned!"  &c. 

And  at  the  time  of  this  affliction  about  him 
(may  Heaven  sanctify  his  soul)  as  tears  were 
divided  amongst  aU  universally,  it  could  not  be  but 
that  the  Kadhi  Abiil-Ula,  with  all  his  order,  and 
all  who  drank  of  the  clear  water  of  the  Law,  should 
be  abundant  in  their  grief  as  individuals,  and 
intense  in  their  sorrow  as  a  community.  But  God 
made  known  to  them  the  perpetual  fountain  of 
His  guidance  towards  His  extended  shadow,  His 
perennial  drink.  His  asylum  to  which  they  were 
tending,  and  His  standards,  assuming  victory  to 
religion.  And  (they  would  have  been  in  despair)  but 
that  God  (may  His  glory  be  renowned  !)  stopped 
the  fracture  of  their  affliction  and  the  diminution 
of  their  advantages,  by  the  glorious  empire  of  the 
lord  of  the  poor,  the  pleader  of  God's  cause  upon 
earth,  the  Sultan  of  the  world,  Yamln-Addoulah- 
wa-Amln-AlmiUat — Heaven  prolong  his  existence 
and  eternize  his  grandeur  in  this  world  and  in  the 


MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA,  487 

next,  as  aa  equivalent  for  his  sorrow  and  a  com- 
pensation for  his  distress,  by  gladdening  his  words 
after  this  sad  announcement.  Truly  he  was  a 
bright  warrior  and  a  talented  pious  man  (if)  there 
was  ever  another  whose  endowments  to  the  praise 
of  God  were  as  a  flowing  robe.  He  was  a  flou- 
rishing plant,  the  tutelary  (power)  of  the  caravan 
of  his  successors.  May  Heaven  perpetuate  (the 
Sultdn's)  greatness,  exploits,  and  goodness  !  For, 
on  the  earth,  no  one  will  succeed  that  incomparable 
one  ;  that  mind  (pleasing  to)  God  in  preponderat- 
ing patience.  For  He  hath  made  him  renowned 
in  illustrious  victories  and  hath  imparted  to  him 
the  fulness  of  the  earth's  gifts,  so  that  he  hath 
stripped  the  world,  in  adding  kingdoms  to  his 
thread  {or  stringing  kingdoms)  and  carrying  out 
the  destiny  of  necessary  truth,  in  taking  possession 
of  them.  Heaven,  then,  have  mercy  on  the  Amir  ! 
bereaved  (of  life)  illustrious,  glorious,  deprived  (of 
existence)  exemplary,  devout !  May  Heaven  pity 
him,  by  cooling  his  spirit  and  sanctifying  his  soul ! 
and  recognize  his  zeal  for  the  protection  of  the 
faith  and  his  earnestness  in  God's  way,  and  his 
generous  gifts  of  property  to  (religious)  chiefs. 
Heaven,  also,  recompense  the  Shaikhs  of  the 
Sayyads  {descendants  of  Muhammad)  in  their 
intellect  and  in  their  opinions,  by  preserving  them 
in  the  faith,  and  making  their  weights  (merits) 
heavy  in  the  equitable  adjustment !    And  Heaven 


488  MEMOIRS  OF  MAHMUD  OF  GHAZNA. 

make  us  all  of  the  happy  ones  the  day  of 
judgment,  when  God's  decree  calls  the  company  of 
his  people  (to  that  place)  wherein  there  is  the 
straight  road  (of  truth).  For  the  last  follows  the 
first  {the  last  hour  necessarily  follows  upon  the 
first.) 


PERSIAN  TEANSLATOR'S  PERORATION. 


Since  this  Translation  hath  arrived  at  its  conclu- 
sion let  us  now  (if  the  one  God  will)  bring  forward, 
succinctlyand  briefly,  some  passages  of  historical 
events,  of  various  tumults  and  confusions  which 
occurred  during  times  of  remissness,  of  the  sur- 
prising incidents  of  the  chief  eminent  men,  who 
exercised  the  sovereign  power^  and  of  the  condition 
of  Jarbdzak^n. 


ACCOTJNT  OF  OOOTJBEENOES  OF  THAT  TiME. 

In  the  year  582  the  sign  Libra  had  assembled 
within  itself  the  seven  planets ;  and  it  had  been 
for  a  long  time  reported  in  men's  mouths,  and  in 
their  books  the  astrologers  had  averred  their 
judgment,  that  at  this  time  there  would  be  a 
deluge  of  wind  three  kos  long,  and  as  some  said 


490  PERSIAN  translator's  PERORATION. 

ten  kos  wide,  which  would  extend  over  twenty  kos 
of  ground,  which  would  carry  off  high  mountains, 
so  that  neither  men  or  beasts  would  remain,  and 
that  this  time  would  be  the  season  of  the 
judgment,  which,  according  to  the  glorious  KurSn, 
to  histories  and  by  investigation  is  to  come.  This 
opinion  obtained  a  mastery  over  the  mind,  and  a 
great  terror  seated  itself  in  the  conceptions.  And 
one  of  the  learned  of  Khurisan  brought  forward  the 
story  of  a  tradition  (and  there  was  great  confidence 
in  this  tradition)  that  the  Prophet  was  asked, 
"  When  is  the  judgment  ?"  He  replied,  "  It  is  the 
appointed"  (Al-Kimat),  {i.  e.,  Al  Kidmat,  the 
judgment  day,  is  Al  Kimat,  settled,  a/ppoirited,  (&c.) 
They  reiterated  the  question;  he  returned  the 
same  answer.  Hereupon  the  ingenious,  considered 
this  word  {Al-Kimat,  Sec.)  and  sought  its  force  in 
calculation.  And  they  found  that  from  the  letters 
of  this  word  resulted  the  number  582,  which 
number  coincided  with  the  judgment  of  the  astro- 
logers, and  corresponded  with  the  years  of  the 
Hijra.  By  this  their  fancies  became  more  con- 
firmed, and  many  people  of  distinction  and  wealth 
and  opulence  were  resolved  to  take  refuge  and  to 
dwell  in  caves ;  and  some  acted  upon  this  deter- 
mination, and  constructed  fortress-houses,  in  the 
water-courses  and  passages  of  the  earth.  And,  in 
the  month  Rajib,  of  the  year  20  of  this  pecuhar 
conjuncture  predicted,  the  order  of  Providence  so 


PERSIA.N  TRANSLATORS  PERORATION.  491 

fell  out  that  for  one  month  not  a  leaf  nioved  on 
the  trees  and  the  harvests  remained  in  the  fields, 
because  the  wind  gave  no  assistance  in  winnowing 
them.  Whereupon  aU  the  world  were  persuaded 
that  the  words  of  the  astrologers  and  their  hurri- 
cane were  wind  from  end  to  end.  All,  however, 
were  deficient  in  knowledge  and  ignorant  of  the 
exquisite  truth  of  His  operations,  and  knew  not 
that  when  God  makes  the  affairs  of  peoples  decay, 
and  sends  punishment  upon  them  none  of  the 
learned  can  obtain  an  entrance  into  the  ideahty  (of 
that  dispensation)  and  that  (the  declaration  was 
ftilfilled)  which  was  announced  in  His  glorious 
words,  "  Upon  whom  I  wiU  not  cause  vanity  to 
come,  either  before  or  behind."  This,  moreover, 
reminds  us  of  that  passage  upon  Ad  and  Thamild, 
,and  other  people,  "  We  have  sent  upon  them  a  cold 
blast,  in  the  day  of  their  misfortune,  and  we  have 
made  it  high,  we  have  made  it  low."  These 
examples  we  have  alleged,  by  way  of  analogy,  and 
the  meaning  of  these  Divine  words  is  that  the 
Divine  rule  ordains,  that  He  always  displays 
himself  as  near  to  people,  and  gives  support  and 
heavenly  aid,  that  they  should  be  friendly  to  all 
portions  of  the  world,  and  that  He  it  is  who 
confers  authority  and  royalty,  and  government 
over  those  inhabitants.  And  such  is  the  wisdom 
of  God,  in  this  matter,  that  the  inhabited  world 
might  dwell  undisturbed,  that   they   (kings,  &c.) 


4:92  PERSIAN  translator's  PERORATION, 

should  maintain  their  flocks  and  subjects  on  the 
broad  way  of  justice  and  right,  so  that  by  their 
dread  and  government,  the  road  of  enmity  and 
tyranny  might  be  closed.  And,  whilst  they 
observe  this  straight  path,  and  tranquilhty  accrues 
through  them  to  God's  people,  day  by  day,  victory, 
conquest,  success,  and  respect  will  be  united  for 
them,  and  Heaven  will  defend  them  from  their 
enemies  and  evil-willers,  and  the  hearts  of  all  who 
are  in  the  grasp  of  their  power  will  be  confirmed 
in  their  allegiance  and  love,  and  so  continue. 
And  when  Eternal  counsel  inclines  to  diminish 
them,  and  a  time  of  ruin  and  humility  arrive  (and 
these  vicissitudes  have  occurred  to  the  descendants 
of  many  kings,  sultdns,  and  chiefs,  who  have  been 
exposed  to  the  harsh  anger  of  Heaven)  then  com- 
passion started  up  in  hearts ;  but  if  they  make 
friends  with  oppression  towards  their  subjects,  and, 
employ  severity  and  harshness  towards  the  ryots 
who  are  God's  trust  tO  them,  then  the  hearts  of  the 
people  are  heavy  towards  them,  and  aU  turn  their 
thoughts  to  impair  their  royalty  and  authority,  and 
in  their  prayers  and  times  of  private  devotion 
make  supplications  for  evil.  Thus  it  is  that  the 
cold  blast  of  tumult  blows  upon  them,  and  the 
scorpions  of  the  text,  "  We  have  made  it  high  and 
low,"  appear,  and  the  miraculous  verse,  "  We  have 
exposed  them  to  injury  and  disgrace,"  and  the 
word,  "  We  have  surely  written  to  them,  that  they 


PERSIAN  translator's  PERORATION.  493 

should  kill  your  lives  and  expel  you  from  your 
houses,"  were  all  verified,  as  we  have  witnessed  in 
our  age  with  the  understanding  eye,  and  for  the 
space  of  one's  life  have  seen  that,  for  these  twenty 
years,  which  was  the  period  of  this  conjuncture  of 
affairs,  the  army  was  of  one  word  and  one  soul, 
ready  to  exalt  the  Sultdn's  standards  and  support 
his  throne,  and  thus  he  was  powerful  in  the  midst 
of  Irdk,  that  essence  (or  'o/ji.(f)a\o^)  of  the  earth  and 
flower  •  of  the  world,  so  that,  from  the  terror  of 
their  strength  and   awfulness,    the  royalty    and 
august  sovereignty  (of  the  rulers)  was  firm  in  all 
minds   throughout   Riim,   Hind,    and  Turkistdn, 
unto  the  utmost  parts  of  the  west,  and  the  crown- 
possessors  of  the  world  and  army-leaders  of  earth 
submitted  to  their  sway,  and  all  inclined  to  obey 
and  follow  them,  all  being  in  the  firm  bonds  of 
confidence,  that  no  decrease  could  take  place  in 
that   sovereignty   until    the   eve   of   the   day    of 
judgment.      But  the  decline  and  setting  of  their 
stars  of  majesty  and  greatness  arrived,  by  the  non- 
existence (death)  of  him  who  was  the  arranger  of 
the  ties  of  their  power  and  the  basis  of  their  emi- 
nence,   the    Atdbeg   Azim-Mulk-Muzim-Muham- 
mad-'bn-Atd,beg-Assaid-Ildigiz,   Heaven   sanctify 
his  blessed  soul !  who  was  the  guiding  guardian  of 
the  State.    Then  the  kingdom  remained  as  a  body 
without  a  soul,  and  comrades,   all  minions,   and 
fellow-companions,  all  eating  and  sleeping,  united 


494        PERSIAN  translator's  peroration. 

their  swords,  when  great  treachery  and  foul 
conspiracies  were  established  amongst  them,  and 
gentlemen  became  negligent  of  the  attention 
due  to  subjects,  and  subjects  forgot  the  benefits  of 
superiors.  Friends  changed  friends,  their  own  lost 
all  affection  for  their  own,  beloved  came  to  the 
fight  against  beloved.  And  if  I  had  resolved  to 
unfold  all  the  insurrections,  slaughters,  and  wars 
of  that  period,  my  books  would  not  be  bound 
volumes  except  in  the  next  world.  One  remark- 
able point,  however,  is  to  be  noted,  that  with 
respect  to  every  one  of  these  great  men,  chiefs, 
and  lords,  in  whatever  quarter  they  sought  an 
asylum  and  in  whatever  path  they  sought  refuge, 
from  that  place  started  forth  their  destruction,  so 
that,  like  the  moth,  they  threw  themselves  into 
the  fire.  Hence  it  was  with  them  as  the  proverb 
says,  "The  small  crows  work  the  mischief,"  and 
"  He  stirs  up  sand  with  his  nails,"  and  "  Whom 
we  trust,  of  him  be  cautious." 

The  explanation  of  all  this  is  as  follows  :  the 
Sultin  Togrul,  who  was  sovereign  and  emperor  of 
all,  wrote  letters,  step  by  step  {i.  e.,  with  increasing 
earnestness)  to  the  Sultdn  of  Khwdrismshdh, 
respecting  repulsing  the  army  of  the  Atdbeg, 
imploring  aid  and  using  humble  supplications; 
until,  when  he  came  to  Irak,  affairs  had  assumed 
-another  hue,  and  the  adversaries  of  the  kingdom 
took  refuge  with  him,  and  an  army,  numerous  as 


PERSIAN  translator's  PERORATION.  495 

mice  or  locusts,  came  to  Rai.  The  SuMn,  with 
some  supporters,  made  head  against  them,  and 
threw  himself  into  the  midst  of  them,  and, 
advancing  from  the  front,  called  out  his  name  and 
lineage,  when  they  surrounded  and  took  him,  and 
lamentably  slew  him,  and  tied  his  headless  body  to 
a  tree,  in  the  market-place  of  Rai,  so  that  men  saw 
with  their  eyes  that  which  had  never  been  arranged 
in  their  hearts  (to  conceive) .  This,  amongst  many 
verses,  was  published  in  his  praise  (Verse) 

"  The  dove  never  ceases  her  cooing, 

"  Whilst  playing  with  her  broken  heart." 

"  I  would  not  see  the  face  of  day ! 

"  For  it  limits  not  my  burning  sorrow,"  &o. 

The  Atdbeg  Muzaffir-Addln-Kazil-Arslan,  after 
the  decease  of  his  brother,  came  to  Ir^k.  He  was 
a  young  man  of  virtuous  disposition,  gentle  nature, 
and  upright  family ;  and  they  said  to  him  that  he 
should  strike  at  the  root  of  opportunity  and  seat 
himself  upon  the  throne  of  empire,  for  that,  on 
account,  of  his  royal  and  abundant  troops  and 
allies,  there  would  be  no  door  (opening)  for 
violence.  He  listened  to  their  words  and,  in  order 
to  strengthen  the  means  of  empire  and  fasten  the 
ties  of  his  rule,  he  took  in  marriage  his  brother's 
wife,  a  royal  lady,  a  guide  of  the  State,  and  a 
mother  of  princes.  He  believed  that  this  alliance 
would  be  a  means  of  supporting  and  perpetuating 


496  PERSIAN  TEANSLATOR's  PERORATION. 

his  sway.  After  some  days,  on  a  certain  night,  he 
was  killed  by  some  sacrificing  (assassinating)  hand, 
and  his  enemies,  whatever  may  have  been  the 
passion  of  their  inclinations,  were  enabled  to 
exemplify  (realize)  it,  but  report  said  that  this 
calamity  proceeded  from  this  house  (Verse) 

"  It  was  said,  whether  true  or  false : 

"  "What  blame  attaches  to  thee  from  a  thing  that  is  (only) 
said?" 

And  Khwdjah-Aziz-Addin,  who  was  Chief 
Vizir  in  the  days  of  the  Atdbegs,  had  obtained 
great  authority,  and  arrived  at  the  highest  point 
and  at  a  dignified  position  with  those  princes,  and 
the  Atd,beg  Muzafiir-Addin  had  confirmed  him  in 
the  seat  of  office.  But  when  he  entered  into  his 
project  about  Azarbijdn  he  became  rebellious 
without  cause  and  went  to  Hamadan.  And  in 
the  hope  (of  the  aid)  of  certain  nobles,  who  at  that 
conjuncture  conspired  with  him,  rose  up  in  opposi- 
tion to  his  lord.  The  Sultdn  Togrul  treated  him 
kindly,  and  he  became  Lord  of  Koms,  placing  him 
at  the  head  of  the  State,  until  (at  last)  he  put  him 
and  his  sons,  who  had  been  Secretaries  of  State,  in 
chains  (Verse) 

"  I  taught  him  to  shoot  every  day, 

"  Until,  when  his  arm  became  powerful,  he  shot  me." 

^nd     Jam^l-Addin-Abi-Samarml,    and     Saif- 


PERSIAN  translator's  PERORATION.  497 

Addin-Rils,  and  Jamdl-Addin-Azbah,  who  had 
been  private  officers  of  the  Atibeg  Said-Muham- 
mad, who  by  his  patronage  had  been  raised  to  rank 
and  to  the  command  of  1,000  horse,  made  an 
outbreak  against  the  sons  of  their  lord,  and  went 
to  His  Highness  Togrul,  and  in  a  short  time  all 
three  were  killed  by  his  hand. 

And  Sharfaddln-Albarhill,  agent  in  the  Amir's 
Court  and  for  the  lords  of  the  Atdbeg,  in  like 
manner  came  with  provisions  and  delicacies,  by 
night,  to  their  abode,  and*. . , .  (them). . . ,  came  to 
the  Sultdn,  and  he  was  killed  by  his  hand. 

And.  Prince  Kotul-Itang  (or  Itabkh)  who  was 
the  corner  of  the  liver  of  the  empire  and  the  light 
of  the  reUgion  of  the  State,  requested  assistance 
from  the  SuMn  of  Khwdrismshah.  This  SuMn 
intimated  his  sincere  wish  to  aid  him  and  to  repel 
his  enemies ;  and  when  he  came  to  Ir^k,  Kotul- 
Itang  went  out  to  meet  him,  unaccompanied  and 
unguarded,  and  when  they  met  he  killed  him,  so 
that  it  was  with  him  according  to  the  saying,  "  He 
sought  refuge  from  the  sun-scorch  in  the  fire." 

And  Sir^jaddin-Kirndz  and  Nilr-Addin-Kir4, 
two  viceroys  and  columns  of  the  State,  upon  whom 
the  sphere  of  affairs  revolved,  went  to  the  capital, 
and  appeared  before  the  army  of  the  Vizir  Maw- 
wayyad-Addin ;    and    some    evil    suspicion    had 

*  MS.  confused. 

2k 


498         PERSIAN  translator's  peroration. 

occurred  between  them,  and  at  Dardbah,  by  the 
hand  of  five  Turkomans,  ignorant  that  they  were 
as  vicegerents  (or  lieutenants)  of  the  Vizir  of  the 
capital  Darabah,  came  to  slaughter. 

And  Niir-Addin-Kuran-Khan,  who  was  the 
leavening  principle  of  all,  the  column  of  the  confu- 
sion of  the  times,  and  the  centre  of  the  orb  of 
strife,  constructed  a  notable  fortress  in  the  midst 
of  Irdk,  and  sent  all  his  property  there,  imagining 
that  the  vicissitudes  of  fortune  would  never  reach 
its  elevation,  and  that,  with  such  a  castle,  he  need 
not  fear  the  sidelong  attack  of  unforeseen  occur- 
rences. And  they  told  the  news  of  this  castle  of 
Nur  Addin  to  Muhammad- Wishdk,  and  it  became 
the  cause  of  an  enmity  between  them,  and  he  took 
back  the  castle  into  his  own  hand,  and  gave  him 
an  (harsh)  answer,  of  which  vexation  he  died. 
Subsequently  two  sons  of  Kurdn,  who  were 
shaking  the  chain  of  the  supplication  of  revenge, 
came  eagerly  and  earnestly  to  the  base  of  his 
castle,  and  he  drew  them  into  a  noose  by  a  man- 
oeuvre, and,  carrying  them  both  into  the  castle,  cut 
off  their  heads.  The  end  of  the  affair  was,  that  he 
who  had  caused  this  calamity,  without  cause  or 
commotion,  voluntarily  relinquished  all,  and  came 
to  Khurdsin,  where  he  established  himself  for  the 
space  of  two  years  ;  and  on  the  day  when  he  came 
with  the  army  of  Khur^sd,n  to  the  frontiers  of 
Irak,  he  perished  in  an  attack,  bearing  this  ill-will 


PERSIAN  translator's  PERORATION.  499 

to  the  dust  with  him.  And  the  Amir  Sayyid- 
CJla-AddouMh,  Chief  of  Hamad^n,  who  was  Khalll 
of  Ajaml  (Irak)  who  excelled  in  noble  and  high 
rank,  rose  up  in  opposition  to  the  SuMn.  And 
his  end,  also,  was  not  happy. 

And  Sadr-Addin-Muhammad-'bn-AMulattlf- 
Khajandi  took  refuge  with  the  army  at  Bagdad. 
He  conveyed  them  to  Isfahd,n,  but  he  was  mar- 
tyred by  their  hands. 

And  when  the  army  of  Khdrism  came  to  Irak, 
the  first  who  rose  in  their  favour  was  Az-addin, 
Murtiza  (chosen)  of  Eai.  He  also  obtained  the 
degree  of  martyrdom  from  their  hands. 

And  Azaddln-Farj-Sultani,  who  in  reading  and 
cleverness  was  equal  to  Mercury,  fell  like  an  intel- 
ligent bird  into  a  trap,  for  he,  with  a  small  troop, 
threw  himself  with  the  greatest  avidity  into  the 
midst  of  the  army  of  Bagddd,  at  Isfahan, 
who  in  the  twinkling  of  an  eye  put  his  head 
on  the  head  of  a  spear,  and  carried  it  about  the 
world. 

And  Niir-addin-Kaljab,  who,  at  the  close  of 
bis  life,  found  the  extent  of  Irdk  deserted,  and 
took  possession  of  the  kingdom,  and  thus  peace- 
fully obtained  tliose  lands  over  which  heroic  heads 
had  gone,  and  for  the  sake  of  which  mighty  princes 
and  furious  lords  had  perished  (he  obtained  them 
crying)  Pardon !  Forgiveness  !  and,  because  he 
had  no  other  weapon  but  the  sword  and  knew  not 

2k  2 


500  PERSIAN  translator's  PERORATION. 

the  rules  of  sovereignty,  he  impaled  some,  but  in 
the  end  was  killed  by  them. 

I  have  adduced  this  narrative  that  it  may  be 
known  that  all  human  arrangements  are  vain 
before  God's  predestination,  and  that  every  one 
upon  and  to  whom  the  sealed  decree  descends,  and 
the  known  last  hour  arrives,  must  go  as  chosen  for 
the  stated  hour  of  death  and  ever-recurring 
destruction,  as  is  declared  in  the  glorious  Kurdn, 
"  Say  if  you  be  in  your  houses  on  the  day  when 
those  who  are  written  down  to  die  go  out  to  battle 
(you  would  die)  upon  your  beds."  Upon  this 
there  is  a  well-known  saying  of  the  Lord  of  the 
Law  (Muhammad  ?  peace  be  with  him)  When 
God  wills  to  carry  out  His  decree  to  the  utmost  He 
deprives  the  intelligent  and  the  wise  (of  their  qua- 
lities) that  He  may  fulfil  His  purpose  and  His 
decree.  And  every  one  knows  that  if  he  would 
fly  and  seek  refuge  he  must  do  so  to  the  holy 
presence  and  mighty  Court.  There  he  must  seek 
protection,  and  must  hold  fast  by  a  good  mind, 
and  right  rule,  and  pleasing  conduct,  like  the 
Emperor,  the  just  Milld-Muzaffar-Mansiir,  holy 
warrior,  perfect  uniter  of  the  State  and  rehgion, 
victor  for  IslS,m  and  Muslims,  Ulugh-Barik 
(Heaven  magnify  his  power !)  whose  deeds  in 
these  times  give  forth  perfume,  by  reason  of  his 
justice  and  equity,  in  the  good  ways  of  Heaven. 
And  Heaven  has  guarded  him  and  his  house  from 


PERSIAN  TRANSLATOR'S  PERORATION.  501 

misfortune,   and    with    generous   Kberality    hath 
brought  him  out  from  the  deluge  of  this  blood- 
eating  conjuncture  and  cloudy  fortune.     May  his 
days  be  prolonged  and  may  he  find  support,  if 
God  will.      In  verification  of  the   words   of  my 
introduction  I  will  narrate  one  of  God'3  mercies  to 
him,    that  his  goodness  may   not  perish    or    his 
bounties    be    unfruitful,    as    the    Kur^n    speaks 
plainly,  "  As  to  ye  who  believe  and  do  good  works, 
ye  shall  not  lose  the  reward  of  the  good  ye  have 
done."     In  the  days  of  the  difference  and  strife  of 
SuMn  Togrul  with  the  army  of  the  Atdbegs  this 
king  was   taken   prisoner.      All    his    longed-for 
liberty  was  cut  off,  all  hope  of  liberation  and  deli- 
verance intercepted.      His  family  and  dependents 
had  not  a  glimpse  of  hope,  and  in  cautious  and 
confused  apprehension  their  breath  went  out  of 
their  bodies,  and  strength  from  their  hearts.     The 
troops  killed  his  son-in-law,  Sharfaddin,  a  young 
man  purer  than  the  moon  and  more  handsome 
than  the  cypress,  and  carried  his  head  before  his 
dependents,  upon  a   spear.      The  SuMn  having 
obtained  possession  of  the  citadel  of  Farzin  and 
sent  a  governor  there,  this  king  became  the  hostage 
for  this  fortress,  and  all  were  in  despair,     At  that 
time  I  was  at  Court  and  saw  that  the  just  Lord, 
Chief    of     Vizirs,     Abiil-K^im-'bn-Al-Husain, 
during  this  sad  calamity,  sought  to  wash  himself 
(with  weeping)  like  a  fish,  and  poured  tears  from 


502  PERSIAN  -fRANSLATOR's  PERORATION'. 

his  eyes,  like  the  rain.  Day  and  night  he 
lamented  and  grieved  before  Heaven,  and  gave 
alms  at  his  door,  throwing  himself  on  the  ground 
in  the  mosques  and  temples,  and  imploring  the  aid 
of  the  prayers  and  meditations  of  the  worthy,  until 
the  Lord,  the  changer  of  hearts,  and  causer  of 
causes,  caused  it  to  be  intimated,  in  the  Bazar  of 
Hamadan,  by  the  tongue  of  one  of  the  ryots  of 
Kashdn,  as  follows :  The  Atdbeg  Muhammad 
bought"  Jamal-Addln  (father  of  Ulugh-Barik)  for 
two  or  three  hundred  dinars  ; — Oh,  that  the  Sultan 
would  sell'  him  to  us  for  an  hundred  thousand 
dinars,  then  men  wotild  with  accord  collect 
droppings  of  gain  (small  collections)  by  mentioning 
it  in  the  lanes  and  houses,  during  their  gossiping 
conversations,  so  that  they  would  redeem  him, 
since  we  have  seen  much  good  in  him,  and  it  were 
pity  that  distress  should  come  upon  such  nobleness  ! 
By  good  chance  one  of  the  Sultan's  private 
household  passing  by  heard  this,  and  informed  the 
SuMn,  and  the  Providence  of  God  aided,  and 
when  the  Sultan's  eyes  were  sleeping  like  poppies, 
but  his  sight  awake,  he  thought,  what  a  life  such 
a  one  has  passed  amid  his  subjects  !  It  would  be 
a  perfect  disgrace  to  set  a  value  on  such  a  man,  or 
for  worldly  considerations  to  injure  so  pure  a  soul ; 
he  therefore,  after  a  few  days,  liberated  him,  and 
caressed  and  honoured  him.  And  the  people 
observed  his  day  of  release  as  if  it  were  his  birth- 


PERSIAN  translator's  PERORATION.  503 

day.  Let  the  men  of  the  world  take  example  from 
this  aifair  and  understand  the  truth  of  this  senti- 
ment, "  If  God  take  you  in  hand  for  evil  let  not 
your  passions  be  displayed  to  Him,  and  if  He  take 
you  in  hand  for  good  (be  equally  resigned)  for  He 
is  mighty  over  all  things.  He  is  supreme  over  His 
servants,  He  is  the  wise  Eevealer  of  novelties." — 
(Kurin).  During  these  confusions  the  misery  of 
the  people  was  inconceivable,  and  throughout  all 
the  regions  of  Ir4k  not  one  old  family  remained. 
Palaces  upon  which  thousands  had  been  expended 
were  demolished  and  their  ruins  sold  for  eight 
brass  coins,  and  an  incomparable  (dwelling)  &c., 
which  in  times  of  quietness  was  worth  ten  or 
twenty  gold  coins,  through  the  straitness  of  provi- 
sions, and  the  many  taxes  and  extortions  of  the 
army  was  given  gratis.  And  no  one  was  bold 
enough  to  go  out,  for  there  was  no  security  against 
the  dread  of  hyaenas  and  lions,  who  made  their 
dens  in  the  dwellings  of  husbandmen  and  farmers, 
and  no  one  had  an  idea  of  going  out  except  with 
comrades  and  weapons.  In  several  places  an 
hideous  scarcity  ensued,  wherein  the  poor  perished, 
and  the  revenue  of  the  rich  and  powerful  fell,  and 
the  sons  of  men  became  foolish  and  oppressors,  and 
all  turning  aside  from  the  dress  (habits,  customs, 
&c.)  of  parents  and  ancestors,  relinquished  the 
sword  and  pen,  and  rested  all  their  eagerness  upon 
dagger  and  sword,  so  that  the  destructive  and  ill- 


504  PERSIAN  translator's  PERORATION. 

disposed  obtained  the  superiority,  and  affairs 
became  unsettled  and  wise  men  wished  to  die. 
And  amidst  this  confusion  Jarb^zkdii  shared  more 
than  other  cities  in  trouble,  for  two  reasons  ;  one, 
that  it  was  midway  between  two  capitals,  and  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  some  fortresses  which  had 
sprung  up,  so  that  it  suffered  in  every  new  cala- 
mity of  Irdk,  as  the  hues  express  it  ^Verse) 

"  I  have  been  at  Jarbazkan  and  I  have  complained  of  a 
restive  horse,  after  a  vicious  one,"  &c.  (*.  e.,  1  suffer  from  both 
parties.) 

And  the  second  cause  was  that  every  year 
three  wicked  divisions  (of  banditti,  &c.)  came,  who 
ceased  not  to  injure  Muslims,  both  in  life  and  pro- 
perty ;  and  the  rulers  of  the  interior  were  worthy 
of  the  time  and  oppressed  mankind,  so  that  even 
great  men  thought  safety  and  their  lives  a  gain, 
and  neither  dumb  or  speaking  beings  remained  in 
their  palaces,  so  that  in  the  confusion  most  pre- 
ferred to  exile  themselves  from  their  homes,  and 
to  depart  and  to  be  content  with  absence,  until 
God  gave  help.  And  the  SuMn  appointed  Ulugh- 
Barlk  and  the  Khwdjah  JihS,n,  Sayyid  of  Vizirs 
over  the  finance.  And  they,  seeing  the  helpless- 
ness and  distress  and  misery  of  the  country,  gave 
it  the  sceptre  of  compassion  and  considered  how  to 
rectify  its  affairs.  They  revived  the  population, 
restored    the    revenue,    and    established    equity. 


PEESIAN  teanslatoe's  pbeoeation.         505 

They  annihilated  with  the  sword  those  gushing 
fountains  of  iniquity  which'  had  appeared  in  times 
of  weakness,  so  that  the  people  of  vanity  drew 
their  h©a,ds  within  their  collars  and  placed  their 
feet  upon  the  skirt  of  good  manners,  ceasing  from 
violence,  and  betaking  themselves  to  letters-  and 
handicrafts.  And  they  resolved  that  the  adminis- 
tration should  be  confided  to  none  other  than  to 
the  Amir  Eais-Jam^l-Addin,  Mayor  and  Lieute- 
nant of  the  city,  a  young  man  of  remarkable 
abihty,  who  won  the  love  and  fidelity  of  aU.  He 
had  in  youth  the  experience  of  age,  was  generous 
as  the  rain  or  the  sea,  in  anger  like  an  enraged 
lion,  in  liberality  he  would  displace  Hatim-Tai. 
When  he  was  settled  he  began,  like  a  physician, 
to  search  the  causes  (of  the  disease)  and  cut  up  by 
the  roots  aU  that  caused  the  injury  of  the  people. 
He  restrained  his  two  brothers,  oppressors  and 
evil-doers,  and  as  to  their  followers,  the  fountains 
of  wrong,  some  he  slew  with  the  sword  and  others 
he  impaled.  When  he  saw  worthy  people  he  took 
them  to  himself.  He  hved  upon  his  own  property 
and  oppressed  none,  and  removed  the  fires' of  con- 
fusion which  had  existed  some  years.  Hence 
peasants  and  workmen  gladly  returned  to  their 
different  employments,  and  the  fugitives  sought 
their  homes j  and  tranquillity  and  peace  resulted. 
Therefore  all  were  well  inclined  to  their  king  and 
assigned  themselves  to  his  rule,  foj  his  moderation 


506  PERSIAN  TRANSLATOR  S  PERORATION. 

and  self-restraint  and  feeling  gave  confidence  to 
the  subject.  They  redoubled  their  love  and 
regard,  and,  when  on  the  X3arpet  of  prayer,  their 
supplications  arose  from  the  heart  to  Heaven,  for 
the  just  King  Ulugh-Beg  and  the  Lord  of  Vizirs 
Azz-Nasir.  Their  renown  is  spread  throughout  all 
regions  of  the  earth,  and  in  mansions  eternal  there 
will  be  a  home  for  them  in  Paradise,  a  recompense 
for  their  good  deeds  will  be  there  assigned,  and 
apportioned  to  them  on  the  day  of  judgment,  when 
their  rank  will  be  very  great  amongst  that 
assembly  of  jubilant  guests  (if  it  be  Heaven's 
will). 

The  author,. after  some  final  encomiastic  verses, 
thus  concludes  : — 

This  short  history  has  been  written  in  the 
heroic  bosom  (private  residence,  &c.,  or  patronage) 
of  Tdj-Addin-Muin-Al  IsMm,  Sayyid  Al-Am^thal- 
wa-AssadTir,Ah-'bn-Muhammad-'bn-AbTil-Ghayth, 
Grand  Agent  of  the  empire  and  centre  tie  of  the 
State,  and  this  book  is  concluded  by  his  assistance. 
The  Persian  verses  which  have  been  composed  and 
annexed  are  more  than  was  enjoined  by  the  lucid 
mind  and  obedient  nature  of  him  who  can 
compose  rhyme  and  blank  verses,  and  make  up 
a  history  with  lawful  magic  (fascination)  and  clear 
'water  (beauty).     His  glory,  his  ancestors,  and  the 


PERSIAN  translator's  PERORATION.  507 

virtues  of  his  father,  who  was  the  Ibn-Amid  of  his 
time,  and  the  Abdul-Ahmld  of  the  age,  are 
broug-ht  forward  in  this  complete  book,  entitled 
"A gift  to  the  universe  upon  the  merits  of  Ir4k."* 
I  will  demand,  as  in  marriage,  from  thy  love, 
the  falling  away  from  blarning  (this  work).  I  will 
endow  what  I  demand  with  all  that  I  have  freely 
and  liberally.  If  those  who  are  fully  equal  to  this 
difficult  work  be  desired  we  (Heaven  prolong  the 
remaining  years  of  the  high  Court !)  are  in  afflic- 
tion, of  the  humblest  of  his  people,  and  poor,  and 
(even)  the  nobler  are  but  suspected  amongst  his 
tribe,  chiefly  on  account  of  two  wants  and  sorrows, 
want  of  talent  and  distance  from  our  country. 
But  the  officers  and  the  high  assembly  (Heaven 
perpetuate  its  greatness,  and  the  greatness  of  his 
accomplished  comrades  and  guests,  and  of  his 
ministers  in  guiding  and  consoling !)  [still 
remain^.f  When,  however,  the  dove  is  cooing  his 
excellent  notes  one  does  not  make  the  pigeon  fly 
(in  rivalry)  and  when  the  cymbals  warble  no 
responsive  strains  can  aid  her  sweetness  ;  and  if 
he  would  be  willing  to  superadd  heaviness  (im- 
portance)   to   my  Hght  weight  he  in   wisdom  is 

^\  jtll  ^lsy<  (tfS  J)^^^  AiajJ'.  It  may  also  be  ren- 
dered "  upon  tte  benefactors  of  Irdk,"  or  jUl  may  be 
derived  from  jy,  Conj.  iv,  J^\,  to  exalt,  restore  to  health  and 
strength,  Sfe. 

t  Still  remain,  i.  e.,  to  compile  this  translation  better. 


508         PERSIAN  translator's  peroration. 

adapted  for  the  highest  place  (function)  (beyond 
me).  Unto  him  will  I  be  attached,  morning  and 
evening,  and  wiU  serve  him  as  spiritualized  bodies 
serve.  Hereby  I  shall  attain  great  glory  and 
happy  blessedness,  and  augmented  exaltation  to 
my  mind. 

The  Arabic  text  concludes  thus  : — 

May  God  have  mercy  upon  his  servant  who 
saith  Amen.  Now  is  completed  the  Kitab-AI- 
Yamini,  upon  the  explication  of  the  history  of  the 
Sultd,n  Yamin- Addoulat-wa- Amin- Al-Millat,  Abul- 
Kasim-Mahmild-'bn-Sabaktagln,  and  the  commen- 
dation of  the  assemblies  of  his  contemporaries  and 
comrades,  with  the  annexed  histories  of  the  princes 
of  the  provinces  in  his  vicinity,  as  collected  by 
Abii  -  Nasr  -  Muhammad  -Abdul -Jabber- Al  -  Utbi, 
wonder  of  scribes.  May  God  illuminate  his  grave 
and  gladden  his  glory  ! 


NOTES. 


P-  14. — The  meaning  of  the  Persian  Translator  apparently 
IS  that  he  excelled  both  in  Persian  and  Arabic  compositions, 
but  chiefly  in  the  latter. 

P.  36. — ^Effervescing  fountain.  The  following  is  from  the 
JDahistdn  (Translation  of  Shea  and  Troyes,  Vol.  II,  p.  167)  : — 

"  There  are  many  miraculous  things  in  Kashmir,  one  of 
them  is  Sandebar,  and  they  relate  : — In  ancient  times  a  holy 
Brahmin  dwelt  in  a  cavern  of  the  mountain,  where  he  devoted 
himself  to  the  worship  of  the  Almighty  God.  Once  every  year 
he  went  to  the  Ganges  to  bathe.  After  having  passed  several 
years  in  that  way  Ganga  said  to  the  Brahmin,  Thou  measurest 
always  such  a  length  of  road,  on  which  thou  dost  set  aside  the 
worship  of  God  ;  my  convention  with  thee  is  this,  that,  when 
the  sun  reaches  the  constellation  of  the  Bull,  I  will  three  times 
a  day  come  to  thy  resting-place.  Erom  this  time,  when  the 
great  luminary  throws  his  effulgence  towards  the  constellation 
of  the  Bull,  the  water  of  the  river  springs  up  boiling  from  the 
basin  of  the  fountain,  which  is  near  the  place  of  his  devotion. 
Sundeberari,  in  the  cavern  of  the  mountain,  became  celebrated. 
It  is  a  square  basin,  and  has  on  its  eastern  wall  an  open  cavity, 
from  which,  as  weU  as  from  several  other  vents  and  holes  in 
the  sides  of  the  basin,  the  water  springs  up.  However  stead- 
fastly one  may  look  the  bottom  cannot  be  discovered,  and  in 
the  middle  of  the  eastern  side  there  are  seven  holes,  which  the 


510  NOTES. 

people  of  Kashmir  call  Saptarshi,  '  the  seven  Eishis  ;'  on  the 
northern  side  there  is  an  issue,  which  they  call  dama  bhavani. 
When  the  world-illuminating  sun  begins  to  enter  the  constel- 
lation of  the  Bull  the  water  appears  there  in  the  following 
manner :  it  springs  up  first  from  the  large  cavity,  then  from 
the  SaptarsM,  so  the  Hindus  call  seven  rakshasas  and  give 
their  name  to  the  constellation  of  the  Great  Bear.  Further 
the  water  comes  up  from  the  dama  bhavani,  that  is,  the  mansion 
of  Bhavani,  the  wife  of  Mahadeo.  When  the  cavity  is  filled 
then  the  water,  passing  over  the  borders,  runs  out,  the  Sanyasis 
and  other  Hindus,  who  had  come  from  distant  places,  throw 
themselves  into  it,  and  the  people  who  find  no  room  carry 
water  from  it.  Afterwards  the  ebullition  declines,  in  such  a 
manner  that  there  remains  not  the  least  trace  of  the  water.  In 
this  month  the  water  boils  up  three  times  a  day,  namely,  in 
the  morning,  at  midday,  and  in  the  afternoon,  at  the  hour  of 
prayer.  After  the  lapse  of  this  month  no  more  water  is  seen, 
until  the  sun  enters  again  into  the  sign  of  the  Bull." 

Perhaps,  however,  the  efiervescence  of  the  fountain  in  the 
text  may  have  been  caused  by  acids  or  acid  wine. 

P.  45. — Adhad  Ad  Douiat  or  Ad  Doulah.  Ad  Doulat  is 
the  Arabic  form.  Ad  Doulah  the  Persian.  The  Translator  has 
inadvertently  confounded  them  occasionally. 

P.  225,  line  22nd. — Bektuzun,  or  Bektuztim,  or  Begtuzlin, 
or  Tektuzdn,  or  Bekturun.  In  a  work  of  such  antiquity  as 
the  Kitabi  Tamini  it  is  sometimes  diflBcult  to  ascertain  the 
precise  orthography  of  proper  names,  on  account  of  the  paucity 
of  MSS.  and  the  difficulty  of  historical  coUations.  The  Trans- 
lator finally  adopted  Bektuzun. 

P.  302. — "Drawing  his  eye  over  his  rough  standards"  (in 
the  text  erroneously  printed  standard)  i.  e.,  Surveying  his 
standards  carried  by  hardy  warriors. 

P.  318. — The  idea  which  has  become  a  quality  of  the 
Muhammadan  character  is  apathetic  patience.  Muslims  appear 


NOTES.  511 

to  regard  it  as  a  crime  to  suffer  deterioration  from  hope  delayed, 
or  even  (as  here)  to  entertain  aspirations  beyond  their  present 
circumstances. 

Pp.  431,  437. — Although  Utbi  promises  additional  informa- 
tion respecting  these  personages,  yet  little  or  nothing  is  subse- 
quently recorded  by  him  respecting  them.  This  omission  and 
the  abrupt  conclusion  of  his  work  would  imply  that  he  left  it 
incomplete,  although  he  no  doubt  designed  to  complete  it.  In 
p.  437  he  alludes  to  "the  two  hrothers,"  sons  of  Mahmud, 
although  he  is  narrating  the  history  of  but  one.  Probably  a 
sentence  may  be  wanting  in  the  MS. 

Pp.  459,  460. — Jandbal  appears  to  be  a  different  person 
from  Jaipal,  but  the  latter  may  be  identical  with  Haibal  or 
Bahamal. 


ERRATA. 


P.  5  and  elsewhere,  for  "  Nabobs"  read  "  Nawwabs.'' 

P.  21,  Une  8,  for  "  they"  read  "  he." 

P.  47,  for  "  An  Naan"  read  "  Al  Amir." 

P.  144,  for  "  Armir"  read  "Amir." 

P.  203,  for  "  Religious"  read  "  Religion." 

P.  207,  for  "  past"  read  "  passed." 

P.  256,  for  "Gascin"  read  "  Garcin." 

P.  292,  for  "  Ibrahun"  read  "  Ibrahim." 

P.  295,  for  "Dhul  Karanin"  read  "Dhul  Karnain." 

P.  302,  for  "  standard"  read  "standards." 

P.  382,  for  "Anslan"  read  "  Arslan." 

P.  478,  line  18,  dele  "  amongst." 

Vizir  occasionally  replaced  by  Vizir  or  Vizer. 

Rai  inadvertently  printed  as  Re,  in  several  pages.